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SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
Diesel Engine Parts
and Components
ROJANE F. BERNAS, PhD.
SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
What do you think is
the importance of
knowing a part of a
whole? Give
situations or example.
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Activity
• Define each part of the engine and explain its function
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What is a diesel engine?
• A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine
that uses compression ignition to turn energy in diesel fuel
to rotary mechanical energy.
• The diesel engine was named after its inventor, Rudolf
Diesel, who was born in Paris in 1858.
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Internal Combustion Engine
• An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat
engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an
oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an
integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal
combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature
and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies
direct force to some component of the engine.
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Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel
• Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor
and mechanical engineer who is famous for having
invented the diesel engine, which burns diesel fuel; both
are named after him.
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What is a Diesel Engine?
• Diesel fuel was so named because it was used to run diesel
engines, diesel engines were not named after the fuel,
which at the time of the first diesel engine, was a useless
byproduct of extracting paraffin and kerosene from crude
oil.
• In 1894 this waste product was finally named "diesel".
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How does a diesel engine work?
• A diesel engine works by using pistons to compress a
mixture of air (containing oxygen) with diesel fuel.
• When this air is compressed at a ratio of about 15:1 the
mixture explodes forcing the piston back up and creating
the reciprocating motion. This motion is then converted to
rotary motion by the engines crank shaft.
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What are the major components in a diesel engine?
The engines fuel System
• The fuel system includes the fuel injection pump, the lift
pump, the injectors and all the fuel pipes. There will also be
some fuel filters and maybe a water separator preventing
poor quality fuel from damaging your diesel engine.
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What are the major components in a diesel engine?
The engines cooling system
• The cooling system handles the engine coolant - normally a mixture
of distilled water and glycol with some additional additives to help
prevent corrosion.
• There may also be a coolant filter on some engines and a "water
pump" which is actually a coolant pump.
• The coolant pump is used to push the coolant round the engine and
whichever device is used to cool the liquid - usually a radiator, but
sometimes a heat exchanger.
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What are the major components in a diesel engine?
The engines exhaust system
• Getting rid of the waste combustion gas is very important - moving
the waste gas from the engines cylinders out through the exhaust
manifold to the main muffler system that reduces the noise.
• The muffler isn't usually part of the engine, but an addition to
reduce the noise to the customers requirements.
• The exhaust gas will pass through the turbo-charger to make it spin
where one is fitted.
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What are the major components in a diesel engine?
The engines Turbo charger
• Most engines will have a turbo fitted. This device
compresses the combustion air to make the engine more
powerful.
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Major
Components of
Diesel Engine
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The main parts are as listed below :
• (a) Cylinder.
• (b) Cylinder head.
• (c) Piston and piston rings.
• (d) Connecting rod.
• (e) Crank shaft and crank webs.
• (f) Main bearing.
• (g) Crank in and beaning.
• (h) Nozzle.
• (i) Piston pin and bearing.
• (j) Exhaust valve.
• (k) Cam Part.
• (l) Valve springs.
• (m) Cylinder block or crankcase.
• (n) Fly wheel.
• (o) Bed plate.
• (p) Cooling water jackets.
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Cylinder :
Cylinder is the main part of engine, fuel is burnt in it and
develops the power. Inside of the cylinder is formed by a
liner or sleeve. The Inner diameter of termed as bore and is
used for movement of piston with rings.
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Cylinder head :
It close one end of the cylinder and usually contains the
valves which admit the air and and fuel and discharge the
exhaust gases.
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Piston and piston rings :
Piston closes the other end of the working space of the
cylinder. It transmits the power developed by burning of
fuel to the crank shaft. In the distance travelled by it form
one end of cylinder to the other is termed as stroke. The
piston rings lubricated with engine oil produced gas-tight
seal between the piston and the cylinder liner.
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Crank shaft :
It transmits the power from piston to the driven shaft. The
parts of the crankshaft supported by and rotating in the
main bearing are called as journals. It runs under the action
of the piston through the connecting rod and crank pin
located between crank webs or checks.
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Main bearing :
The main bearings support the crankshaft and the crank
shaft is turning in these main bearings.
Crank pin and bearing :
This is a bearing between the big end of the connecting rod
and crank pin.
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Nozzle :
The fuel injection system consists of a fuel pump, fuel line
and the fuel injector. Fuel is delivered into the combustion
space of the cylinder by an Injection system. The Injector also
called as fuel injection nozzle or spray nozzle delivers fuel in
the form of fine spray under pressure through small hole.
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Piston pin and bearing :
Piston pin and bearing connects the piston with connecting
rod , to make it possible to move the piston in the cylinder
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Exhaust valve :
The products of combustion after doing work on the piston
are removed from cylinder via this valve.
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Cam shaft :
It is driven from the crank shaft by a timing gear on a chain.
It operates the intake valve and the exhaust valve through
the cam, cam followers, push rods and rocker arms.
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Valve springs :
Valve springs serve to dose the valve.
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Cylinder block or crank case :
The crank case holds together the cylinder, piston and
crankshaft. It is also called as cylinder block if the cylinder
liners are inserted into it.
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Fly wheel :
Fly wheels are used to take care of fluctuations of the cyclic
variations in the speed. It stores energy during the power
stroke and releases it during other strokes, giving nearly
constant output torque.
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Bed plate :
The lower portion of the crank case which is bolted to the
foundation is called the bed plate.
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Cooling water jackets :
The cooling water enters the jackets in the cylinder head
which is comparatively hot and passes on to the jackets for
the cylinder. Its purpose is to keep the combustion space
walls cool.
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A Comprehensive Exploration of the Components and Parts Found in Diesel Engines

  • 1. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Diesel Engine Parts and Components ROJANE F. BERNAS, PhD. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
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  • 129. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Activity • Define each part of the engine and explain its function
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  • 146. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What is a diesel engine? • A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses compression ignition to turn energy in diesel fuel to rotary mechanical energy. • The diesel engine was named after its inventor, Rudolf Diesel, who was born in Paris in 1858.
  • 147. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Internal Combustion Engine • An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine.
  • 148. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel • Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer who is famous for having invented the diesel engine, which burns diesel fuel; both are named after him.
  • 149. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What is a Diesel Engine? • Diesel fuel was so named because it was used to run diesel engines, diesel engines were not named after the fuel, which at the time of the first diesel engine, was a useless byproduct of extracting paraffin and kerosene from crude oil. • In 1894 this waste product was finally named "diesel".
  • 150. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS How does a diesel engine work? • A diesel engine works by using pistons to compress a mixture of air (containing oxygen) with diesel fuel. • When this air is compressed at a ratio of about 15:1 the mixture explodes forcing the piston back up and creating the reciprocating motion. This motion is then converted to rotary motion by the engines crank shaft.
  • 151. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What are the major components in a diesel engine? The engines fuel System • The fuel system includes the fuel injection pump, the lift pump, the injectors and all the fuel pipes. There will also be some fuel filters and maybe a water separator preventing poor quality fuel from damaging your diesel engine.
  • 152. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What are the major components in a diesel engine? The engines cooling system • The cooling system handles the engine coolant - normally a mixture of distilled water and glycol with some additional additives to help prevent corrosion. • There may also be a coolant filter on some engines and a "water pump" which is actually a coolant pump. • The coolant pump is used to push the coolant round the engine and whichever device is used to cool the liquid - usually a radiator, but sometimes a heat exchanger.
  • 153. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What are the major components in a diesel engine? The engines exhaust system • Getting rid of the waste combustion gas is very important - moving the waste gas from the engines cylinders out through the exhaust manifold to the main muffler system that reduces the noise. • The muffler isn't usually part of the engine, but an addition to reduce the noise to the customers requirements. • The exhaust gas will pass through the turbo-charger to make it spin where one is fitted.
  • 154. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS What are the major components in a diesel engine? The engines Turbo charger • Most engines will have a turbo fitted. This device compresses the combustion air to make the engine more powerful.
  • 155. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Major Components of Diesel Engine
  • 156. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS The main parts are as listed below : • (a) Cylinder. • (b) Cylinder head. • (c) Piston and piston rings. • (d) Connecting rod. • (e) Crank shaft and crank webs. • (f) Main bearing. • (g) Crank in and beaning. • (h) Nozzle. • (i) Piston pin and bearing. • (j) Exhaust valve. • (k) Cam Part. • (l) Valve springs. • (m) Cylinder block or crankcase. • (n) Fly wheel. • (o) Bed plate. • (p) Cooling water jackets.
  • 157. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Cylinder : Cylinder is the main part of engine, fuel is burnt in it and develops the power. Inside of the cylinder is formed by a liner or sleeve. The Inner diameter of termed as bore and is used for movement of piston with rings.
  • 158. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
  • 159. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Cylinder head : It close one end of the cylinder and usually contains the valves which admit the air and and fuel and discharge the exhaust gases.
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  • 161. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Piston and piston rings : Piston closes the other end of the working space of the cylinder. It transmits the power developed by burning of fuel to the crank shaft. In the distance travelled by it form one end of cylinder to the other is termed as stroke. The piston rings lubricated with engine oil produced gas-tight seal between the piston and the cylinder liner.
  • 162. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS
  • 163. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Crank shaft : It transmits the power from piston to the driven shaft. The parts of the crankshaft supported by and rotating in the main bearing are called as journals. It runs under the action of the piston through the connecting rod and crank pin located between crank webs or checks.
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  • 165. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Main bearing : The main bearings support the crankshaft and the crank shaft is turning in these main bearings. Crank pin and bearing : This is a bearing between the big end of the connecting rod and crank pin.
  • 166. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Nozzle : The fuel injection system consists of a fuel pump, fuel line and the fuel injector. Fuel is delivered into the combustion space of the cylinder by an Injection system. The Injector also called as fuel injection nozzle or spray nozzle delivers fuel in the form of fine spray under pressure through small hole.
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  • 168. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Piston pin and bearing : Piston pin and bearing connects the piston with connecting rod , to make it possible to move the piston in the cylinder
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  • 170. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Exhaust valve : The products of combustion after doing work on the piston are removed from cylinder via this valve.
  • 171. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Cam shaft : It is driven from the crank shaft by a timing gear on a chain. It operates the intake valve and the exhaust valve through the cam, cam followers, push rods and rocker arms.
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  • 173. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Valve springs : Valve springs serve to dose the valve.
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  • 175. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Cylinder block or crank case : The crank case holds together the cylinder, piston and crankshaft. It is also called as cylinder block if the cylinder liners are inserted into it.
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  • 177. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Fly wheel : Fly wheels are used to take care of fluctuations of the cyclic variations in the speed. It stores energy during the power stroke and releases it during other strokes, giving nearly constant output torque.
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  • 179. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Bed plate : The lower portion of the crank case which is bolted to the foundation is called the bed plate.
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  • 181. SIR ROJANE F. BERNAS Cooling water jackets : The cooling water enters the jackets in the cylinder head which is comparatively hot and passes on to the jackets for the cylinder. Its purpose is to keep the combustion space walls cool.
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