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Aerodynamics basic

This document discusses the fundamentals of physics and aerodynamics. It defines basic physical quantities like mass, time, and length. It also defines derived quantities that are combinations of the basics, such as velocity, density, force, momentum, and energy. Laws of physics are observations of the relationships between these quantities. The document also discusses conservation laws in fluid systems, including conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. It defines mass flow rate and stability along three axes for aircraft.

Chapter 1 - Introduction (Thermodynamics 1)

This document provides an overview of thermodynamics and related concepts. It defines thermodynamics as the study of energy and its transformation, heat flow, and work potential. Key topics covered include the microscopic and macroscopic approaches to studying thermodynamics, thermodynamic systems and properties, processes like reversible and irreversible processes, and thermodynamic cycles. Dimensional analysis and various thermodynamic units of measurement are also discussed.

Igcse physics revision

This document provides an overview of key physics concepts covered in the IGCSE syllabus. It discusses topics like volume and density, speed, forces, friction, gravitational force, pressure, energy, thermal effects, and specific heat capacity. For each topic, it outlines relevant formulae and provides 2-3 brief explanatory sentences. The document is intended as a revision guide for students to learn and review the essential information and formulae for multiple areas of the IGCSE physics curriculum.

Part 1 Last weeks summary.pdf

1. The document discusses the governing equations for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), including the continuity, momentum, and energy equations.
2. These equations are derived from conservation principles like mass conservation and Newton's second law, and describe how quantities like mass, momentum, and energy are transported through a fluid flow domain.
3. The equations take the form of a general transport equation, with terms for the accumulation, convection, diffusion, and sources of various quantities represented by Φ, such as density, velocity, and internal energy.

Study Unit Ill Engineerin M Part4 an1cs By And.docx

Study Unit
Ill Engineerin M
Part4
an1cs
By
Andrew Pytel, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Engineering Mechanics
The Pennsylvania State University
When you complete this study unit, you'll be able to
• Calculate the mass moment of inertia
• Calculate the kinetic energy of a body
• Determine the linear impulse and momentum of a body
• Analyze the equations and conditions used to determine the forces involving rectilinear
translation
• Describe centripetal and centrifugal force
• Describe the forces that impact the rotation of a rigid body without translation
• Explain the motion of a wheel, and calculate the magnitude of the linear acceleration and
friction forces
• Analyze the work-energy method as it applies to the motion and action of a body
iii
PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS PERTAINING TO KINETICS .
FORCE-MASS-ACCELERATION METHOD .....
Translation of Rigid Body
Rotation of Rigid Body without Translation
General Plane Motion of Rigid Body
23
WORK-ENERGY METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Application of Method for Translation
Other Applications of Work-Energy Method
IMPULSE-MOMENTUM METHOD . . . . . . .
Rectilinear Translation of Single Body
Collision of Two Bodies
PRACTICE PROBLEMS ANSWERS
EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . .
. ........... 77
93
95
Engineering Nlechanics, Part 4
PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS PERTAINING
TO KINETICS
Scope of This Text
1
1 • In the preceding texts on engineering mechanics, we have discussed
separately the relations of forces in a system and the conditions of mo-
tion of bodies. In this text, we shall consider the relation between the
motion of a body and the force or forces acting on the body to produce
the motion. The basis for the relationship between motion and force
is Newton's second law of motion. However, there are three different
methods of applying this law. These are commonly called the force-
mass acceleration method, the work-energy method, and the impulse-
momentum method. Each method is most useful for solving certain
types of problems.
Statement of Newton's Second Law of Motion
2 • In Engineering Mechanics, Part 1, Newton's second law of motion was
stated as follows:
If a resultant force acts upon a particle, the particle will be accelerated
in the direction of the force. Furthermore, the magnitude of the accel-
eration will be directly proportional to the magnitude of the resultant
force and inversely proportional to the mass of the particle.
Newton's second law can be expressed mathematically by the following
equation:
F
a=k-
m
in which a = magnitude of the acceleration of a particle
k = a numerical factor
F = magnitude of the force acting upon the particle
m = mass of the particle
(1)
The mass of a particle is a measure of the exact amount of matter in
the particle. Any body is composed of a number of particles, and the
mass of a body is the sum of the masses of all the particles.

032616 week3 conservation of mechanical energy

The document discusses the law of conservation of energy and conservation of mechanical energy. It defines the different types of energy and states that the total energy of a system is constant if there are no external forces acting on it. Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. Several examples are provided to demonstrate calculating changes in kinetic and potential energy and applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy to problems involving objects moving under the influence of gravity.

Notes_Lecture 2_FT-123 & DT-125.pptxubnko

1) The document discusses basics of thermodynamics including definitions of key terms like system, surroundings, boundary, state, process, and cycle.
2) It covers concepts of extensive and intensive properties, equilibrium states, and different types of processes like quasistatic, isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric.
3) The document also discusses steady flow processes, units and dimensions in thermodynamics, and provides examples of applying concepts to engineering problems.

kinetic-theory-of-gases

(1) Kinetic theory of gases relates the macroscopic properties of gases like pressure and temperature to the microscopic properties of gas molecules like speed and kinetic energy.
(2) It is based on assumptions like gas molecules are small, rigid spheres that move randomly in straight lines between perfectly elastic collisions.
(3) The kinetic theory derives the ideal gas law relating pressure, volume, amount of gas and temperature. It shows that pressure is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy per unit volume of the gas molecules.

Aerodynamics basic

This document discusses the fundamentals of physics and aerodynamics. It defines basic physical quantities like mass, time, and length. It also defines derived quantities that are combinations of the basics, such as velocity, density, force, momentum, and energy. Laws of physics are observations of the relationships between these quantities. The document also discusses conservation laws in fluid systems, including conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. It defines mass flow rate and stability along three axes for aircraft.

Chapter 1 - Introduction (Thermodynamics 1)

This document provides an overview of thermodynamics and related concepts. It defines thermodynamics as the study of energy and its transformation, heat flow, and work potential. Key topics covered include the microscopic and macroscopic approaches to studying thermodynamics, thermodynamic systems and properties, processes like reversible and irreversible processes, and thermodynamic cycles. Dimensional analysis and various thermodynamic units of measurement are also discussed.

Igcse physics revision

This document provides an overview of key physics concepts covered in the IGCSE syllabus. It discusses topics like volume and density, speed, forces, friction, gravitational force, pressure, energy, thermal effects, and specific heat capacity. For each topic, it outlines relevant formulae and provides 2-3 brief explanatory sentences. The document is intended as a revision guide for students to learn and review the essential information and formulae for multiple areas of the IGCSE physics curriculum.

Part 1 Last weeks summary.pdf

1. The document discusses the governing equations for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), including the continuity, momentum, and energy equations.
2. These equations are derived from conservation principles like mass conservation and Newton's second law, and describe how quantities like mass, momentum, and energy are transported through a fluid flow domain.
3. The equations take the form of a general transport equation, with terms for the accumulation, convection, diffusion, and sources of various quantities represented by Φ, such as density, velocity, and internal energy.

Study Unit Ill Engineerin M Part4 an1cs By And.docx

Study Unit
Ill Engineerin M
Part4
an1cs
By
Andrew Pytel, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Engineering Mechanics
The Pennsylvania State University
When you complete this study unit, you'll be able to
• Calculate the mass moment of inertia
• Calculate the kinetic energy of a body
• Determine the linear impulse and momentum of a body
• Analyze the equations and conditions used to determine the forces involving rectilinear
translation
• Describe centripetal and centrifugal force
• Describe the forces that impact the rotation of a rigid body without translation
• Explain the motion of a wheel, and calculate the magnitude of the linear acceleration and
friction forces
• Analyze the work-energy method as it applies to the motion and action of a body
iii
PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS PERTAINING TO KINETICS .
FORCE-MASS-ACCELERATION METHOD .....
Translation of Rigid Body
Rotation of Rigid Body without Translation
General Plane Motion of Rigid Body
23
WORK-ENERGY METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Application of Method for Translation
Other Applications of Work-Energy Method
IMPULSE-MOMENTUM METHOD . . . . . . .
Rectilinear Translation of Single Body
Collision of Two Bodies
PRACTICE PROBLEMS ANSWERS
EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . .
. ........... 77
93
95
Engineering Nlechanics, Part 4
PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS PERTAINING
TO KINETICS
Scope of This Text
1
1 • In the preceding texts on engineering mechanics, we have discussed
separately the relations of forces in a system and the conditions of mo-
tion of bodies. In this text, we shall consider the relation between the
motion of a body and the force or forces acting on the body to produce
the motion. The basis for the relationship between motion and force
is Newton's second law of motion. However, there are three different
methods of applying this law. These are commonly called the force-
mass acceleration method, the work-energy method, and the impulse-
momentum method. Each method is most useful for solving certain
types of problems.
Statement of Newton's Second Law of Motion
2 • In Engineering Mechanics, Part 1, Newton's second law of motion was
stated as follows:
If a resultant force acts upon a particle, the particle will be accelerated
in the direction of the force. Furthermore, the magnitude of the accel-
eration will be directly proportional to the magnitude of the resultant
force and inversely proportional to the mass of the particle.
Newton's second law can be expressed mathematically by the following
equation:
F
a=k-
m
in which a = magnitude of the acceleration of a particle
k = a numerical factor
F = magnitude of the force acting upon the particle
m = mass of the particle
(1)
The mass of a particle is a measure of the exact amount of matter in
the particle. Any body is composed of a number of particles, and the
mass of a body is the sum of the masses of all the particles.

032616 week3 conservation of mechanical energy

The document discusses the law of conservation of energy and conservation of mechanical energy. It defines the different types of energy and states that the total energy of a system is constant if there are no external forces acting on it. Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. Several examples are provided to demonstrate calculating changes in kinetic and potential energy and applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy to problems involving objects moving under the influence of gravity.

Notes_Lecture 2_FT-123 & DT-125.pptxubnko

1) The document discusses basics of thermodynamics including definitions of key terms like system, surroundings, boundary, state, process, and cycle.
2) It covers concepts of extensive and intensive properties, equilibrium states, and different types of processes like quasistatic, isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric.
3) The document also discusses steady flow processes, units and dimensions in thermodynamics, and provides examples of applying concepts to engineering problems.

kinetic-theory-of-gases

(1) Kinetic theory of gases relates the macroscopic properties of gases like pressure and temperature to the microscopic properties of gas molecules like speed and kinetic energy.
(2) It is based on assumptions like gas molecules are small, rigid spheres that move randomly in straight lines between perfectly elastic collisions.
(3) The kinetic theory derives the ideal gas law relating pressure, volume, amount of gas and temperature. It shows that pressure is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy per unit volume of the gas molecules.

Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev

This chapter covers basic theories and math related to automotive systems. It defines key concepts like the states of matter, forms of energy, and conversions between energy types. It also explains Newton's laws of motion and how forces affect vehicles. Formulas for volume, circumference, and engine displacement are provided. Torque and horsepower are defined, and hydraulic, thermal, and electrical principles are summarized.

1st_1 (1).pdf

This document provides an overview of physical chemistry, which is the branch of chemistry dealing with the physical properties of chemical substances. It discusses the three main areas of physical chemistry - classical mechanics, quantum chemistry, and statistical thermodynamics. Classical mechanics deals with macroscopic properties, quantum chemistry with microscopic properties, and statistical thermodynamics relates the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The document also defines open, closed, and isolated systems and discusses fundamental and derived units, temperature, pressure, energy, and intensive and extensive properties.

O1 Phy.pdf

The document outlines the syllabus breakdown for the O1 physics class at the Quaid-e-Azam Group of Schools & Colleges in Mardan. Over the first and second terms, students will cover topics including physical quantities and measurements, kinematics, dynamics, mass, weight and density, and energy sources. Key concepts include scalars and vectors, motion graphs, forces, density calculations, forms of energy, and renewable/non-renewable resources. The document lists sub-topics, learning objectives, and number of weeks for each topic.

Thermodynamics, heat transfer, conduction equation

This document discusses heat transfer and thermodynamics. It begins by introducing concepts like temperature, heat, and work. It then covers the three laws of thermodynamics. The main modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. The document also derives the general heat conduction equation in Cartesian coordinates for a material with constant thermal conductivity. It shows how this equation can be simplified for different boundary conditions and whether heat generation is present or not.

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (Lecture notes 08)

This document discusses dimensional analysis, which is a mathematical technique used in fluid mechanics to reduce the number of variables in a problem by combining dimensional variables to form non-dimensional parameters. Dimensional analysis allows problems to be expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters to show the relative significance of each parameter. It has various uses including checking dimensional homogeneity of equations, deriving equations, planning experiments, and analyzing complex flows using scale models. The Buckingham π theorem states that any relationship between physical quantities can be written as a relationship between dimensionless pi groups formed from the variables. Dimensional analysis is applied by setting up a dimensional matrix to determine the minimum number of pi groups needed to describe the relationship.

Chapter 1- Thermodynamic 1

Thermodynamics is the study of energy, heat, work, and their interconversion between different forms. It describes processes involving changes in temperature, phase, or energy of a system.
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed in form. The second law states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases, reaching a maximum at equilibrium.
Thermodynamic properties describe a system and include intensive properties like temperature and pressure, as well as extensive properties like volume and energy. A system's state is defined by the values of its properties, and equilibrium occurs when properties no longer change with time.

Structural dynamics and earthquake engineering

1. Structural dynamics is the study of how structures respond to dynamic loads that vary over time due to factors like wind, earthquakes, or machine vibrations. It builds upon static structural analysis by accounting for inertia and damping effects.
2. Dynamic systems can be modeled as having mass, stiffness, and damping properties. The dynamic response of simple systems with a single degree of freedom can be described by a second order differential equation relating displacement, velocity, acceleration, stiffness, damping, and applied forces.
3. For undamped free vibration, the natural frequency and natural period of vibration of a structure can be determined from the mass and stiffness. Most structures exhibit underdamped behavior, where the response decays over time

Temperature scale

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformation. It deals with the relationship between heat, work, and the physical properties of substances. Thermodynamics can be studied through both a microscopic approach considering molecular behavior, and a macroscopic approach considering average properties without molecular details. A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter bounded by a surface, and can be classified as closed, open, or isolated depending on its interactions with the surroundings. Key thermodynamic properties describe the state of a system.

Theory of Time 2023

This document presents a theory of time proposed by Ramkumar K that was developed over 22 years of research. The theory aims to systematically relate principles of electromagnetism, mechanics, atoms, and the universal transformation system. It uses principles like Newton's laws, Ohm's law, and the law of conservation of energy to analyze energy and power transformations over time. The theory finds that existing interpretations contain some imbalances when relating series and parallel circuit properties. It develops new analyses of gyroscopic effects, black holes, and the universal transformation system to provide a single, unified theory of time and transformation systems across all domains.

Engineering physics 2

1) Periodic motion is a repeated pattern of motion defined by its cycle, period, frequency, and amplitude. Simple harmonic motion obeys Hooke's law where the restoring force is proportional to displacement.
2) Objects that undergo simple harmonic motion include spring-mass systems, where the period is defined by the mass and spring constant, and simple pendulums, where the period depends on the length and acceleration due to gravity.
3) There are two types of waves: transverse waves where the particle motion is perpendicular to the wave motion, and longitudinal/compressional waves where particle and wave motion are parallel. The speed of transverse waves depends on frequency and wavelength or the tension and mass/length of the string

Thermodynamics ppt

The document discusses key concepts from kinetic theory of gases and thermodynamics. It defines kinetic theory of gases as describing gas as particles in random motion that collide with each other and container walls. This explains macroscopic gas properties like pressure. It then outlines Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and related equations that describe the distribution of molecular speeds at a given temperature. The document also summarizes the four laws of thermodynamics, including definitions of entropy, Carnot cycle efficiency, and applications of thermodynamic concepts.

Physical world and units and measurment

The document provides an introduction to the field of physics. It discusses that physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of nature and natural phenomena. Physics is divided into areas like mechanics, heat, light, sound, magnetism, electrostatics, and modern physics. The scientific method involves systematic observation, reasoning, model making, and theoretical predictions. Physics is related to other sciences like chemistry, biology, mathematics, and astronomy. Measurement is important in physics, and the SI system of units including the meter, kilogram, second, and other units is discussed. The document also covers topics like dimensional analysis, accuracy and errors in measurement, and significant figures.

ASE 4341 L01.pptx

This document outlines a thermodynamics course taught by Md. Toufiq Islam Noor. It introduces key concepts in thermodynamics including systems, properties, processes, equilibrium, and units. Specific topics covered include defining closed, open, and isolated systems, intensive/extensive properties, equilibrium states, and standard SI and other units for mass, length, time, and force. Examples are provided for calculating weight and converting between units.

MD_course.ppt

1) Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations numerically solve Newton's equations of motion to simulate the physical movements of atoms and molecules over time.
2) The Verlet algorithm is commonly used to integrate the equations of motion in MD simulations. It calculates new positions and velocities at each time step based on the forces between particles.
3) MD simulations sample the ensemble of all possible configurations over time. If run long enough, time averages from the simulation converge to ensemble averages, in accordance with the ergodic hypothesis. This allows MD to connect microscopic dynamics to macroscopic thermodynamics.

Physics .. An introduction

This document contains a summary of the first lecture in an introductory physics course. The lecture covered the following key points:
- Physics aims to study and express the fundamental laws of nature mathematically through equations. Most physical quantities have standardized units.
- The International System of Units (SI) defines the base units of the meter (length), kilogram (mass), and second (time). Other units are derived from these base units.
- Vectors represent quantities that have both magnitude and direction, while scalars only have magnitude. Problem solving in physics involves identifying relevant equations and checking solutions.

GETTING STARTED IN THERMODYNAMICS: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations between thermal and mechanical forms. A system is defined as the subject of analysis, which has specified boundaries and properties that may change as it undergoes processes or reaches equilibrium states. Thermodynamic properties are either extensive, meaning their values depend on system size, or intensive, with values independent of system size. Temperature, pressure, and specific volume are important intensive properties. The SI system of units is commonly used, with the pascal and kelvin as units of pressure and temperature. A system reaches thermal equilibrium when its intensive properties become uniform throughout.

Chapter 1

Physics is the study of matter, energy, and their interaction. It has two main branches: classical physics which studies mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism, and modern physics which studies atomic and nuclear physics and quantum physics. Measurement is the process of comparing quantities using standard units like the metric system which defines fundamental units like meters, kilograms, and seconds. Conversion between units can be done using conversion factors in a chain-link method.

2. statics.pdf

This document provides an overview of engineering mechanics as taught in the course ME101:
1) Engineering mechanics deals with the motion and equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of forces, and includes statics, dynamics, and rigid body mechanics. 2) Rigid body mechanics assumes bodies do not deform under loading and is a prerequisite for more advanced topics. 3) Statics analyzes equilibrium of bodies under constant forces, while dynamics analyzes accelerated motion of bodies.

dynamics chapt 1 .pptx

Engineering Dynamics (Mechanics II) slide that give you great understanding with short and precise way.

Black Hole Dynamics From Atmospheric Science

In this note, we derive (to third order in derivatives of the ﬂuid velocity) a 2+1
dimensional theory of ﬂuid dynamics that governs the evolution of generic long-
wavelength perturbations of a black brane or large black hole in four-dimensional
gravity with negative cosmological constant, applying a systematic procedure de-
veloped recently by Bhattacharyya, Hubeny, Minwalla, and Rangamani. In the
regime of validity of the ﬂuid-dynamical description, the black-brane evolution
will generically correspond to a turbulent ﬂow. Turbulence in 2+1 dimensions
has been well studied analytically, numerically, experimentally, and observation-
ally as it provides a ﬁrst approximation to the large scale dynamics of planetary
atmospheres. These studies reveal dramatic diﬀerences between ﬂuid ﬂows in
2+1 and 3+1 dimensions, suggesting that the dynamics of perturbed four and
ﬁve dimensional large AdS black holes may be qualitatively diﬀerent. However,
further investigation is required to understand whether these qualitative diﬀer-
ences exist in the regime of ﬂuid dynamics relevant to black hole dynamics.

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

Livro sobre Cromossomos Humanos / Genética

23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx

Under graduate Physics - Optics

Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev

This chapter covers basic theories and math related to automotive systems. It defines key concepts like the states of matter, forms of energy, and conversions between energy types. It also explains Newton's laws of motion and how forces affect vehicles. Formulas for volume, circumference, and engine displacement are provided. Torque and horsepower are defined, and hydraulic, thermal, and electrical principles are summarized.

1st_1 (1).pdf

This document provides an overview of physical chemistry, which is the branch of chemistry dealing with the physical properties of chemical substances. It discusses the three main areas of physical chemistry - classical mechanics, quantum chemistry, and statistical thermodynamics. Classical mechanics deals with macroscopic properties, quantum chemistry with microscopic properties, and statistical thermodynamics relates the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The document also defines open, closed, and isolated systems and discusses fundamental and derived units, temperature, pressure, energy, and intensive and extensive properties.

O1 Phy.pdf

The document outlines the syllabus breakdown for the O1 physics class at the Quaid-e-Azam Group of Schools & Colleges in Mardan. Over the first and second terms, students will cover topics including physical quantities and measurements, kinematics, dynamics, mass, weight and density, and energy sources. Key concepts include scalars and vectors, motion graphs, forces, density calculations, forms of energy, and renewable/non-renewable resources. The document lists sub-topics, learning objectives, and number of weeks for each topic.

Thermodynamics, heat transfer, conduction equation

This document discusses heat transfer and thermodynamics. It begins by introducing concepts like temperature, heat, and work. It then covers the three laws of thermodynamics. The main modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. The document also derives the general heat conduction equation in Cartesian coordinates for a material with constant thermal conductivity. It shows how this equation can be simplified for different boundary conditions and whether heat generation is present or not.

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (Lecture notes 08)

This document discusses dimensional analysis, which is a mathematical technique used in fluid mechanics to reduce the number of variables in a problem by combining dimensional variables to form non-dimensional parameters. Dimensional analysis allows problems to be expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters to show the relative significance of each parameter. It has various uses including checking dimensional homogeneity of equations, deriving equations, planning experiments, and analyzing complex flows using scale models. The Buckingham π theorem states that any relationship between physical quantities can be written as a relationship between dimensionless pi groups formed from the variables. Dimensional analysis is applied by setting up a dimensional matrix to determine the minimum number of pi groups needed to describe the relationship.

Chapter 1- Thermodynamic 1

Thermodynamics is the study of energy, heat, work, and their interconversion between different forms. It describes processes involving changes in temperature, phase, or energy of a system.
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed in form. The second law states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases, reaching a maximum at equilibrium.
Thermodynamic properties describe a system and include intensive properties like temperature and pressure, as well as extensive properties like volume and energy. A system's state is defined by the values of its properties, and equilibrium occurs when properties no longer change with time.

Structural dynamics and earthquake engineering

1. Structural dynamics is the study of how structures respond to dynamic loads that vary over time due to factors like wind, earthquakes, or machine vibrations. It builds upon static structural analysis by accounting for inertia and damping effects.
2. Dynamic systems can be modeled as having mass, stiffness, and damping properties. The dynamic response of simple systems with a single degree of freedom can be described by a second order differential equation relating displacement, velocity, acceleration, stiffness, damping, and applied forces.
3. For undamped free vibration, the natural frequency and natural period of vibration of a structure can be determined from the mass and stiffness. Most structures exhibit underdamped behavior, where the response decays over time

Temperature scale

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformation. It deals with the relationship between heat, work, and the physical properties of substances. Thermodynamics can be studied through both a microscopic approach considering molecular behavior, and a macroscopic approach considering average properties without molecular details. A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter bounded by a surface, and can be classified as closed, open, or isolated depending on its interactions with the surroundings. Key thermodynamic properties describe the state of a system.

Theory of Time 2023

This document presents a theory of time proposed by Ramkumar K that was developed over 22 years of research. The theory aims to systematically relate principles of electromagnetism, mechanics, atoms, and the universal transformation system. It uses principles like Newton's laws, Ohm's law, and the law of conservation of energy to analyze energy and power transformations over time. The theory finds that existing interpretations contain some imbalances when relating series and parallel circuit properties. It develops new analyses of gyroscopic effects, black holes, and the universal transformation system to provide a single, unified theory of time and transformation systems across all domains.

Engineering physics 2

1) Periodic motion is a repeated pattern of motion defined by its cycle, period, frequency, and amplitude. Simple harmonic motion obeys Hooke's law where the restoring force is proportional to displacement.
2) Objects that undergo simple harmonic motion include spring-mass systems, where the period is defined by the mass and spring constant, and simple pendulums, where the period depends on the length and acceleration due to gravity.
3) There are two types of waves: transverse waves where the particle motion is perpendicular to the wave motion, and longitudinal/compressional waves where particle and wave motion are parallel. The speed of transverse waves depends on frequency and wavelength or the tension and mass/length of the string

Thermodynamics ppt

The document discusses key concepts from kinetic theory of gases and thermodynamics. It defines kinetic theory of gases as describing gas as particles in random motion that collide with each other and container walls. This explains macroscopic gas properties like pressure. It then outlines Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and related equations that describe the distribution of molecular speeds at a given temperature. The document also summarizes the four laws of thermodynamics, including definitions of entropy, Carnot cycle efficiency, and applications of thermodynamic concepts.

Physical world and units and measurment

The document provides an introduction to the field of physics. It discusses that physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of nature and natural phenomena. Physics is divided into areas like mechanics, heat, light, sound, magnetism, electrostatics, and modern physics. The scientific method involves systematic observation, reasoning, model making, and theoretical predictions. Physics is related to other sciences like chemistry, biology, mathematics, and astronomy. Measurement is important in physics, and the SI system of units including the meter, kilogram, second, and other units is discussed. The document also covers topics like dimensional analysis, accuracy and errors in measurement, and significant figures.

ASE 4341 L01.pptx

This document outlines a thermodynamics course taught by Md. Toufiq Islam Noor. It introduces key concepts in thermodynamics including systems, properties, processes, equilibrium, and units. Specific topics covered include defining closed, open, and isolated systems, intensive/extensive properties, equilibrium states, and standard SI and other units for mass, length, time, and force. Examples are provided for calculating weight and converting between units.

MD_course.ppt

1) Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations numerically solve Newton's equations of motion to simulate the physical movements of atoms and molecules over time.
2) The Verlet algorithm is commonly used to integrate the equations of motion in MD simulations. It calculates new positions and velocities at each time step based on the forces between particles.
3) MD simulations sample the ensemble of all possible configurations over time. If run long enough, time averages from the simulation converge to ensemble averages, in accordance with the ergodic hypothesis. This allows MD to connect microscopic dynamics to macroscopic thermodynamics.

Physics .. An introduction

This document contains a summary of the first lecture in an introductory physics course. The lecture covered the following key points:
- Physics aims to study and express the fundamental laws of nature mathematically through equations. Most physical quantities have standardized units.
- The International System of Units (SI) defines the base units of the meter (length), kilogram (mass), and second (time). Other units are derived from these base units.
- Vectors represent quantities that have both magnitude and direction, while scalars only have magnitude. Problem solving in physics involves identifying relevant equations and checking solutions.

GETTING STARTED IN THERMODYNAMICS: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations between thermal and mechanical forms. A system is defined as the subject of analysis, which has specified boundaries and properties that may change as it undergoes processes or reaches equilibrium states. Thermodynamic properties are either extensive, meaning their values depend on system size, or intensive, with values independent of system size. Temperature, pressure, and specific volume are important intensive properties. The SI system of units is commonly used, with the pascal and kelvin as units of pressure and temperature. A system reaches thermal equilibrium when its intensive properties become uniform throughout.

Chapter 1

Physics is the study of matter, energy, and their interaction. It has two main branches: classical physics which studies mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism, and modern physics which studies atomic and nuclear physics and quantum physics. Measurement is the process of comparing quantities using standard units like the metric system which defines fundamental units like meters, kilograms, and seconds. Conversion between units can be done using conversion factors in a chain-link method.

2. statics.pdf

This document provides an overview of engineering mechanics as taught in the course ME101:
1) Engineering mechanics deals with the motion and equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of forces, and includes statics, dynamics, and rigid body mechanics. 2) Rigid body mechanics assumes bodies do not deform under loading and is a prerequisite for more advanced topics. 3) Statics analyzes equilibrium of bodies under constant forces, while dynamics analyzes accelerated motion of bodies.

dynamics chapt 1 .pptx

Engineering Dynamics (Mechanics II) slide that give you great understanding with short and precise way.

Black Hole Dynamics From Atmospheric Science

In this note, we derive (to third order in derivatives of the ﬂuid velocity) a 2+1
dimensional theory of ﬂuid dynamics that governs the evolution of generic long-
wavelength perturbations of a black brane or large black hole in four-dimensional
gravity with negative cosmological constant, applying a systematic procedure de-
veloped recently by Bhattacharyya, Hubeny, Minwalla, and Rangamani. In the
regime of validity of the ﬂuid-dynamical description, the black-brane evolution
will generically correspond to a turbulent ﬂow. Turbulence in 2+1 dimensions
has been well studied analytically, numerically, experimentally, and observation-
ally as it provides a ﬁrst approximation to the large scale dynamics of planetary
atmospheres. These studies reveal dramatic diﬀerences between ﬂuid ﬂows in
2+1 and 3+1 dimensions, suggesting that the dynamics of perturbed four and
ﬁve dimensional large AdS black holes may be qualitatively diﬀerent. However,
further investigation is required to understand whether these qualitative diﬀer-
ences exist in the regime of ﬂuid dynamics relevant to black hole dynamics.

Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev

Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev

1st_1 (1).pdf

1st_1 (1).pdf

O1 Phy.pdf

O1 Phy.pdf

Thermodynamics, heat transfer, conduction equation

Thermodynamics, heat transfer, conduction equation

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (Lecture notes 08)

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (Lecture notes 08)

Chapter 1- Thermodynamic 1

Chapter 1- Thermodynamic 1

Structural dynamics and earthquake engineering

Structural dynamics and earthquake engineering

Temperature scale

Temperature scale

Theory of Time 2023

Theory of Time 2023

Engineering physics 2

Engineering physics 2

Thermodynamics ppt

Thermodynamics ppt

Physical world and units and measurment

Physical world and units and measurment

ASE 4341 L01.pptx

ASE 4341 L01.pptx

MD_course.ppt

MD_course.ppt

Physics .. An introduction

Physics .. An introduction

GETTING STARTED IN THERMODYNAMICS: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

GETTING STARTED IN THERMODYNAMICS: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

2. statics.pdf

2. statics.pdf

dynamics chapt 1 .pptx

dynamics chapt 1 .pptx

Black Hole Dynamics From Atmospheric Science

Black Hole Dynamics From Atmospheric Science

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

Livro sobre Cromossomos Humanos / Genética

23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx

Under graduate Physics - Optics

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

We will metaverse into the essence of immersive learning, into its three dimensions and conceptual models. This approach encompasses elements from teaching methodologies to social involvement, through organizational concerns and technologies. Challenging the perception of learning as knowledge transfer, we introduce a 'Uses, Practices & Strategies' model operationalized by the 'Immersive Learning Brain' and ‘Immersion Cube’ frameworks. This approach offers a comprehensive guide through the intricacies of immersive educational experiences and spotlighting research frontiers, along the immersion dimensions of system, narrative, and agency. Our discourse extends to stakeholders beyond the academic sphere, addressing the interests of technologists, instructional designers, and policymakers. We span various contexts, from formal education to organizational transformation to the new horizon of an AI-pervasive society. This keynote aims to unite the iLRN community in a collaborative journey towards a future where immersive learning research and practice coalesce, paving the way for innovative educational research and practice landscapes.

Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx

Physiology of Male reproduction.
Video mentioned at page no. 23 as summary for better understanding

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda: Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE .
Austrian-Slovenian HPC Meeting 2024 – ASHPC24, Seeblickhotel Grundlsee in Austria, 10–13 June 2024
https://ashpc.eu/

Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...

We present the JWST discovery of SN 2023adsy, a transient object located in a host galaxy JADES-GS
+
53.13485
−
27.82088
with a host spectroscopic redshift of
2.903
±
0.007
. The transient was identified in deep James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)/NIRCam imaging from the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES) program. Photometric and spectroscopic followup with NIRCam and NIRSpec, respectively, confirm the redshift and yield UV-NIR light-curve, NIR color, and spectroscopic information all consistent with a Type Ia classification. Despite its classification as a likely SN Ia, SN 2023adsy is both fairly red (
�
(
�
−
�
)
∼
0.9
) despite a host galaxy with low-extinction and has a high Ca II velocity (
19
,
000
±
2
,
000
km/s) compared to the general population of SNe Ia. While these characteristics are consistent with some Ca-rich SNe Ia, particularly SN 2016hnk, SN 2023adsy is intrinsically brighter than the low-
�
Ca-rich population. Although such an object is too red for any low-
�
cosmological sample, we apply a fiducial standardization approach to SN 2023adsy and find that the SN 2023adsy luminosity distance measurement is in excellent agreement (
≲
1
�
) with
Λ
CDM. Therefore unlike low-
�
Ca-rich SNe Ia, SN 2023adsy is standardizable and gives no indication that SN Ia standardized luminosities change significantly with redshift. A larger sample of distant SNe Ia is required to determine if SN Ia population characteristics at high-
�
truly diverge from their low-
�
counterparts, and to confirm that standardized luminosities nevertheless remain constant with redshift.

Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx

ntroduction_Ch_01_Biotech

Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

Context. The observation of several L-band emission sources in the S cluster has led to a rich discussion of their nature. However, a definitive answer to the classification of the dusty objects requires an explanation for the detection of compact Doppler-shifted Brγ emission. The ionized hydrogen in combination with the observation of mid-infrared L-band continuum emission suggests that most of these sources are embedded in a dusty envelope. These embedded sources are part of the S-cluster, and their relationship to the S-stars is still under debate. To date, the question of the origin of these two populations has been vague, although all explanations favor migration processes for the individual cluster members. Aims. This work revisits the S-cluster and its dusty members orbiting the supermassive black hole SgrA* on bound Keplerian orbits from a kinematic perspective. The aim is to explore the Keplerian parameters for patterns that might imply a nonrandom distribution of the sample. Additionally, various analytical aspects are considered to address the nature of the dusty sources. Methods. Based on the photometric analysis, we estimated the individual H−K and K−L colors for the source sample and compared the results to known cluster members. The classification revealed a noticeable contrast between the S-stars and the dusty sources. To fit the flux-density distribution, we utilized the radiative transfer code HYPERION and implemented a young stellar object Class I model. We obtained the position angle from the Keplerian fit results; additionally, we analyzed the distribution of the inclinations and the longitudes of the ascending node. Results. The colors of the dusty sources suggest a stellar nature consistent with the spectral energy distribution in the near and midinfrared domains. Furthermore, the evaporation timescales of dusty and gaseous clumps in the vicinity of SgrA* are much shorter ( 2yr) than the epochs covered by the observations (≈15yr). In addition to the strong evidence for the stellar classification of the D-sources, we also find a clear disk-like pattern following the arrangements of S-stars proposed in the literature. Furthermore, we find a global intrinsic inclination for all dusty sources of 60 ± 20◦, implying a common formation process. Conclusions. The pattern of the dusty sources manifested in the distribution of the position angles, inclinations, and longitudes of the ascending node strongly suggests two different scenarios: the main-sequence stars and the dusty stellar S-cluster sources share a common formation history or migrated with a similar formation channel in the vicinity of SgrA*. Alternatively, the gravitational influence of SgrA* in combination with a massive perturber, such as a putative intermediate mass black hole in the IRS 13 cluster, forces the dusty objects and S-stars to follow a particular orbital arrangement. Key words. stars: black holes– stars: formation– Galaxy: center– galaxies: star formation

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

This is a short talk that I gave at the Banff International Research Station workshop on Modeling and Theory in Population Biology. The idea is to try to understand how the burden of natural selection relates to the amount of information that selection puts into the genome.
It's based on the first part of this research paper:
The cost of information acquisition by natural selection
Ryan Seamus McGee, Olivia Kosterlitz, Artem Kaznatcheev, Benjamin Kerr, Carl T. Bergstrom
bioRxiv 2022.07.02.498577; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.02.498577

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

Context. The early-type galaxy SDSS J133519.91+072807.4 (hereafter SDSS1335+0728), which had exhibited no prior optical variations during the preceding two decades, began showing significant nuclear variability in the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) alert stream from December 2019 (as ZTF19acnskyy). This variability behaviour, coupled with the host-galaxy properties, suggests that SDSS1335+0728 hosts a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole (BH) that is currently in the process of ‘turning on’. Aims. We present a multi-wavelength photometric analysis and spectroscopic follow-up performed with the aim of better understanding the origin of the nuclear variations detected in SDSS1335+0728. Methods. We used archival photometry (from WISE, 2MASS, SDSS, GALEX, eROSITA) and spectroscopic data (from SDSS and LAMOST) to study the state of SDSS1335+0728 prior to December 2019, and new observations from Swift, SOAR/Goodman, VLT/X-shooter, and Keck/LRIS taken after its turn-on to characterise its current state. We analysed the variability of SDSS1335+0728 in the X-ray/UV/optical/mid-infrared range, modelled its spectral energy distribution prior to and after December 2019, and studied the evolution of its UV/optical spectra. Results. From our multi-wavelength photometric analysis, we find that: (a) since 2021, the UV flux (from Swift/UVOT observations) is four times brighter than the flux reported by GALEX in 2004; (b) since June 2022, the mid-infrared flux has risen more than two times, and the W1−W2 WISE colour has become redder; and (c) since February 2024, the source has begun showing X-ray emission. From our spectroscopic follow-up, we see that (i) the narrow emission line ratios are now consistent with a more energetic ionising continuum; (ii) broad emission lines are not detected; and (iii) the [OIII] line increased its flux ∼ 3.6 years after the first ZTF alert, which implies a relatively compact narrow-line-emitting region. Conclusions. We conclude that the variations observed in SDSS1335+0728 could be either explained by a ∼ 106M⊙ AGN that is just turning on or by an exotic tidal disruption event (TDE). If the former is true, SDSS1335+0728 is one of the strongest cases of an AGNobserved in the process of activating. If the latter were found to be the case, it would correspond to the longest and faintest TDE ever observed (or another class of still unknown nuclear transient). Future observations of SDSS1335+0728 are crucial to further understand its behaviour. Key words. galaxies: active– accretion, accretion discs– galaxies: individual: SDSS J133519.91+072807.4

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Classification
Metal ion ion indicators
Masking and demasking reagents
Estimation of Magnisium sulphate
Calcium gluconate
Complexometric Titration/ chelatometry titration/chelating titration, introduction, Types-
1.Direct Titration
2.Back Titration
3.Replacement Titration
4.Indirect Titration
Masking agent, Demasking agents
formation of complex
comparition between masking and demasking agents,
Indicators/Metal ion indicators/ Metallochromic indicators/pM indicators,
Visual Technique,PM indicators (metallochromic), Indicators of pH, Redox Indicators
Instrumental Techniques-Photometry
Potentiometry
Miscellaneous methods.
Complex titration with EDTA.

Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx

physiology of nervous system

GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins

Chemistry of Proteins

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project PDF File

CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)

Description:
Dive into the fascinating realm of solid-state physics with our meticulously crafted online PowerPoint presentation. This immersive educational resource offers a comprehensive exploration of the fundamental concepts, theories, and applications within the realm of solid-state physics.
From crystalline structures to semiconductor devices, this presentation delves into the intricate principles governing the behavior of solids, providing clear explanations and illustrative examples to enhance understanding. Whether you're a student delving into the subject for the first time or a seasoned researcher seeking to deepen your knowledge, our presentation offers valuable insights and in-depth analyses to cater to various levels of expertise.
Key topics covered include:
Crystal Structures: Unravel the mysteries of crystalline arrangements and their significance in determining material properties.
Band Theory: Explore the electronic band structure of solids and understand how it influences their conductive properties.
Semiconductor Physics: Delve into the behavior of semiconductors, including doping, carrier transport, and device applications.
Magnetic Properties: Investigate the magnetic behavior of solids, including ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, and ferrimagnetism.
Optical Properties: Examine the interaction of light with solids, including absorption, reflection, and transmission phenomena.
With visually engaging slides, informative content, and interactive elements, our online PowerPoint presentation serves as a valuable resource for students, educators, and enthusiasts alike, facilitating a deeper understanding of the captivating world of solid-state physics. Explore the intricacies of solid-state materials and unlock the secrets behind their remarkable properties with our comprehensive presentation.

gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx

PPT of gastro retentive drug delivery system

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...Advanced-Concepts-Team

Presentation in the Science Coffee of the Advanced Concepts Team of the European Space Agency on the 07.06.2024.
Speaker: Diego Blas (IFAE/ICREA)
Title: Gravitational wave detection with orbital motion of Moon and artificial
Abstract:
In this talk I will describe some recent ideas to find gravitational waves from supermassive black holes or of primordial origin by studying their secular effect on the orbital motion of the Moon or satellites that are laser ranged.Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture

Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureInternational Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office

PPT on Alternate Wetting and Drying presented at the three-day 'Training and Validation Workshop on Modules of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technologies in South Asia' workshop on April 22, 2024. fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx

This ppt contains the production of a fermented food name - sauerkraut

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

The shorelines of Titan’s hydrocarbon seas trace flooded erosional landforms such as river valleys; however, it isunclear whether coastal erosion has subsequently altered these shorelines. Spacecraft observations and theo-retical models suggest that wind may cause waves to form on Titan’s seas, potentially driving coastal erosion,but the observational evidence of waves is indirect, and the processes affecting shoreline evolution on Titanremain unknown. No widely accepted framework exists for using shoreline morphology to quantitatively dis-cern coastal erosion mechanisms, even on Earth, where the dominant mechanisms are known. We combinelandscape evolution models with measurements of shoreline shape on Earth to characterize how differentcoastal erosion mechanisms affect shoreline morphology. Applying this framework to Titan, we find that theshorelines of Titan’s seas are most consistent with flooded landscapes that subsequently have been eroded bywaves, rather than a uniform erosional process or no coastal erosion, particularly if wave growth saturates atfetch lengths of tens of kilometers.

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx

23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx

Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...

Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...

Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx

Introduction_Ch_01_Biotech Biotechnology course .pptx

Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration

Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx

Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx

GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins

GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)

CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)

gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx

gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture

Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture

fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx

fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

- 3. Basic Quantities Charge - Electro-magnetic Matter - Mass Time Space - Length
- 4. Combinations of Basics Velocity = Density = Force = Length Time Mass Length 2 Mass Length Time 3 Momentum = Time Mass Length Derived Quantities Dimensionality Energy = Time Mass Length 2 2
- 5. Laws of Physics Observations of the Relations between Derived Quantities
- 7. Used in Aerodynamics Velocity = Density = Force = Length Time Mass Length 2 Mass Length Time 3 Momentum = Time Mass Length Derived Quantities Dimensionality Energy = Time Mass Length 2 2 Pressure = 2 Mass Length Force Area = Time Mass Flow = Mass Time Torque = 2 Mass Length Time 2
- 8. Temperature – Basic or Derived ? Density -> mass and volume Pressure -> momentum (mass x velocity) Temperature -> kinetic energy (mass x velocity ) 2
- 9. Conservation Laws Observations of the Relations between Derived Quantities For any fluid system: 1) Mass is neither created nor destroyed. Conservation of Mass - Continuity 2) Momentum is neither created nor destroyed. Conservation of Momentum (3 directions) 3) Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Conservation of Energy mass mass mass x velocity mass x velocity mass x velocity mass x velocity 2 2
- 15. The “Static” Atmosphere 1976 Standard Day Model Determine Pressure, Temperature and Density
- 21. Forces on an Aircraft Air Air Aircraft Aircraft Air Moves Past the Aircraft Aircraft Moves Through the Air Measured Forces Have The Same Value Equivalent