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© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Bridging the Cognitive Divide
with Accessibility Standards
May 18, 2017
Mary Jo Mueller, Susann Keohane
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Mary Jo Mueller
IBM Accessibility Standards Program Manager
maryjom@us.ibm.com
@1mjmueller
Susann Keohane
IBM Global Research Leader for Aging Initiative
skeohane@us.ibm.com
@skeohane1
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Content
• Overview Web Accessibility
• Cognitive disabilities & statistics
• COGA task force, research, roadmap and other activities
• Success Criteria in WCAG 2.1 first draft
• Addressing success criteria requirements
• Best practices for designing for COGA
Knowledge of
accessibility
• Understand cognitive
issues
• See proposals for
cognitive web
accessibility standards
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Global Web Accessibility Standards
4
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
WCAG 2.0 finalized December 2008
WCAG 2.1- in development
• First Public Working Draft published Feb 2017
• Timeline
• Working Draft: May 16, 2017
• Working Draft: June 20, 2017
• Recommendation June 2018
• Task Forces developed proposals for:
• Users with cognitive or learning disabilities
• Users with low vision
• Small- and touch-screen mobile devices
5
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Web Accessibility Initiative -
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA)
WAI-ARIA 1.0 finalized March 2014
WAI-ARIA 1.1- nearing finalization
• Candidate Recommendation published Oct. 2016
• Timeline – Recommendation status imminent
WAI-ARIA 2.0 – in development
• COGA Task Force developing proposal:
• WAI-ARIA Extensions for personalization
6
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Importance of Web accessibility standards
• More consistent understanding
• Researched guidance
• Implemented in infrastructure
• Worldwide policies and regulations
7
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Cognitive disabilities
Conditions that impact a person’s ability to use a website including:
• memory
• reading text
• problem solving
• keeping focused (attention span)
• computation (for example calculations)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Worldwide statistics on cognitive disabilities
10%
of the worldwide
population*
6.3-10%
of school aged children
*From 2013 review by University College London
Photocredit:
Flickr/PaulFisher
9 SK
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Aging population 65+ years old
• 2030: 19% of US population
• 2050:
• 33% in Japan, Germany, Italy, Spain
• 110 Million with dementia worldwide
• Common to have mild cognitive
impairment
• Many suffer anxiety or depression
Photocredit:
Flickr/PatrickDoheny
10
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Day-to-day impact
Meanwhile…
Many systems have
become increasingly
complex.
Photocredit:
Flickr/Paul
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Television
Photocredit:
Flickr/MarcinWichary
Photocredit:
Flickr/ScottAkerman
Photocredit:
Flickr/CliveDarra
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Telephone
Photocredit:
Flickr/ajmexico
Photocredit:
Flickr/SteveSnodgrass
Photocredit:
Flickr/EduardoWoo
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Climate control
Photocredit:
Flickr/AlanLevine
Photocredit:
Flickr/JohnLoo
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Smart home thermostat
15
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Email
Photocredit:
Flickr/Tiitrius
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Voice Interaction
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
The Cognitive and Learning Disabilities
Accessibility Task Force (COGA)
Accessible
Platform
Architectures WG
Accessibility
Guidelines WG
COGA Task Force
Goal: To improve Web
accessibility and usability for
people with cognitive and
learning disabilities.
Challenges:
• Many types of disabilities
• Research behind pay walls
• Attitudes / Undeclared
MJ
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Cognitive Accessibility Task Force (COGA) Roadmap
Research User
research
Issue papers
Gap analysis
User needs
WCAG 2.1 Techniques Draft criteria
Refine and
finalize
Full
technology
support
ARIA
semantics
Metadata
Browser &
AT support
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
User research (Phase 1)
• Dyslexia
• Dyscalculia
• ADD/ADHD
• Non-verbal (brain injury, aphasia)
• Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
• Dementia
• Intellectual disability (down syndrome)
• Autism
See https://w3c.github.io/wcag/coga/user-research.html
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Issue papers – Security example
Issues:
• Prevents people from using the system at all
• Too many steps to authenticate
• User can’t remember passwords
Potential solutions:
• Biometrics
• Key tokens delivered through USB
• Near Field Communication (NFC) readers
• New specifications with handshaking
See https://w3c.github.io/coga/issue-papers/
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Techniques example
Examples of techniques that seem to
help all our user groups include
recommending that the author divide
content into manageable chunks.
This includes having one subject per
screen as well as one idea per
paragraph and employing the use of
short sentences. A large font can also
be helpful.
Examples of techniques that
help all our user groups
Divide content into manageable
chunks
• One subject per screen
• One idea per paragraph
• Use short sentences
See https://rawgit.com/w3c/coga/master/techniques/index.html
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Develop Success Criteria Proposals for WCAG 2.1
Example: Guideline 3.1- Make text content readable and understandable
Current (at Level A and AA)
3.1.1 Language of Page: The default
human language of each page ..(Level A)
3.1.2 Language of Parts: The human
language of each passage or phrase in
the content can be programmatically
determined except ..(Level AA)
Avoid jargon, readability level AAA
Add:
• Use a clear structure
• Use a clear writing style
• Use visually clear objects
• Plain and simple words
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
A new WCAG success criteria…
• Addresses situations where PwD are at a much greater
disadvantage
• Describes conditions to meet the criteria, but not the method
• Is testable
• Is applicable across technologies
• Has methods/tools to implement it
…and more!
See https://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/WCAG_2.1_Success_Criteria
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
COGA success criteria proposals in WCAG 2.1 FPWD
• 1.3.4 Support Personalization (Minimum)
• 2.2.6 Timeouts
• 2.2.8 Interruptions (Minimum)
• 3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum)
• 3.1.8 Manageable Blocks
• 3.1.9 Extra Symbols
• 3.2.7 Familiar Design (Minimum)
• 3.3.7 Minimize User Errors
• 3.3.8 Undo
• 3.3.9 Provide Support
Many more to
consider for next
draft
(total 37)
See https://www.w3.org/TR/2017/WD-WCAG21-20170228/
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
26
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
1.3.4 Support Personalization (minimum) (Level A) -
Proposed
A version of the content is available such that one
of the following is true:
• It serves the same purpose as the content; important
information comes before other information; there are a
maximum of 5 controls per screen; and controls have icons
and visible text labels.
• Contextual Information that can be conveyed through author
settable properties or meta-data is available for essential
functionality and content. Critical features can be programmatic
determined.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
2.2.6 Timeouts (Level A) - Proposed
Where data can be lost due to timeouts, users are
warned at the start of a process about the length
of inactivity that generates the timeout, unless the
data is preserved for a minimum of a 24 hours of
user inactivity.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
2.2.6 Interruptions (minimum) (Level A) - Proposed
There is an easily available
mechanism to postpone and
suppress interruptions and
changes in content unless they
are initiated by the user or
involve an emergency.
Consensus
reached
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum) (Level A) - Proposed
For error messages that require a response to continue,
instructions, labels and navigational elements all of the
following are true:
Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive
statement.
Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary; or
the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word,
phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the
concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context.
Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be automatically
replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be retained when
non-literal text is replaced.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.1.8 Manageable blocks (Level AA) - Proposed
Statements which instruct a user to make a choice or take an
action:
• have only one instruction per sentence, except when two things
have to be done simultaneously;
• use sentences of no more than 15 words;
• should have no more than one relative pronoun per sentence.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.1.9 Extra Symbols (Level AA) - Proposed
A mechanism is available such that controls that are used to
reach, or are part of, a critical service, and each instruction that
contains important information that directly relates to a critical
service, is preceded by a symbol or picture, which relates to the
topic of the control or instruction.
MJ
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.2.7 Familiar Design (Minimum) (Level A) - Proposed
Help, navigation to help and search forms are easily
identifiable and available to the user in one or more of the
following ways:
Platform specific: A platform specific user interface design.
Adaptive interface: An adaptive user interface design that can be
personalized.
User interface from a prior version: A user interface design that
was used successfully by users in a prior version of the application.
Exception: The style is an essential part of the main function of the
site, such as for a game.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.3.7 Minimize user errors (Level A) - Proposed
Where it is possible to provide pre-defined choices, the
user can select from a list of valid input values. Where
users must manually enter numerical inputs, alternative
separator characters are accepted.
Exceptions:
• Where pre-defined choices for a piece of data have more than thirty-
one valid values, it is not necessary to provide pre-defined choices.
For example, a piece of data with more then 31 choices could be a
year in a date field.
• Where pre-defined choices interfere with the main purpose of the
content.
• Where alternative separator characters could alter the numeric value,
such as substituting commas with periods.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.3.8 Undo (Level A) - Proposed
Users are provided with the ability to undo an action and
to correct mistakes such that:
• a user can go back steps in a process via a clearly labeled
action; or
• the user can repair information via a clearly labeled action and
get back to the place they were at, via a clearly labeled action,
without unwanted loss of data.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
3.3.9 Provide Support (Level AA) - Proposed
Content is provided that helps users understand long
documents, numerical information, relative and cardinal
directions, multi-page forms and non-standard controls.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Parts of a Success Criterion
• Short name
• Priority level (Level A, AA, or AAA)
• Success criterion text
• Glossary definitions
• Intent of the criteria
• User benefits
• Techniques and failures
• How to test conformance
SK
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Example: 3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum)
3.1.7 Plain language (minimum): For error messages that require a
response to continue, instructions, labels and navigational
elements all of the following are true: (Level A)
• Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive
statement.
• Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary;
or the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word,
phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the
concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context.
• Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be
automatically replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be
retained when non-literal text is replaced.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Success Criterion short name and priority level
3.1.7 Plain language (minimum)
Recommended priority is (Level A) – high impact to
user, widely implementable
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Success Criterion text - Scope
For error messages that require a response to
continue, instructions, labels and navigational elements
all of the following are true:
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Success criterion text – Specific, testable requirements
• Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive
statement.
• Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary;
or the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word,
phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the
concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context.
• Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be
automatically replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be
retained when non-literal text is replaced.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Success Criterion text - Exceptions
Except: Content is exempt if the writing style is an essential part of
the main function of the site, such as a game, a literary work, or
teaching new terms.
MJ
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Definitions
Identified context - context and a context specific word
frequency list (and glossary) has been identified in an
accessibility statement or other known technique. A word
frequency list has to be generated from at least 1000 sources
from the same context or how ever many pages can
reasonably be found.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Techniques
Techniques would include:
• Using a title tag to provide a simple language equivalent
• Using the coga-easylang attribute (preferred)
• Providing extra text via personalization semantics
• Using simple words
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Tools
Technology support includes:
• Word frequency generator for a given context, (reads the URI's list and
generates a word frequency list),
• Existing word frequency lists, checker to test that words are in the most
• IBM cognitive content clarifier tool
And add an exception
• If there are no tools available in the language of the content that identify
uncommon words, instructions that are longer then 400 words are exempt
unless they directly relate to a critical service
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Integration
Different
standards
E.g. Voice,
Security
API
support
External
services
Meta
data
Coga-
WCAG
User
Experience
Issue
support
Portable
preferences
In-page
semantics
Personal
preference
(JSON)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Cognitive Disability Pose a Unique Design Challenge
• Unable to group and generalize the wide spectrum of Cognitive
Disabilities
• Specifically, Aging is different, gradual and personal
• Abilities are different
• Techniques of adaptation are unique
• Typical guides and heuristics for UX and accessibility may not
cover all Cognitive Disabilities
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Currently, WCAG Isn’t Enough
• Decent foundation, but does not define usability and experience
• Still very weak on cognitive
• Does not talk about alleviating fears or bridging gaps
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
General Tips
• Understand People with Cognitive Disabilities first-hand
• Different context and view of the world
• Ethnography, Interviews, Focus Groups
• Understand and Build on WCAG
• Follow design heuristics
• Use design thinking – iterative, user-centered design
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Designing for Cognitive disabilities considerations
• If not impacted earlier, Cognitive decline begins generally
sometime in the mid to late 40's
• Reduced attention span
• Reduced short term memory - lose context / focus
• Less generalization - skill transfer between situations –
association
• Difficult words take longer to recall
• Difficult to multitask
• More easily overwhelmed - cognitive load
• More linear approach
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Designing for Cognitive
• Very simple architecture (2 child branches max for iOS)
• Simple menu structure
• Reduce visual noise and distractions
• Make things quick – consider context of limited connection
and slow responses
• Use descriptive labels for confusing icons
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Designing for Cognitive (cont.)
• Flow should be one task at a time
• iOS Human Interface guidelines promote this structure
• Progressive Disclosure
• Use minimum amount of features to accomplish a specific goal
• Use positive reinforcement - promote technical independence
• Provide a linear path with visited links
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Personalized delivery of Web content
53
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Enable Personalization through ARIA semantics & metadata
Some of the reasons personalization is essential for full usability include:
• Different user needs can conflict
• Learning new designs could be confusing for some users, and they should
be able to continue using the design patterns familiar to them
• Making content predictable is necessary for some users, but may be
considered boring by the design community
• Enables changing the degree of complexity as the user’s skills improve or
decrease over time or context
• Necessary for providing alternative content tailored for the user group’s
needs, such as a simplified version of the text
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
“Personalization is the automatic
tailoring of sites and messages to
the individuals viewing them, so
that we can feel that somewhere
there's a piece of software that
loves us for who we are.”
David Weinberger
Senior researcher at the Berkman Klein Center
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Questions?
Due to questions we received:
Link to the WCAG 2.1 First Public Working Draft sent out for review: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/
How to comment, either:
• file an issue in the W3C WCAG 2.1 GitHub repository - https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/new or
• send an email to public-agwg-comments@w3.org
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2017
Special thanks to Lisa Seeman and the COGA Task Force
members for their help with the content in this presentation.

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AccessU 2017: Bridging the Cognitive Divide with Accessibility Standards

  • 1. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Bridging the Cognitive Divide with Accessibility Standards May 18, 2017 Mary Jo Mueller, Susann Keohane
  • 2. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Mary Jo Mueller IBM Accessibility Standards Program Manager maryjom@us.ibm.com @1mjmueller Susann Keohane IBM Global Research Leader for Aging Initiative skeohane@us.ibm.com @skeohane1
  • 3. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Content • Overview Web Accessibility • Cognitive disabilities & statistics • COGA task force, research, roadmap and other activities • Success Criteria in WCAG 2.1 first draft • Addressing success criteria requirements • Best practices for designing for COGA Knowledge of accessibility • Understand cognitive issues • See proposals for cognitive web accessibility standards
  • 4. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Global Web Accessibility Standards 4
  • 5. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) WCAG 2.0 finalized December 2008 WCAG 2.1- in development • First Public Working Draft published Feb 2017 • Timeline • Working Draft: May 16, 2017 • Working Draft: June 20, 2017 • Recommendation June 2018 • Task Forces developed proposals for: • Users with cognitive or learning disabilities • Users with low vision • Small- and touch-screen mobile devices 5
  • 6. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Web Accessibility Initiative - Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) WAI-ARIA 1.0 finalized March 2014 WAI-ARIA 1.1- nearing finalization • Candidate Recommendation published Oct. 2016 • Timeline – Recommendation status imminent WAI-ARIA 2.0 – in development • COGA Task Force developing proposal: • WAI-ARIA Extensions for personalization 6
  • 7. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Importance of Web accessibility standards • More consistent understanding • Researched guidance • Implemented in infrastructure • Worldwide policies and regulations 7
  • 8. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Cognitive disabilities Conditions that impact a person’s ability to use a website including: • memory • reading text • problem solving • keeping focused (attention span) • computation (for example calculations)
  • 9. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Worldwide statistics on cognitive disabilities 10% of the worldwide population* 6.3-10% of school aged children *From 2013 review by University College London Photocredit: Flickr/PaulFisher 9 SK
  • 10. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Aging population 65+ years old • 2030: 19% of US population • 2050: • 33% in Japan, Germany, Italy, Spain • 110 Million with dementia worldwide • Common to have mild cognitive impairment • Many suffer anxiety or depression Photocredit: Flickr/PatrickDoheny 10
  • 11. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Day-to-day impact Meanwhile… Many systems have become increasingly complex. Photocredit: Flickr/Paul
  • 12. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Television Photocredit: Flickr/MarcinWichary Photocredit: Flickr/ScottAkerman Photocredit: Flickr/CliveDarra
  • 13. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Telephone Photocredit: Flickr/ajmexico Photocredit: Flickr/SteveSnodgrass Photocredit: Flickr/EduardoWoo
  • 14. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Climate control Photocredit: Flickr/AlanLevine Photocredit: Flickr/JohnLoo
  • 15. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Smart home thermostat 15
  • 16. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Email Photocredit: Flickr/Tiitrius
  • 17. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Voice Interaction
  • 18. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 The Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force (COGA) Accessible Platform Architectures WG Accessibility Guidelines WG COGA Task Force Goal: To improve Web accessibility and usability for people with cognitive and learning disabilities. Challenges: • Many types of disabilities • Research behind pay walls • Attitudes / Undeclared MJ
  • 19. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Cognitive Accessibility Task Force (COGA) Roadmap Research User research Issue papers Gap analysis User needs WCAG 2.1 Techniques Draft criteria Refine and finalize Full technology support ARIA semantics Metadata Browser & AT support
  • 20. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 User research (Phase 1) • Dyslexia • Dyscalculia • ADD/ADHD • Non-verbal (brain injury, aphasia) • Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) • Dementia • Intellectual disability (down syndrome) • Autism See https://w3c.github.io/wcag/coga/user-research.html
  • 21. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Issue papers – Security example Issues: • Prevents people from using the system at all • Too many steps to authenticate • User can’t remember passwords Potential solutions: • Biometrics • Key tokens delivered through USB • Near Field Communication (NFC) readers • New specifications with handshaking See https://w3c.github.io/coga/issue-papers/
  • 22. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Techniques example Examples of techniques that seem to help all our user groups include recommending that the author divide content into manageable chunks. This includes having one subject per screen as well as one idea per paragraph and employing the use of short sentences. A large font can also be helpful. Examples of techniques that help all our user groups Divide content into manageable chunks • One subject per screen • One idea per paragraph • Use short sentences See https://rawgit.com/w3c/coga/master/techniques/index.html
  • 23. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Develop Success Criteria Proposals for WCAG 2.1 Example: Guideline 3.1- Make text content readable and understandable Current (at Level A and AA) 3.1.1 Language of Page: The default human language of each page ..(Level A) 3.1.2 Language of Parts: The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except ..(Level AA) Avoid jargon, readability level AAA Add: • Use a clear structure • Use a clear writing style • Use visually clear objects • Plain and simple words
  • 24. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 A new WCAG success criteria… • Addresses situations where PwD are at a much greater disadvantage • Describes conditions to meet the criteria, but not the method • Is testable • Is applicable across technologies • Has methods/tools to implement it …and more! See https://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/WCAG_2.1_Success_Criteria
  • 25. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 COGA success criteria proposals in WCAG 2.1 FPWD • 1.3.4 Support Personalization (Minimum) • 2.2.6 Timeouts • 2.2.8 Interruptions (Minimum) • 3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum) • 3.1.8 Manageable Blocks • 3.1.9 Extra Symbols • 3.2.7 Familiar Design (Minimum) • 3.3.7 Minimize User Errors • 3.3.8 Undo • 3.3.9 Provide Support Many more to consider for next draft (total 37) See https://www.w3.org/TR/2017/WD-WCAG21-20170228/
  • 26. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 26
  • 27. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 1.3.4 Support Personalization (minimum) (Level A) - Proposed A version of the content is available such that one of the following is true: • It serves the same purpose as the content; important information comes before other information; there are a maximum of 5 controls per screen; and controls have icons and visible text labels. • Contextual Information that can be conveyed through author settable properties or meta-data is available for essential functionality and content. Critical features can be programmatic determined.
  • 28. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 2.2.6 Timeouts (Level A) - Proposed Where data can be lost due to timeouts, users are warned at the start of a process about the length of inactivity that generates the timeout, unless the data is preserved for a minimum of a 24 hours of user inactivity.
  • 29. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 2.2.6 Interruptions (minimum) (Level A) - Proposed There is an easily available mechanism to postpone and suppress interruptions and changes in content unless they are initiated by the user or involve an emergency. Consensus reached
  • 30. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum) (Level A) - Proposed For error messages that require a response to continue, instructions, labels and navigational elements all of the following are true: Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive statement. Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary; or the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word, phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context. Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be automatically replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be retained when non-literal text is replaced.
  • 31. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.1.8 Manageable blocks (Level AA) - Proposed Statements which instruct a user to make a choice or take an action: • have only one instruction per sentence, except when two things have to be done simultaneously; • use sentences of no more than 15 words; • should have no more than one relative pronoun per sentence.
  • 32. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.1.9 Extra Symbols (Level AA) - Proposed A mechanism is available such that controls that are used to reach, or are part of, a critical service, and each instruction that contains important information that directly relates to a critical service, is preceded by a symbol or picture, which relates to the topic of the control or instruction. MJ
  • 33. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.2.7 Familiar Design (Minimum) (Level A) - Proposed Help, navigation to help and search forms are easily identifiable and available to the user in one or more of the following ways: Platform specific: A platform specific user interface design. Adaptive interface: An adaptive user interface design that can be personalized. User interface from a prior version: A user interface design that was used successfully by users in a prior version of the application. Exception: The style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as for a game.
  • 34. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.3.7 Minimize user errors (Level A) - Proposed Where it is possible to provide pre-defined choices, the user can select from a list of valid input values. Where users must manually enter numerical inputs, alternative separator characters are accepted. Exceptions: • Where pre-defined choices for a piece of data have more than thirty- one valid values, it is not necessary to provide pre-defined choices. For example, a piece of data with more then 31 choices could be a year in a date field. • Where pre-defined choices interfere with the main purpose of the content. • Where alternative separator characters could alter the numeric value, such as substituting commas with periods.
  • 35. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.3.8 Undo (Level A) - Proposed Users are provided with the ability to undo an action and to correct mistakes such that: • a user can go back steps in a process via a clearly labeled action; or • the user can repair information via a clearly labeled action and get back to the place they were at, via a clearly labeled action, without unwanted loss of data.
  • 36. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 3.3.9 Provide Support (Level AA) - Proposed Content is provided that helps users understand long documents, numerical information, relative and cardinal directions, multi-page forms and non-standard controls.
  • 37. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Parts of a Success Criterion • Short name • Priority level (Level A, AA, or AAA) • Success criterion text • Glossary definitions • Intent of the criteria • User benefits • Techniques and failures • How to test conformance SK
  • 38. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Example: 3.1.7 Plain language (Minimum) 3.1.7 Plain language (minimum): For error messages that require a response to continue, instructions, labels and navigational elements all of the following are true: (Level A) • Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive statement. • Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary; or the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word, phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context. • Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be automatically replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be retained when non-literal text is replaced.
  • 39. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Success Criterion short name and priority level 3.1.7 Plain language (minimum) Recommended priority is (Level A) – high impact to user, widely implementable
  • 40. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Success Criterion text - Scope For error messages that require a response to continue, instructions, labels and navigational elements all of the following are true:
  • 41. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Success criterion text – Specific, testable requirements • Double negatives: Double negatives are not used to express a positive statement. • Common words: Provide words or phrases from a public core vocabulary; or the most common 1500 words or phrases (including word roots); or word, phrases or abbreviations that are the most-common form to refer to the concept in a public word frequency list for the identified context. • Concrete language: Non-literal language is not used, or can be automatically replaced, via an easy-to-set user setting. All meaning must be retained when non-literal text is replaced.
  • 42. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Success Criterion text - Exceptions Except: Content is exempt if the writing style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as a game, a literary work, or teaching new terms. MJ
  • 43. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Definitions Identified context - context and a context specific word frequency list (and glossary) has been identified in an accessibility statement or other known technique. A word frequency list has to be generated from at least 1000 sources from the same context or how ever many pages can reasonably be found.
  • 44. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Techniques Techniques would include: • Using a title tag to provide a simple language equivalent • Using the coga-easylang attribute (preferred) • Providing extra text via personalization semantics • Using simple words
  • 45. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Tools Technology support includes: • Word frequency generator for a given context, (reads the URI's list and generates a word frequency list), • Existing word frequency lists, checker to test that words are in the most • IBM cognitive content clarifier tool And add an exception • If there are no tools available in the language of the content that identify uncommon words, instructions that are longer then 400 words are exempt unless they directly relate to a critical service
  • 46. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Integration Different standards E.g. Voice, Security API support External services Meta data Coga- WCAG User Experience Issue support Portable preferences In-page semantics Personal preference (JSON)
  • 47. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Cognitive Disability Pose a Unique Design Challenge • Unable to group and generalize the wide spectrum of Cognitive Disabilities • Specifically, Aging is different, gradual and personal • Abilities are different • Techniques of adaptation are unique • Typical guides and heuristics for UX and accessibility may not cover all Cognitive Disabilities
  • 48. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Currently, WCAG Isn’t Enough • Decent foundation, but does not define usability and experience • Still very weak on cognitive • Does not talk about alleviating fears or bridging gaps
  • 49. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 General Tips • Understand People with Cognitive Disabilities first-hand • Different context and view of the world • Ethnography, Interviews, Focus Groups • Understand and Build on WCAG • Follow design heuristics • Use design thinking – iterative, user-centered design
  • 50. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Designing for Cognitive disabilities considerations • If not impacted earlier, Cognitive decline begins generally sometime in the mid to late 40's • Reduced attention span • Reduced short term memory - lose context / focus • Less generalization - skill transfer between situations – association • Difficult words take longer to recall • Difficult to multitask • More easily overwhelmed - cognitive load • More linear approach
  • 51. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Designing for Cognitive • Very simple architecture (2 child branches max for iOS) • Simple menu structure • Reduce visual noise and distractions • Make things quick – consider context of limited connection and slow responses • Use descriptive labels for confusing icons
  • 52. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Designing for Cognitive (cont.) • Flow should be one task at a time • iOS Human Interface guidelines promote this structure • Progressive Disclosure • Use minimum amount of features to accomplish a specific goal • Use positive reinforcement - promote technical independence • Provide a linear path with visited links
  • 53. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Personalized delivery of Web content 53
  • 54. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Enable Personalization through ARIA semantics & metadata Some of the reasons personalization is essential for full usability include: • Different user needs can conflict • Learning new designs could be confusing for some users, and they should be able to continue using the design patterns familiar to them • Making content predictable is necessary for some users, but may be considered boring by the design community • Enables changing the degree of complexity as the user’s skills improve or decrease over time or context • Necessary for providing alternative content tailored for the user group’s needs, such as a simplified version of the text
  • 55. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 “Personalization is the automatic tailoring of sites and messages to the individuals viewing them, so that we can feel that somewhere there's a piece of software that loves us for who we are.” David Weinberger Senior researcher at the Berkman Klein Center
  • 56. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Questions? Due to questions we received: Link to the WCAG 2.1 First Public Working Draft sent out for review: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/ How to comment, either: • file an issue in the W3C WCAG 2.1 GitHub repository - https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/new or • send an email to public-agwg-comments@w3.org
  • 57. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 Special thanks to Lisa Seeman and the COGA Task Force members for their help with the content in this presentation.

Editor's Notes

  1. Once there is a standard then people will know how to make content useable. They do not have to research all the different users, they can just follow the guidance. Policies and laws all over the world look to WCAG 2.0 508 refresh, ADA, the EN 301 549 (a.k.a. EU mandate 376), Israeli standard 5568, Australian Disability Discrimination Act 1992 etc. But the focus has been on declared disabilities.
  2. Persons who have cognitive and learning disabilities are the largest disability group. In contrast - declared disabilities are 0.4%
  3. Nest’s thermostat is one of the newest gadgets on the market to control the temperature of your home. It is supposed to learn the temperatures you like and turn itself down when no one is home. There’s also telephone and iWatch apps so you can remotely monitor and modify the temperature using them.
  4. The Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force is a task force of the Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group (APA) and the Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (AG WG). Aim: To improve Web accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities. This will begin with research and gap analysis. Then the group developed draft proposed guidance and techniques to make web content, content authoring, and user agent implementation accessible and more useable by people with cognitive and learning disabilities. We also reviewed existing techniques to consider ways to improve them, and proposed new techniques, where necessary.
  5. Addressing these issues requires us to make a broader view of solutions for accessibility. Select a phased approach. In our first phase we looked at eight different disabilities or categories that cut across types of cognitive impairment in terms of severity and brain function. Compile user research and literary studies. These literary reviews means that key findings are in the public domain and are easily available. Author a series of issue papers that explore topics beyond simple content such as security or personalization. Compile a list of authoring techniques that includes the most useful strategies from all the different user group research Review the techniques and issue papers to identify the gaps between what is currently supported in accessibility and in the web architecture and what is needed to enable accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities Create a roadmap on how we can fill these gaps. Create testable and widely adoptable set of success criteria that let authors know exactly what they need to do and when they have completed the task. (This will then become the basis for the extension to WCAG for cognitive) Create metadata and ARIA semantics, implemented in browsers and AT’s to achieve full technology support for cognitive semantics that will enable personalization.
  6. The issue papers have been approved to be published as a First Public Working Draft for broader review outside of the task force. There isn’t currently a link to that version, but to the editor’s version that was submitted for approval.
  7. FPWD means First Public Working Draft
  8. We’ll go through each of these, though you should note that we’ve put in the current text, not the First Public Working Draft text in this presentation to show how the language and scope of the criteria are being refined. Until the working group reaches consensus on each criteria and the criteria go through the public review process, the language will be fluid over the next year or so. So this will be a snapshot of the current language and criteria being considered.
  9. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/6
  10. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/14
  11. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/47 The new WCAG 2.1 draft will contain criteria that the Accessibility Guidelines working group has reached consensus on. So far there is one COGA criteria that has consensus, a minimum requirement for postponing or suppressing interruptions. Note, the numbering of the Success Criteria has changed from the First Public Working draft – which is normal at this point in the process.
  12. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/41 There are exceptions planned to be allowed. Currently the exception states: Content is exempt if the writing style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as a game, a literary work, or teaching new terms.
  13. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/24
  14. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/50
  15. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/49
  16. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/13
  17. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/38
  18. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/32
  19. See https://github.com/w3c/wcag21/issues/41 There are exceptions planned to be allowed. Currently the exception states: Content is exempt if the writing style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as a game, a literary work, or teaching new terms.
  20. Integration of key components to drive the user experience: API Support Issue support Different standards E.g. Voice, Security Portable preferences External services In page Semantics WAI-ARIA WCAG
  21. Unable to group and generalize elders Children can be divided into general age groups as they develop and grow Adults under the age of about 40 can be grouped into a general category Aging is different, gradual and personal Abilities are different Techniques of adaptation are unique Typical guides and heuristics for UX and accessibility may not cover elders
  22. Understand Elders first-hand Different context and view of the world Ethnography, Interviews, Focus Groups Understand and Build on WCAG Follow heuristics for design for Pw CD Visibility of system status Match between system and the real world User control and freedom Consistency and standards Error prevention Recognition rather than recall Flexibility and efficiency of use Aesthetic and minimalist design Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors Help and documentation Use design thinking – iterative, user-centered design
  23. Reduced Attention Span Attention span may be longer for a particular task, but it is often linear and easily distracted. All information is considered rather than the quickest path. Young users choose the quickest path. Less Generalization The ability to quickly take an experience and associate it to another experience My have to relearn similar experiences Difficult words take longer to recall Difficult to multitask Multi-task is a loaded term, but generally it has to do with switching between tasks quickly. Nobody can process two things at once but they can get used to switching around. This is already a common problem for the human brain. With age, we tend to get worse at it and frustrated. More easily overwhelmed - cognitive load Elders will quit tasks more quickly when overwhelmed rather than trying another route. More linear approach Elders are less likely to scan and jump on interfaces to find information They go linear and consume much more information given to them, which kind of seems nice except it does not help at completing tasks Young people quickly jump around to succeed at tasks Is poor attention span driving design or is design perpetuating poor attention? Good question.
  24. In the future there will be personalization where an open source script utilizes the personalization settings of the user and delivers a web page that has been enabled with Cognitive accessibility markup to provide a tailored user experience. In this way a user (or a user with the help of a caregiver or professional) can request the application to be delivered in a way that best suits the needs of the user.