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@wildfalcon
Agile vs Agile (vs Agile)
The fall of“scientific” management
Dr Laurie Young
Head	
  of	
  Opera+ons	
  -­‐	
  New	
  Bamboo	
  
!
!
!
Tech	
  Culture	
  
Crea+ve	
  Photography	
  
Compe++ve	
  Dancing
@wildfalcon
Why should you listen to me?
When you understand the mindset shift you will be able to:
• Communicate easier with each other
• Explicitly choose which mindset you want your company to have
• Build companies that adapt to unpredictable events
• Test new ideas and new opportunities quickly
@wildfalcon
2 Mindsets
@wildfalcon
2 Mindsets
(well, 3 actually)
@wildfalcon
Everyone just does “work”
“There’s no point paying attention to the way things get done”
“We are wasting too much time on this ‘process’ crap”
“Stop talking about how I work and let me do some work”
Chaos
@wildfalcon
It just doesn’t work
Chaos
@wildfalcon
Let’s forget about this one!
Chaos
@wildfalcon
Scientific Management
Three basic principles
1. Get better results by thinking about how work is done: 

The “work practices”
2. Managers should control the employees’ work practices
3. Managers should empirically analyse and optimise work practices
@wildfalcon
Frederick Winslow Taylor
(March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915)
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Employees: Do Work
Managers:
Tell employees
how to do work
@wildfalcon
Manager
Employees
@wildfalcon
Pro: It works!
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
GDP(inM1960USD)
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
Year
1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1913 1925 1938
Russia Germany
@wildfalcon
Cons: Many!
@wildfalcon
IT SUCKS!
@wildfalcon
NO ONE IS HAVING FUN!
@wildfalcon
It’s slow to respond
@wildfalcon
Data is gathered here
It’s slow to respond
@wildfalcon
It’s slow to respond
But needs to get here so decisions can be made
@wildfalcon
It's not accurate: People talk to each other
@wildfalcon
Complex Systems
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Complex Systems
Complex systems reconfigure themselves, adapting to constraints.
This means they display emergent behaviour and are rarely stable
@wildfalcon
Complex Systems
Complex systems have the following properties
1. They adapt to their constraints
2. They rapidly reconfigure to adapt to any changes
3. Behaviour is emergent - meaning it’s unpredictable
4. Behaviour is constantly adapting so is rarely stable
@wildfalcon
Complex Systems
For example:
1. Ant colonies
2. Human brain
3. Stock market
4. A team of people
@wildfalcon
AKA “Empowered Teams”
1. Get better results by thinking about how work is done: 

The “work practices”
2. Teams of people should be empowered to control their own work
practices
3. Teams should analyse and improve their own work practices
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects ? ?
Production ? ?
@wildfalcon
Chaos
? ? ?
? ? ?
? ? ?
? ? ?
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects ? ?
Production ? ?
@wildfalcon
Enough Theory!
@wildfalcon
Real examples
Let’s look at four things a typical company does
• Running a company
• Developing a Business Model
• Projects
• Production
@wildfalcon
Project
“A collaborative enterprise, carefully planned to achieve a particular aim”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
?
Production ? ?
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production ? ?
@wildfalcon
Production
“The production of large amounts of standardised products, including
and especially on assembly lines.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_production
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism ?
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
? ?
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
@wildfalcon
Developing a Business Model
“The rationale of how an organisation creates, delivers, and captures
value"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_mod
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
Business Plan:
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
?
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
@wildfalcon
Running a company ? ?
Developing a
business model
Business Plan:
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Team builds business plan by experiment
MVP
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
@wildfalcon
Running a company
“The system by which corporations are directed and controlled.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_Governance
@wildfalcon
@wildfalcon
Running a company
Corporate Governance
eg: Multinations, Governments, Most
Enterprises
?
Developing a
business model
Business Plan::
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Team builds business plan by experiment
MVP
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
@wildfalcon
Running a company
Corporate Governance
eg: Multinations, Governments, Most
Enterprises
No Name:
eg: 37 Signals, Github
Developing a
business model
Business Plan::
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Team builds business plan by experiment
MVP
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
@wildfalcon
3 Common uses of the word
“Agile”
@wildfalcon
Running a company
Corporate Governance
eg: Vodafone, Governments, Most
Enterprises
No Name:
eg: 37 Signals, Github
Startups
No Name:
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Everyone builds a business plan though
experiment
MVP
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
Agile is a way of building projects with empowered teams
@wildfalcon
Running a company
Corporate Governance
eg: Vodafone, Governments, Most
Enterprises
No Name:
eg: 37 Signals, Github
Startups
No Name:
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Everyone builds a business plan though
experiment
MVP
Projects
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Production Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
Agile is any way of working
with empowered teams
@wildfalcon
Chaos
Chaos
No Name
eg: Vodafone, Governments, Most
Enterprises
No Name:
eg: 37 Signals, Github
Chaos
No Name:
Write a business plan then implement it
exactly
Lean Startup:
Everyone builds a business plan though
experiment
MVP
Chaos
Project Management:
Gantt Charts
Prince2
Waterfall
Pert Analysis
Agile:
Scrum
XP
Chaos Fordism
Lean:
Kanban
Toyota Production System
JIT Manufacturing
Agile is ANY
way of working
that doesn’t use
managers &
hierarchy
@wildfalcon
Summary
Three things you should remember
• 2 (or 3) Mindsets about how a company can work
• How these apply to 4 types of work that a company can do
• The phrase “Agile” can be used to mean different things
!
@wildfalcon
Learnings
Two key ideas
• Over the past 130 years there has been a continual change:

Chaos -> Scientific Management -> Complex Systems
• We are learning how create empowered teams that are more fun to
work in and generate better results
!
@wildfalcon
Further Reading
• The Last Re-Org You’ll Ever Do

https://medium.com/p/f19160f61500
• Inside GitHub's Super-Lean Management Strategy

http://www.fastcolabs.com/3020181/open-company/inside-githubs-super-lean-management-strategy-and-how-it-
drives-innovation
• Scaling Agile @ Spotify

http://ucvox.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/113617905-scaling-agile-spotify-11.pdf
• The Marshall Model of Organisational Evolution

http://fallingblossoms.com/opinion/content?id=1006
@wildfalcon
Follow me on Twitter for more
@wildfalcon

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Agile vs agile (vs agile)