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  1. 1. ZOOGEOGRAPHY TOPIC: HYDROSPHERE  Presented by: Hina Amir
  2. 2. Hydrosphere  The totality of water surrounding the Earth, comprising all the bodies of water, ice and water vapor in the atmosphere i.e. water held in oceans, rivers, lakes, glaciers, ground water, soil, and air.
  3. 3. Components  Oceans  Glaciers (cryosphere)  Atmospheric water vapors  Freshwater  Surface water  Ground water
  4. 4. Figure 1. The location of some major global water reservoirs: oceans and surface water drainage basins (after Ernst, 2000) http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/047147844X.me216
  5. 5. THE EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE: Distribution of Water on Earth Volume Percent of Total OCEANS 1,350 x 1015 m3 97.3 CRYOSPHERE (Glaciers & Polar Ice) 29 x 1015 m3 2.1 UNDERGROUND (Aquifers) LAKES & RIVERS 8.4 x 1015 m3 0.2 x 1015 m3 0.01 ATMOSPHERE 0.013 x 1015 m3 0.001 BIOSPHERE 0.0006 x 1015 m3 4 x 10-5 0.6
  6. 6. Volume of hydrosphere 1386 Million km3  Total surface area of Earth= 510 million km2  Oceans= 361 million km2 (71%)  Land = 149 million km2 (29%)  Northern hemisphere= 61%  Southern hemisphere= 81%
  7. 7. Origin of Water (Theories)  Degasification theory  Water vapour,CO2,CO,CH,Ammonia,sulphur, HCl, argon, Hydroden came to Earth during lava degassification resulting into Water.  Acid rains to underlying water results to alkali Earth.  Collisions with camets 4-40% of water.
  8. 8.  Glaciation  Lower H2O level  Mountains ,ice  Vegetation  Oceans >size  H2O cycle  Photosynthesis  500 million km2
  9. 9. World Oceans  Volume of Water = 1340 km3  4 Oceans  Arctic, Pacific, Indian and Atlantic  Southern ocean
  10. 10. Depth (m)  Pacific  Atlantic  Indian  Arctic 3957 3602 3736 1131 11034 9219 7450 5220
  11. 11. ZONES
  12. 12.  http://www.seasky.org/deep-sea/ocean-layers.html
  13. 13. Epipelagic Zone  The surface layer of the ocean is known as the epipelagic zone and extends from the surface to 200 meters (656 feet).  It is also known as the sunlight zone because this is where most of the visible light exists. With the light come heat.  This heat is responsible for the wide range of temperatures that occur in this zone.
  14. 14.  Animals that live in the twilight zone must be able to survive cold temperatures, an increase in water pressure and dark waters.  Octopus, squid, and the hatchet fish are some of the animals that can be found in this zone.
  15. 15. Mesopelagic Zone  Below the epipelagic zone is the mesopelagic zone, extending from 200 meters (656 feet) to 1000 meters (3281 feet).  The mesopelagic zone is sometimes referred to as the twilight zone or the midwater zone. The light that penetrates to this depth is extremely faint.  It is in this zone that we begin to see the twinkling lights of bioluminescent creatures. A great diversity of strange and bizarre fishes can be found here.
  16. 16. Bathypelagic Zone  It is sometimes referred to as the midnight zone or the dark zone.  This zone extends from 1000 meters (3281 feet) down to 4000 meters (13,124 feet).  Here the only visible light is that produced by the creatures themselves. The water pressure at this depth is immense, reaching 5,850 pounds per square inch. In spite of the pressure, a surprisingly large number of creatures can be found here.  Sperm whales can dive down to this level in search of food. Most of the animals that live at these depths are black or red in color due to the lack of light.
  17. 17. Abyssopelagic Zone  It extends from 4000 meters (13,124 feet) to 6000 meters (19,686 feet).  The name comes from a Greek word meaning "no bottom".  The water temperature is near freezing, and there is no light at all. Very few creatures can be found at these crushing depths.  Most of these are invertebrates such as basket stars and tiny squids. Three-quarters of the ocean floor lies within this zone. The deepest fish ever discovered was found in the Puerto Rico Trench at a depth of 27,460 feet (8,372 meters).
  18. 18. Hadalpelagic Zone  This layer extends from 6000 meters (19,686 feet) to the bottom of the deepest parts of the ocean.  The deepest point in the ocean is located in the Mariana Trench off the coast of Japan at 35,797 feet (10,911 meters).  The temperature of the water is just above freezing, and the pressure is an incredible eight tons per square inch. In spite of the pressure and temperature, life can still be found here. Invertebrates such as starfish and tube worms can thrive at these depths.
  19. 19.  Sea Surface Temperature April 06, 2005 derived  from satellite data
  20. 20. Variable Ocean Range Ocean Mean Required Accuracy Temperature -2°C to 40°C 3.5°C ±0.002°C 34.9 g/kg ±0.002 g/kg 1850 dbar < ±3 dbar Absolute Salinity Pressure 30g/kg to 42 g/kg 0 dbar to 11000 dbar IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, The international thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010: Calculations and use of thermodynamic properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Manuals and Guides No. 56, UNESCO (English), 196 pp. (2010). http://www.teos-10.org
  21. 21. Ice Sheet  2.53% freshwater  1.74% ice sheet 1700m average maxi thickness=4000m Antarctica  Permafrosts NE Asia, N Canada, Green land, S America
  22. 22. http://www-es.s.chiba-u.ac.jp/~takeuchi/glanimals.html
  23. 23. What is Groundwater?  Groundwater is water that has drained through surface layers of soil and rock until it reaches a layer of rock material through which it cannot pass, or can pass only very slowly.  This results in the accumulation of water in the rock layers above this impermeable layer. The water is stored in gaps in the rock, or between the particles of which the rock is composed. Rock which retains water in this way is called an aquifer.
  24. 24.  There are 145 large lakes across the globe with an area     of 100 square km Holding 168 cubic km of water. Swamps and bogs are widespread across the Earth with a total area of about 2.7 million square km or about 2 % of land area. The most swampy continent is South America. The soil moisture is an integral part of the hydrosphere. This water occurs mainly in the top 2 metres of the soil.
  25. 25. Categories of lakes  Dystrophic lakes low food value  full of soil particles  water is usually brown  Oligotrophic lakes  lake nourishment  very clear water  Eutrophic lakes  well nourished  intense birdlife  lots of plankton 
  26. 26. Ice, glacier  Microbes, polar bear, seal, storm petrels and Antarctic terns, snow fleas, reindeer
  27. 27.  Antarctica include penguins, skuas, Wilson's petrel, fulmar and cape pigeons,  stonefiies, copepods, iceworms, rotifers
  28. 28. freshwater  Frog, Gar, Catfish, alligators, river dolphin, Turtle
  29. 29. Green Heron catches Dragonfly Painted Turtle Otter
  30. 30. The Bacillus stratosphericus - usually found 20 miles above the Earth - is believed to have been brought to the surface by atmospheric cycling, which causes evaporated water rise into the stratosphere and then fall again.
  31. 31.  Pollution:  December 10 - USA = Steller sea lions threatened  Overfishing:  Nature shows that 90 percent of all large fishes have disappeared from the world's oceans in the past half century, a result of overfishing.  Climate change:  The Arctic fox is one of nine animals the IUCN says is threatened by global warming
  32. 32. References  Vuglinsky, V. S. Hydrosphere structure and its relationship to the global hydrological cycle. Hydrological cycle, Vol 1,  Shiklomanov, I. A. Forthcoming. World water resources at the beginning of the 21st century. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press UNEP.  World Water Assessment Programme (2003) Water for people, water for life: The United Nations World Water Development Report. UNESCO - Berghahn Books. Paris