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Bureaucracy
-As defined by Management Gurus
Name : Avijit Ghosh
Roll : 34900319026
Dept : Electronics and Communication Engineering
Sem : 7th
Subject : Principles of Management (CA1)
College : Coochbehar Government Engineering
Agenda
 Introduction: What is Bureaucracy
 Bureaucratic Theory: Max Weber
 What is a bureaucratic organization?
 six characteristics of the bureaucratic theory
 1. Task specialisation
 2. Hierarchical layers of authority
 3. Formal selection
 4. Rules and requirements
 5. Impersonal
 6. Career orientation
 Advantages of the Bureaucratic Theory
 Disadvantages of the Bureaucratic Theory
2
Introduction: What is Bureaucracy
 Bureaucracy is defined as a management approach that emphasized a
structured organization in which positions and authority are defined
according to formal rules.
 The Government is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the
country and has also to protect the boundaries of the country from foreign
aggression. Besides, it is also responsible for formulation and
implementation of its policies and programmes related with economic
development and social endowments.
 To run the administration of a country in an effective way, a band of capable
officers efficient, prompt, just and sympathetic belonging to different
disciplines of civil services are required. Bureaucrats are the persons who
belong to these civil services. These bureaucrats always live behind the
scene.
3
Bureaucratic Theory: Max Weber
 According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, three types of power can
be found in organizations; traditional power, charismatic power and legal
power. He refers in his bureaucratic theory to the latter as a bureaucracy.
 All aspects of a democracy are organised on the basis of rules and laws,
making the principle of established jurisdiction prevail.
 The following three elements support bureaucratic management:
1.All regular activities within a bureaucracy can be regarded as official
duties;
2.Management has the authority to impose rules;
3.Rules can easily be respected on the basis of established methods.
4
What is a bureaucratic organization?
 According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, bureaucracy is the
basis for the systematic formation of any organisation and is designed to
ensure efficiency and economic effectiveness.
 It is an ideal model for management and its administration to bring an
organization’s power structure into focus. With these observations, he lays
down the basic principles of bureaucracy and emphasizes the division of
labour , hierarchy, rules and impersonal relationship.
 According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, such a structure was
indispensable in large organizations in structurally performing all tasks by
a great number of employees.
 In addition, in a bureaucratic organization , selection and promotion only
occur on the basis of technical qualifications.
5
six characteristics of the
bureaucratic theory
 Below is a more detailed explanation of the bureaucratic management
principles.
 The 6 bureaucracy characteristics are:
1. Task specialisation (Specialization and Division of Labor)
2. Hierarchical layers of authority
3. Formal selection
4. Rules and requirements
5. Impersonal (Impersonality and Personal Indifference)
6. Career orientation
6
1. Task specialisation
 Tasks are divided into simple, routine categories on the basis of
competencies and functional specialisations.
 Every employee is responsible for what he/she does best and knows
exactly what is expected of him / her. By dividing work on the basis of
specialisation, the organisation directly benefits. Each department has
specific powers.
 As a result, there is a delineation of tasks and managers can approach
their employees more easily when they do not stick to their tasks. Every
employee knows exactly what is expected of him/ her and what his/ her
powers are within the organisation.
 Every employee has a specific place within the organisation and is
expected to solely focus on his/ her area of expertise. Going beyond your
responsibilities and taking on tasks of colleagues is not permitted within a
bureaucracy.
7
2. Hierarchical layers of authority
 Managers are organised into hierarchical layers, where each layer of
management is responsible for its staff and overall performance. In
bureaucratic organizational structures, there are many hierarchical
positions. This is essentially the trademark and foundation of a
bureaucracy.
 The hierarchy of authority is a system in which different positions are
related in order of precedence and in which the highest rank on the ladder
has the greatest power. The bottom layers of bureaucratic organizational
structures are always subject to supervision and control of higher layers.
 This hierarchy reflects lines of bureaucratic communication and the degree
of delegation and clearly lays out how powers and responsibilities are
divided.
8
3. Formal selection
 All employees are selected on the basis of technical skills and
competences, which have been acquired through training, education and
experience.
 One of the basic principles is that employees are paid for their services
and that level of their salary is dependent on their position. Their contract
terms are determined by organisational rules and requirements and the
employee has no ownership interest in the company.
9
4. Rules and requirements
 Formal rules and requirements are required to ensure uniformity, so that
employees know exactly what is expected of them. In this sense, the rules
and requirements can be considered predictable.
 All administrative processes are defined in the official rules. By enforcing
strict rules, the organisation can more easily achieve uniformity and all
employee efforts can be better coordinated. The rules and requirements
are more or less stable and always formalised in so-called official reports.
 Should new rules and requirements be introduced, then senior
management or directors are responsible for this.
10
5. Impersonal
 Regulations and clear requirements create distant and impersonal
relationships between employees, with the additional advantage of
preventing nepotism or involvement from outsiders or politics. These
impersonal relationship are a prominent feature of bureaucracies.
 Interpersonal relationships are solely characterised by a system of public
law and rules and requirements. Official views are free from any personal
involvement, emotions and feelings. Decisions are solely made on the
basis of rational factors, rather than personal factors.
11
6. Career orientation
 Employees of a bureaucratic organisation are selected on the basis of their
expertise. This helps in the deployment of the right people in the right
positions and thereby optimally utilising human capital.
 In a bureaucracy, it is possible to build a career on the basis of experience
and expertise.
 As a result, it offers lifetime employment. The right division of labour within
a bureaucratic organisation also allows employees to specialise
themselves further, so that they may become experts in their own field and
significantly improve their performance.
12
Advantages of the Bureaucratic Theory
 Generally speaking, the term bureaucracy has a positive connotation and
is often linked to government agencies and large organizations.
 Nevertheless, the great benefit of a bureaucracy is that large organisations
with many hierarchical layers can become structured and work effectively.
It is precisely the established rules and procedures that allows for high
efficiency and consistent execution of work by all employees.
 All this makes it easier for management to maintain control and make
adjustments when necessary. Bureaucracy is especially inevitable in
organisations where legislation plays an important role in delivering a
consistent output.
13
Disadvantages of the Bureaucratic Theory
 Bureaucracy is characterized by a large amount of red tape, paperwork, many
desks, certain office culture and slow bureaucratic communication due to its
many hierarchical layers.
 This is the system’s biggest disadvantage of a bureaucratic organization. It is
also unfortunate that employees remain fairly distanced from each other and
the organisation, making them less loyal.
 Bureaucracy is also extremely dependent on regulatory and policy
compliance.
 This restricts employees to come up with innovative ideas, making them feel
like just a number instead of an individual. Later research (the human relations
theory) demonstrated that employees appreciate attention and want to have a
voice in decision making.
14
15
Thank you
DR. SOURISH SANYAL
SIR

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34900319026.pptx

  • 1. Bureaucracy -As defined by Management Gurus Name : Avijit Ghosh Roll : 34900319026 Dept : Electronics and Communication Engineering Sem : 7th Subject : Principles of Management (CA1) College : Coochbehar Government Engineering
  • 2. Agenda  Introduction: What is Bureaucracy  Bureaucratic Theory: Max Weber  What is a bureaucratic organization?  six characteristics of the bureaucratic theory  1. Task specialisation  2. Hierarchical layers of authority  3. Formal selection  4. Rules and requirements  5. Impersonal  6. Career orientation  Advantages of the Bureaucratic Theory  Disadvantages of the Bureaucratic Theory 2
  • 3. Introduction: What is Bureaucracy  Bureaucracy is defined as a management approach that emphasized a structured organization in which positions and authority are defined according to formal rules.  The Government is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the country and has also to protect the boundaries of the country from foreign aggression. Besides, it is also responsible for formulation and implementation of its policies and programmes related with economic development and social endowments.  To run the administration of a country in an effective way, a band of capable officers efficient, prompt, just and sympathetic belonging to different disciplines of civil services are required. Bureaucrats are the persons who belong to these civil services. These bureaucrats always live behind the scene. 3
  • 4. Bureaucratic Theory: Max Weber  According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, three types of power can be found in organizations; traditional power, charismatic power and legal power. He refers in his bureaucratic theory to the latter as a bureaucracy.  All aspects of a democracy are organised on the basis of rules and laws, making the principle of established jurisdiction prevail.  The following three elements support bureaucratic management: 1.All regular activities within a bureaucracy can be regarded as official duties; 2.Management has the authority to impose rules; 3.Rules can easily be respected on the basis of established methods. 4
  • 5. What is a bureaucratic organization?  According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, bureaucracy is the basis for the systematic formation of any organisation and is designed to ensure efficiency and economic effectiveness.  It is an ideal model for management and its administration to bring an organization’s power structure into focus. With these observations, he lays down the basic principles of bureaucracy and emphasizes the division of labour , hierarchy, rules and impersonal relationship.  According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, such a structure was indispensable in large organizations in structurally performing all tasks by a great number of employees.  In addition, in a bureaucratic organization , selection and promotion only occur on the basis of technical qualifications. 5
  • 6. six characteristics of the bureaucratic theory  Below is a more detailed explanation of the bureaucratic management principles.  The 6 bureaucracy characteristics are: 1. Task specialisation (Specialization and Division of Labor) 2. Hierarchical layers of authority 3. Formal selection 4. Rules and requirements 5. Impersonal (Impersonality and Personal Indifference) 6. Career orientation 6
  • 7. 1. Task specialisation  Tasks are divided into simple, routine categories on the basis of competencies and functional specialisations.  Every employee is responsible for what he/she does best and knows exactly what is expected of him / her. By dividing work on the basis of specialisation, the organisation directly benefits. Each department has specific powers.  As a result, there is a delineation of tasks and managers can approach their employees more easily when they do not stick to their tasks. Every employee knows exactly what is expected of him/ her and what his/ her powers are within the organisation.  Every employee has a specific place within the organisation and is expected to solely focus on his/ her area of expertise. Going beyond your responsibilities and taking on tasks of colleagues is not permitted within a bureaucracy. 7
  • 8. 2. Hierarchical layers of authority  Managers are organised into hierarchical layers, where each layer of management is responsible for its staff and overall performance. In bureaucratic organizational structures, there are many hierarchical positions. This is essentially the trademark and foundation of a bureaucracy.  The hierarchy of authority is a system in which different positions are related in order of precedence and in which the highest rank on the ladder has the greatest power. The bottom layers of bureaucratic organizational structures are always subject to supervision and control of higher layers.  This hierarchy reflects lines of bureaucratic communication and the degree of delegation and clearly lays out how powers and responsibilities are divided. 8
  • 9. 3. Formal selection  All employees are selected on the basis of technical skills and competences, which have been acquired through training, education and experience.  One of the basic principles is that employees are paid for their services and that level of their salary is dependent on their position. Their contract terms are determined by organisational rules and requirements and the employee has no ownership interest in the company. 9
  • 10. 4. Rules and requirements  Formal rules and requirements are required to ensure uniformity, so that employees know exactly what is expected of them. In this sense, the rules and requirements can be considered predictable.  All administrative processes are defined in the official rules. By enforcing strict rules, the organisation can more easily achieve uniformity and all employee efforts can be better coordinated. The rules and requirements are more or less stable and always formalised in so-called official reports.  Should new rules and requirements be introduced, then senior management or directors are responsible for this. 10
  • 11. 5. Impersonal  Regulations and clear requirements create distant and impersonal relationships between employees, with the additional advantage of preventing nepotism or involvement from outsiders or politics. These impersonal relationship are a prominent feature of bureaucracies.  Interpersonal relationships are solely characterised by a system of public law and rules and requirements. Official views are free from any personal involvement, emotions and feelings. Decisions are solely made on the basis of rational factors, rather than personal factors. 11
  • 12. 6. Career orientation  Employees of a bureaucratic organisation are selected on the basis of their expertise. This helps in the deployment of the right people in the right positions and thereby optimally utilising human capital.  In a bureaucracy, it is possible to build a career on the basis of experience and expertise.  As a result, it offers lifetime employment. The right division of labour within a bureaucratic organisation also allows employees to specialise themselves further, so that they may become experts in their own field and significantly improve their performance. 12
  • 13. Advantages of the Bureaucratic Theory  Generally speaking, the term bureaucracy has a positive connotation and is often linked to government agencies and large organizations.  Nevertheless, the great benefit of a bureaucracy is that large organisations with many hierarchical layers can become structured and work effectively. It is precisely the established rules and procedures that allows for high efficiency and consistent execution of work by all employees.  All this makes it easier for management to maintain control and make adjustments when necessary. Bureaucracy is especially inevitable in organisations where legislation plays an important role in delivering a consistent output. 13
  • 14. Disadvantages of the Bureaucratic Theory  Bureaucracy is characterized by a large amount of red tape, paperwork, many desks, certain office culture and slow bureaucratic communication due to its many hierarchical layers.  This is the system’s biggest disadvantage of a bureaucratic organization. It is also unfortunate that employees remain fairly distanced from each other and the organisation, making them less loyal.  Bureaucracy is also extremely dependent on regulatory and policy compliance.  This restricts employees to come up with innovative ideas, making them feel like just a number instead of an individual. Later research (the human relations theory) demonstrated that employees appreciate attention and want to have a voice in decision making. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Thank you DR. SOURISH SANYAL SIR