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ENGLISH 45
What is
Literature?
COMPLETE THE
STATEMENT!
LITERATURE
comes from
______ word,
_____ which
literally means
_____.
LITERATURE
comes from
LATIN word,
“LITERA” which
literally means
“acquaintance
with letters”
ignatius joseph n estroga
“Anything that is printed, as long as
it is related to the ideas and feelings
of people, whether it is true, or just a
product of one’s imagination”
(Merriam-Webster’s
Dictionary and Thesaurus)
ignatius joseph n estroga
It is a body of work, either written,
oral, or visual, containing
imaginative language that realistically
portrays thought, emotions, and
experiences of the human condition.
DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
ignatius joseph n estroga
It is a product of particular culture that
concretizes man’s array of values,
emotions, actions and ideas.
It is therefore a creation of human
experiences that tells about people
and their world.
DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
WHY
LITERATURE?
According to Duff & Maley, 1990, we
teach literature because of.. .
1. Linguistic
2. Methodological
3. Motivation
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
LINGUISTIC
 In terms of language
acquisition and
learning, literary texts
offer samples of a
very wide range of
styles, registers, and
text types at many
levels of difficulty.
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
METHODOLOGICAL
 Since literary texts are
open to multiple
interpretations, readers
can have different
opinions and ideas
about a variety of topics.
 This provides learners
an opportunity to
engage in genuine
interaction.
 The learners can even
be taught to develop
critical thinking.
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
MOTIVATIONAL
 Literary texts are important
since they deal with matters
which concerned the writer
enough to make him/her write
about them.
 In this, they are unlike many
other forms of language
teaching inputs, which
frequently trivialize
experience in the service of
pedagogy.
 Literary texts touch on
themes to which learners can
bring a personal response
from their own experience.
Three Models of Carter &
Long, 1991
1. Cultural Model
2. Language Model
3. Personal Growth Model
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
CULTURAL MODEL
 Teaching literature within
a cultural model enables
students to understand
and appreciate cultures
and ideologies different
from their own in time and
space and to come to
perceive traditions of
thought, feeling, and
artistic form the heritage
the culture of such
cultures endows.
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
LANGUAGE
MODEL
 Literature puts students in
touch with some of the
more subtle and varied
creative uses of the
language.
 Literature is made from
language and that the
more students can read in
and through language the
better able they will be to
come to terms with a
literary text as literature.
WHY TEACH LITERATURE?
(Duff & Maley, 1990)
PERSONAL
GROWTH MODEL
 One of the main goals for teachers who
are primarily committed to a personal
growth model of literature teaching is to
try to help students to achieve an
engagement with the reading of literary
texts.
 This engagement cannot really be
measured in terms of passing
examinations of literature; the test of
the teacher’s success in teaching
literature is the extent to which students
carry with them beyond the
classroom an enjoyment and love
for literature which is renewed as
they continue to engage with
literature throughout their lives.
What are the
processes involved
in studying
literature?
PROCESSES INVOLVED IN
STUDYING LITERATURE
1. Description
2. Discrimination
3. Relation
4. Interpretation
5. Generalization
6. Evaluation
7. Valuing
8. Creation
DESCRIPTION
 Students can talk or write
about what they read in
their own words.
DISCRIMINATION
 Students can discriminate
among the different literary
types. They can identify
them by type, author, or
theme.
RELATION
 Students can relate
several elements of a
literary text to each other
or to other texts.
INTERPRETATION
 Students can figure out
what they think the
author is saying and
defend their
interpretations.
GENERALIZATION
 Students can draw out
the main idea of a piece
of literary work or an
author’s style.
EVALUATION
 Students can evaluate
the worth of a piece of
literature using a set of
criteria.
VALUING
 Students can indicate the
importance of literature
to their own lives or to
the world outside of the
text.
CREATION
 Students can respond
creatively by making art
projects, composing a musical
medley, producing an MTV,
writing another stanza for a
poem or another chapter to a
novel, etc.
What are the Goals in
Teaching Literature?
FIRST GOAL: Development and/or
extension of LITERARY COMPETENCE
Literary competence
is the ability to
internalize the
‘grammar’ of literature
which would permit a
reader to convert
linguistic sequences
into literary structures
and meaning (Jonathan
and Culler).
What is
Literary
competence?
FIRST GOAL: Development and/or extension
of LITERARY COMPETENCE
Anyone wholly unacquainted with literature and
unfamiliar with its conventions would be quite
confused if presented with a literary work.
He/she may be able to read the literary text, but
may not fully comprehend what the text may
signify or mean.
He/she must possess literary
competence not just reading
comprehension skills.
SECOND GOAL: Development and/or enhancement
of the imagination and creativity
Literature definitely develops and enhances the
imagination.
The different literary genres allow the readers to
enter different words – realistic, fantastic,
futuristic and even out of this world.
Literature hopefully will inspire them to
write their own poems, essays, fictions
or drama and encourage them to
respond creatively by taping their own
skills and talents in drawing, singing,
acting and the like.
THIRD GOAL: Development of student’s
character and emotional maturity
Through literature, the students can
discover and realize many universal
truths and insights about the
world and human nature.
They may learn from the
different literary texts and
knowledge, wisdom and
values that they will apply in
real life.
FOURTH GOAL: Development of
critical thinking
Literature is a very good means to
develop critical thinking.
Students may be challenged to interrogate
their own beliefs and practices and those
of others.
The study of literature will help
them interpret, analyze and
criticize things in their own life
and those around them.
FIFTH GOAL: Development of literary
appreciation and a refined reading a taste
The literary experience should provide students
a love for literature.
They will learn what is beautiful in a poem, what
like in a drama, what is good in a novel or short
story, or what is worthwhile in an essay.
Hopefully, they will read on
their own and become
readers of literature for
life.
1. Fiction
2. Poetry
3. Essay
4. Drama

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1Teaching_Literature_An_Overview.pptx

  • 4. LITERATURE comes from ______ word, _____ which literally means _____.
  • 5. LITERATURE comes from LATIN word, “LITERA” which literally means “acquaintance with letters”
  • 6. ignatius joseph n estroga “Anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus)
  • 7. ignatius joseph n estroga It is a body of work, either written, oral, or visual, containing imaginative language that realistically portrays thought, emotions, and experiences of the human condition. DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
  • 8. ignatius joseph n estroga It is a product of particular culture that concretizes man’s array of values, emotions, actions and ideas. It is therefore a creation of human experiences that tells about people and their world. DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
  • 10. According to Duff & Maley, 1990, we teach literature because of.. . 1. Linguistic 2. Methodological 3. Motivation
  • 11. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) LINGUISTIC  In terms of language acquisition and learning, literary texts offer samples of a very wide range of styles, registers, and text types at many levels of difficulty.
  • 12. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) METHODOLOGICAL  Since literary texts are open to multiple interpretations, readers can have different opinions and ideas about a variety of topics.  This provides learners an opportunity to engage in genuine interaction.  The learners can even be taught to develop critical thinking.
  • 13. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) MOTIVATIONAL  Literary texts are important since they deal with matters which concerned the writer enough to make him/her write about them.  In this, they are unlike many other forms of language teaching inputs, which frequently trivialize experience in the service of pedagogy.  Literary texts touch on themes to which learners can bring a personal response from their own experience.
  • 14. Three Models of Carter & Long, 1991 1. Cultural Model 2. Language Model 3. Personal Growth Model
  • 15. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) CULTURAL MODEL  Teaching literature within a cultural model enables students to understand and appreciate cultures and ideologies different from their own in time and space and to come to perceive traditions of thought, feeling, and artistic form the heritage the culture of such cultures endows.
  • 16. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) LANGUAGE MODEL  Literature puts students in touch with some of the more subtle and varied creative uses of the language.  Literature is made from language and that the more students can read in and through language the better able they will be to come to terms with a literary text as literature.
  • 17. WHY TEACH LITERATURE? (Duff & Maley, 1990) PERSONAL GROWTH MODEL  One of the main goals for teachers who are primarily committed to a personal growth model of literature teaching is to try to help students to achieve an engagement with the reading of literary texts.  This engagement cannot really be measured in terms of passing examinations of literature; the test of the teacher’s success in teaching literature is the extent to which students carry with them beyond the classroom an enjoyment and love for literature which is renewed as they continue to engage with literature throughout their lives.
  • 18. What are the processes involved in studying literature?
  • 19. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN STUDYING LITERATURE 1. Description 2. Discrimination 3. Relation 4. Interpretation 5. Generalization 6. Evaluation 7. Valuing 8. Creation
  • 20. DESCRIPTION  Students can talk or write about what they read in their own words.
  • 21. DISCRIMINATION  Students can discriminate among the different literary types. They can identify them by type, author, or theme.
  • 22. RELATION  Students can relate several elements of a literary text to each other or to other texts.
  • 23. INTERPRETATION  Students can figure out what they think the author is saying and defend their interpretations.
  • 24. GENERALIZATION  Students can draw out the main idea of a piece of literary work or an author’s style.
  • 25. EVALUATION  Students can evaluate the worth of a piece of literature using a set of criteria.
  • 26. VALUING  Students can indicate the importance of literature to their own lives or to the world outside of the text.
  • 27. CREATION  Students can respond creatively by making art projects, composing a musical medley, producing an MTV, writing another stanza for a poem or another chapter to a novel, etc.
  • 28. What are the Goals in Teaching Literature?
  • 29. FIRST GOAL: Development and/or extension of LITERARY COMPETENCE Literary competence is the ability to internalize the ‘grammar’ of literature which would permit a reader to convert linguistic sequences into literary structures and meaning (Jonathan and Culler). What is Literary competence?
  • 30. FIRST GOAL: Development and/or extension of LITERARY COMPETENCE Anyone wholly unacquainted with literature and unfamiliar with its conventions would be quite confused if presented with a literary work. He/she may be able to read the literary text, but may not fully comprehend what the text may signify or mean. He/she must possess literary competence not just reading comprehension skills.
  • 31. SECOND GOAL: Development and/or enhancement of the imagination and creativity Literature definitely develops and enhances the imagination. The different literary genres allow the readers to enter different words – realistic, fantastic, futuristic and even out of this world. Literature hopefully will inspire them to write their own poems, essays, fictions or drama and encourage them to respond creatively by taping their own skills and talents in drawing, singing, acting and the like.
  • 32. THIRD GOAL: Development of student’s character and emotional maturity Through literature, the students can discover and realize many universal truths and insights about the world and human nature. They may learn from the different literary texts and knowledge, wisdom and values that they will apply in real life.
  • 33. FOURTH GOAL: Development of critical thinking Literature is a very good means to develop critical thinking. Students may be challenged to interrogate their own beliefs and practices and those of others. The study of literature will help them interpret, analyze and criticize things in their own life and those around them.
  • 34. FIFTH GOAL: Development of literary appreciation and a refined reading a taste The literary experience should provide students a love for literature. They will learn what is beautiful in a poem, what like in a drama, what is good in a novel or short story, or what is worthwhile in an essay. Hopefully, they will read on their own and become readers of literature for life.
  • 35. 1. Fiction 2. Poetry 3. Essay 4. Drama