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 Dr. Soheli Ghose
 and
 Ms. Suchitra Kumari
 This PowerPoint presentation focuses on the
NET syllabus.
It covers the Indian Logic part as mentioned in the
syllabus.
An overview is provided with critical aspects of the
topic, keeping in mind the MCQ pattern of the
questions.
The study of general and fundamental problems concerning
matter such as existence (asthitva); knowledge (gyan); values
(mulya); reasoning (fark); mind (man) & language (bhasha).
This term was coined by Pythagoras .
 There are two prominent classifications of Indian
Philosophy
 The Orthodox School or Astika
 The Heterodox School or Nastika
 Nyay
 Vaisesika
 Samakhya
 Yog
 Purva Mimamsa / Mimamsa
 Uttara Mimamsa / Vedanta
 Nyay – The realism school emphasizing on analytics
and logic.
 Vaisheshika –The naturalism school emphasizing on
atomistic themes and related to the Nyay School.
 Samkhya – The rationalism school with dualistic and
atheistic themes.
 Yoga – A school similar to Samkhya. It accepts
personally defined theistic themes.
 Purva Mimamsa – The ritualusm school emphasizing
on Vedic Exegesis and Philology
 Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta – The upanishadic
tradition with many sub-schools ranging from dualism
to non-dualism.
 Jainism
 Buddhism
 Ajivika
 Anjana
 Carvaka/ Materialism
 Jainism – This philosophy separates the body from the
soul. It is rooted in the Sramanic Movement.
 Buddhism – This philosophy is also rooted in the
Sramanic Movement and started with the teachings of
Siddhart Gautam, the Buddha.
 Ajivika – This philosophy was founded by Makkhali
Gosala. They formed distinct monastic communities
prone to an ascetic and simple lifestyle.
 Anjana – The ancient school of radical Indian
scepticism. This was also rooted in the Sramanic
Movement.
 Carvaka – The philosophy of scepticism and
materialism, this was founded in the Mauryan period.
 Nyaya means Argumentation.
 Right Knowledge.
 Rule or Method.
 Right means of gaining knowledge.
The Nyay school emphasised on the valid means of
knowledge, hence Pramana.
Pramana is the valid means of knowledge.
 Perception (pratyaksha)
 Inference (anumana)
 Comparison (upamana)
 Sound or Verbal Testimony (shabda)
 Implication (arthapatti)
 Non-Apprehension (anupalabdhi)
Invalid knowledge means
 Memory
 Doubt
 Error and
 Hypothetical arguments.
 It literally means ‘proof’ & ‘means of knowledge’.
 It refers to epistemology in Indian Philosophies and is
one of the much debated key fields of study in
Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
 It’s a theory of knowledge.
 It encompasses one or more reliable & valid means by
which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge.
 How correct knowledge can be acquired
 How one knows
 How one doesn't
 To what extent knowledge pertinent to someone/
something can be acquired.
[1] Perception- Pratyaksha- “that which is before one’s
eyes.”
 It is of 2 types
 External- that is arising from the interaction of five
senses & worldly objects.
 Internal- perception of the inner-sense – the mind
 Pratyaksha can also be of 2 kinds
 Direct perception/ anubhava – (similar to external)
 Remembered perception/ smriti (memory) – similar to
internal
 Pramana is a means of knowledge that is acquired
through guessing, interpretation & analysis.
[2] Anumana- Inference- measuring along some other
thing or knowing after.
 The method by which knowledge is derived from
another knowledge.
 It’s an indirect, mediate knowledge.
 We have knowledge of an invariable relationship
between 2 things & on that basis while seeing one we
deduce the presence of the other.
 Logical process of gaining knowledge.
 Knowledge thus gained is called Inferential knowledge
or The Logical Deduction.
 The Proposition (pratijna, literally “promise”)- ‘There
is fire at the mountain’ .
 The Ground (hetu)- [Because there is smoke and I can
see it].
 The Illustration (Udaharana)- [There can’t be smoke
without fire], example kitchen.
 The Application (upanaya)- [The smoke at the
mountain is because of the fire]- linked( invariable
relationship).
 The Conclusion (niyamana)- [Hence, there is fire at
the mountain] Ultimately true.
 It means measuring the invariable relationship.
(a) Purvatva
(b) Sheshavat
(c) Samanyato Dhrustha (Drusta)
 Vatsyayana
(a) Purvata Anumana- Refers to the reasoning obtained
from cause to effect, inferring an unperceived effect
from a perceived cause.
Example: Clouds lead to rain(effect). Seeds lead to
fruit. Effect is inferred from the cause.
Fire Sadhya
Hill Paksha
Smoke Hetu
(b) Seshavat Anumana- Inferring an unperceived cause
from a perceived effect where the cause is inferred
from the effect. The swelling in the river water is
because of earlier rainfall.
(c) Samanyato Drushta- Refers to the inferential
knowledge obtained through ‘generalization of a
particular matter’, when inference is not based on
causation but on uniformity of co-existence.
Example: It has been observed before if something
changes its position it is moving. Hence, Sun is
moving( although movement is not seen/wrong).
 If we have a perception of a knowledge then a basis is
formed. On this basis(ground/hetu) it is considered as
the logical ground of inference-link with source of
knowledge.
 It is the state of pervasion.
 It is one of the means of knowledge.
 No conclusion can be inferred without the knowledge
of vyapti.
 Vyapti guarantees the truth of conclusion.
 It signifies the relation of invariable concomitance
between ‘hetu’ & ‘sadhya’ and is of 2 kinds.
Jis vastu ka humko pratyaksha gyan ho raha hai aur jis
gyan ke aadhar par hamein apratyaksha vastu ke
astitva ka gyan hota hai use Hetu kehte hai- ground-
basis.
Jis vastu ke astitva ka gyan hota hai, use sadhya kehte
hai.
Purva pratyaksha gyan ke aadhar par undono ke sah
astitva athva sahcharya ke gyan ko, jo ab, smriti ke rup
main humare mann main hai- use vyapti kehte hai.
 A syllogism is vitiated by a fallacious ground; this is
hetvabhasa “the mere appearance of a ground”.
 A number of types of invalid grounds are distinguished;
simple error; contradiction; lack of proof for the
ground; inopportunity.
 Vastavik hetu ka abhav hone par ya kisi avastavik asad
hetu ke vartaman rehne par bhi vastavik hetu ka abhaas
milta ya astitva dikhai deta hai aur uske fal swarup
bhram hota ya ho sakta hai.
 The thought of Smoke at the mountain was wrong
because the smoke was coming out of the factory
located behind.
 Abhaas- jo nahi hai who dikhna ya jo nahi hai waisa
dikhna. Hetu ka abhaas tab hota hai jab hetu ke
paancho lakshan ka abhav ho.
(3) Upamana- Comparison & Analogy
 A process by which the knowledge of A’s similarity to B
is gained from the perception of B’s similarity to A,
which has been seen elsewhere.
 It is seen distinct from mere ‘inference’ & is accepted
as a valid mediate method of knowledge.
 We can’t have a universal proposition that a thing is
similar to whatever is similar to it- Hence, can’t be
clubbed under ‘anumana’.
 Such knowledge can’t be gained without the
observation of the 2 similar things together.
 It is a process by which 2 cases are considered similar
because they have been considered similar elsewhere.
 It can’t be similar to anumana because we cannot have
a Universal Proposition.
 A is similar to B because B is similar to A
 Hence, it must have been seen earlier A is similar to B
and the perception is there. So we are saying B is
similar to A.
A
B
(4) Arthapatti- Postulation, derivation from
circumstances
{Implication}. It is the incidence of a case-
 It means postulation( an assumption that something
exists), supposition, presumption of a fact.
 It is a fact based method of assumption which says
that we are assuming an unknown fact to account for a
known fact. This known fact can’t be explained in any
other way. Hence, we are making that assumption.
 It is often arrived at by circumstantial implication.
 It is knowledge arrived at by circumstantial
implication.
 Arthapatti- by which one obtains accurate knowledge
of the world.
 It is a distinct valid method of mediate knowledge. It is
in fact a method of assumption of an unknown fact in
order to account for a known fact that is otherwise
inexplicable.
(5) Anupalabdhi- non-perception, negative/cognitive
proof.
 It is an independent ‘pramana’ meaning it is non-
apprehension. The non-existence of a thing is
apprehended by its non-perception.
 By not seeing a jar in a place one knows that it is not
there.
(6) Sabda- word, verbal testimony of past or present
from reliable experts.
 Apta- vakya- sentence of a trustworthy person.
 Agama (Authentic word)
 A verbal sentence uttered in a universal mode of
communication and is therefore the simplest form of
gaining knowledge.
 In the Indian Philosophy Shabda is often equated with
the authenticity of Ved and therefore often considered
infallible.
 Thank you.

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Indian logic by Dr. Soheli Ghose

  • 1.  Dr. Soheli Ghose  and  Ms. Suchitra Kumari
  • 2.  This PowerPoint presentation focuses on the NET syllabus. It covers the Indian Logic part as mentioned in the syllabus. An overview is provided with critical aspects of the topic, keeping in mind the MCQ pattern of the questions.
  • 3. The study of general and fundamental problems concerning matter such as existence (asthitva); knowledge (gyan); values (mulya); reasoning (fark); mind (man) & language (bhasha). This term was coined by Pythagoras .
  • 4.  There are two prominent classifications of Indian Philosophy  The Orthodox School or Astika  The Heterodox School or Nastika
  • 5.  Nyay  Vaisesika  Samakhya  Yog  Purva Mimamsa / Mimamsa  Uttara Mimamsa / Vedanta
  • 6.  Nyay – The realism school emphasizing on analytics and logic.  Vaisheshika –The naturalism school emphasizing on atomistic themes and related to the Nyay School.  Samkhya – The rationalism school with dualistic and atheistic themes.
  • 7.  Yoga – A school similar to Samkhya. It accepts personally defined theistic themes.  Purva Mimamsa – The ritualusm school emphasizing on Vedic Exegesis and Philology  Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta – The upanishadic tradition with many sub-schools ranging from dualism to non-dualism.
  • 8.  Jainism  Buddhism  Ajivika  Anjana  Carvaka/ Materialism
  • 9.  Jainism – This philosophy separates the body from the soul. It is rooted in the Sramanic Movement.  Buddhism – This philosophy is also rooted in the Sramanic Movement and started with the teachings of Siddhart Gautam, the Buddha.  Ajivika – This philosophy was founded by Makkhali Gosala. They formed distinct monastic communities prone to an ascetic and simple lifestyle.
  • 10.  Anjana – The ancient school of radical Indian scepticism. This was also rooted in the Sramanic Movement.  Carvaka – The philosophy of scepticism and materialism, this was founded in the Mauryan period.
  • 11.  Nyaya means Argumentation.  Right Knowledge.  Rule or Method.  Right means of gaining knowledge.
  • 12. The Nyay school emphasised on the valid means of knowledge, hence Pramana. Pramana is the valid means of knowledge.
  • 13.  Perception (pratyaksha)  Inference (anumana)  Comparison (upamana)  Sound or Verbal Testimony (shabda)  Implication (arthapatti)  Non-Apprehension (anupalabdhi)
  • 14. Invalid knowledge means  Memory  Doubt  Error and  Hypothetical arguments.
  • 15.  It literally means ‘proof’ & ‘means of knowledge’.  It refers to epistemology in Indian Philosophies and is one of the much debated key fields of study in Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
  • 16.  It’s a theory of knowledge.  It encompasses one or more reliable & valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge.
  • 17.  How correct knowledge can be acquired  How one knows  How one doesn't  To what extent knowledge pertinent to someone/ something can be acquired.
  • 18. [1] Perception- Pratyaksha- “that which is before one’s eyes.”  It is of 2 types  External- that is arising from the interaction of five senses & worldly objects.  Internal- perception of the inner-sense – the mind
  • 19.  Pratyaksha can also be of 2 kinds  Direct perception/ anubhava – (similar to external)  Remembered perception/ smriti (memory) – similar to internal  Pramana is a means of knowledge that is acquired through guessing, interpretation & analysis.
  • 20. [2] Anumana- Inference- measuring along some other thing or knowing after.  The method by which knowledge is derived from another knowledge.  It’s an indirect, mediate knowledge.
  • 21.  We have knowledge of an invariable relationship between 2 things & on that basis while seeing one we deduce the presence of the other.  Logical process of gaining knowledge.  Knowledge thus gained is called Inferential knowledge or The Logical Deduction.
  • 22.  The Proposition (pratijna, literally “promise”)- ‘There is fire at the mountain’ .  The Ground (hetu)- [Because there is smoke and I can see it].  The Illustration (Udaharana)- [There can’t be smoke without fire], example kitchen.
  • 23.  The Application (upanaya)- [The smoke at the mountain is because of the fire]- linked( invariable relationship).  The Conclusion (niyamana)- [Hence, there is fire at the mountain] Ultimately true.  It means measuring the invariable relationship.
  • 24. (a) Purvatva (b) Sheshavat (c) Samanyato Dhrustha (Drusta)
  • 25.  Vatsyayana (a) Purvata Anumana- Refers to the reasoning obtained from cause to effect, inferring an unperceived effect from a perceived cause. Example: Clouds lead to rain(effect). Seeds lead to fruit. Effect is inferred from the cause. Fire Sadhya Hill Paksha Smoke Hetu
  • 26. (b) Seshavat Anumana- Inferring an unperceived cause from a perceived effect where the cause is inferred from the effect. The swelling in the river water is because of earlier rainfall.
  • 27. (c) Samanyato Drushta- Refers to the inferential knowledge obtained through ‘generalization of a particular matter’, when inference is not based on causation but on uniformity of co-existence. Example: It has been observed before if something changes its position it is moving. Hence, Sun is moving( although movement is not seen/wrong).
  • 28.  If we have a perception of a knowledge then a basis is formed. On this basis(ground/hetu) it is considered as the logical ground of inference-link with source of knowledge.  It is the state of pervasion.  It is one of the means of knowledge.
  • 29.  No conclusion can be inferred without the knowledge of vyapti.  Vyapti guarantees the truth of conclusion.  It signifies the relation of invariable concomitance between ‘hetu’ & ‘sadhya’ and is of 2 kinds.
  • 30. Jis vastu ka humko pratyaksha gyan ho raha hai aur jis gyan ke aadhar par hamein apratyaksha vastu ke astitva ka gyan hota hai use Hetu kehte hai- ground- basis.
  • 31. Jis vastu ke astitva ka gyan hota hai, use sadhya kehte hai. Purva pratyaksha gyan ke aadhar par undono ke sah astitva athva sahcharya ke gyan ko, jo ab, smriti ke rup main humare mann main hai- use vyapti kehte hai.
  • 32.  A syllogism is vitiated by a fallacious ground; this is hetvabhasa “the mere appearance of a ground”.  A number of types of invalid grounds are distinguished; simple error; contradiction; lack of proof for the ground; inopportunity.  Vastavik hetu ka abhav hone par ya kisi avastavik asad hetu ke vartaman rehne par bhi vastavik hetu ka abhaas milta ya astitva dikhai deta hai aur uske fal swarup bhram hota ya ho sakta hai.
  • 33.  The thought of Smoke at the mountain was wrong because the smoke was coming out of the factory located behind.  Abhaas- jo nahi hai who dikhna ya jo nahi hai waisa dikhna. Hetu ka abhaas tab hota hai jab hetu ke paancho lakshan ka abhav ho.
  • 34. (3) Upamana- Comparison & Analogy  A process by which the knowledge of A’s similarity to B is gained from the perception of B’s similarity to A, which has been seen elsewhere.  It is seen distinct from mere ‘inference’ & is accepted as a valid mediate method of knowledge.
  • 35.  We can’t have a universal proposition that a thing is similar to whatever is similar to it- Hence, can’t be clubbed under ‘anumana’.  Such knowledge can’t be gained without the observation of the 2 similar things together.  It is a process by which 2 cases are considered similar because they have been considered similar elsewhere.
  • 36.  It can’t be similar to anumana because we cannot have a Universal Proposition.  A is similar to B because B is similar to A  Hence, it must have been seen earlier A is similar to B and the perception is there. So we are saying B is similar to A. A B
  • 37. (4) Arthapatti- Postulation, derivation from circumstances {Implication}. It is the incidence of a case-  It means postulation( an assumption that something exists), supposition, presumption of a fact.
  • 38.  It is a fact based method of assumption which says that we are assuming an unknown fact to account for a known fact. This known fact can’t be explained in any other way. Hence, we are making that assumption.  It is often arrived at by circumstantial implication.  It is knowledge arrived at by circumstantial implication.
  • 39.  Arthapatti- by which one obtains accurate knowledge of the world.  It is a distinct valid method of mediate knowledge. It is in fact a method of assumption of an unknown fact in order to account for a known fact that is otherwise inexplicable.
  • 40. (5) Anupalabdhi- non-perception, negative/cognitive proof.  It is an independent ‘pramana’ meaning it is non- apprehension. The non-existence of a thing is apprehended by its non-perception.  By not seeing a jar in a place one knows that it is not there.
  • 41. (6) Sabda- word, verbal testimony of past or present from reliable experts.  Apta- vakya- sentence of a trustworthy person.  Agama (Authentic word)
  • 42.  A verbal sentence uttered in a universal mode of communication and is therefore the simplest form of gaining knowledge.  In the Indian Philosophy Shabda is often equated with the authenticity of Ved and therefore often considered infallible.