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Optical Aberrations
Resident Lecture
The Perfect Image
There is no such thing as a perfect image
All light rays passing through optical systems are subject to distortions
Outline
Chromatic Aberration
Spherical Aberration
Oblique Astigmatism
Coma
Curvature of Field
Distortion
Point Spread
Function
Modulation Transfer
Wavefront Analysis
Custom Lasik and
Zernicke Polynomials
Chromatic Aberration
A lens will not focus
different colors in exactly
the same place.
the focal length depends
on refraction and the
index of refraction
Short wavelength has
higher n and is refracted
more than long
wavelength
The amount of chromatic
aberration depends on
the dispersion of the
glass.
Lens
Eye
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/aberrations/spherical/index.html
Chromatic Aberration
Dispersive power (abbe
value) is based on
change in index for
different wavelengths
If the index is the same
for all wavelengths, there
is NO DISPERSION
The n increases as
wavelength decreases
Chromatic Aberration
 Some patients can detect this
 Dispersion usually increases in high index
 May be noticeable with IOL’s
Chromatic Aberration
Duochrome Test
Duochrome test helps
you determine
position of focal point
with respect to the
fovea
Useful to avoid
overminusing pt.
Duochrome Test
Too much minus green
is clearer
Too much plus red
is clearer
Chromatic Aberration-
Duochrome Test
Red clarity= green clarity
then image is positioned
correctly.
534
560
564
Correction of Chromatic Aberration
 An achromat doublet does not
completely eliminate
chromatic aberration, but can
eliminate it for two colors, say
red and blue.
 The idea is to use a lens pair –
a strong lens of low dispersion
coupled with a weaker one of
high dispersion calculated to
match the focal lengths for two
chosen wavelengths.
 Cemented doublets of this type
are a mainstay of lens design.
Achromatic Doublets
Correction of Chromatic Aberration
APOCHROMATIC LENS
The addition of a third lens corrects for three colors
(red, blue and green), greatly reducing the fuzziness
caused by the colors uncorrected in the achromatic
doublet.
Correction of Chromatic Aberration
In the human eye, chromatic aberration is
reduced by the lens, which changes index
from the nucleus outward.
Spherical Aberration
For lenses made with spherical surfaces, rays which are parallel to
the optic axis but at different distances from the optic axis fail to
converge to the same point.
http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/aberrations/spherical
Spherical Aberration-
correction
Spherical aberration in the human
eye is reduced by the aspheric
shape of the lens and the cornea
Spherical Aberration- Correction
Meniscus Lenses
The amount of spherical aberration in a
lens made from spherical surfaces
depends upon its shape. Best form,
depends on base curve
Oblique Astigmatism
This aberration primarily influences the image quality of
spherical lenses. When the wearer looks at an angle through
the lens, there is a deviation which he perceives as blur. The
higher the dioptric power of the lens, the more pronounced
this error becomes.
Oblique Astigmatism
A dot is no longer imaged as a dot, but as two image lines.
Oblique astigmatism- correction
Mitigated by deviating from the
spherical shape
Aspheric Surfaces to the Rescue
Coma
. Coma is an aberration which causes rays from
an off-axis point of light in the object plane to
create a trailing "comet-like" blur directed away
from the optic axis.
Coma
A lens with
considerable coma
may produce a sharp
image in the center of
the field, but become
increasingly blurred
toward the edges.
Coma
The resulting image is called a comatic circle.
The coma flare, which owes its name to its cometlike tail, is
often considered the worst of all aberrations, primarily
because of its asymmetric configuration.
Coma- correction
For a single lens, coma can be partially
corrected by bending the lens. More
complete correction can be achieved by
using a combination of lenses symmetric
about a central stop.
Coma is not well compensated for in the
human eye.
Curvature of Field
Causes an planar object to
project a curved
(nonplanar) image. It can
be thought of as arising
from a "power error" for
rays at a large angle.
Those rays treat the lens
as having an effectively
smaller diameter and an
effectively higher power,
forming the image of the
off axis points closer to the
lens.
Curvature of Field
A lens aberration that causes a flat object
surface to be imaged onto a curved
surface rather than a plane.
http://www.microscopyu.com/tutorials/java/aberrations/curvatureoffield/
=n*f2
Curvature of Field- Correction
The surface of the image formed by the
eye is also curved, fortunately, the retina
is also curved!
For lens systems, using best form lenses
with non-spherical shapes can help.
Image Distortion
Not about sharpness, but faithful reproduction of
the shape of the object.
It occurs when magnification varies with the
distance of the object from the optic axis.
Problem only for high powers
Tends to falsify the positions of objects and
cause vertical lines to wave
Aphakes!
Minimized by very steep back base curves
Image Distortion
Plus lens Minus lens
Outline
Chromatic Aberration
Spherical Aberration
Oblique Astigmatism
Coma
Curvature of Field
Distortion
Point Spread
Function
Modulation Transfer
Wavefront Analysis
Custom Lasik and
Zernicke Polynomials
Beyond sphere and cylinder…
Higher order aberrations have been
traditionally ignored clinically
Now are routinely considered
Post lasik increase in higher order aberrations
Can be easily measured
Wavefront guided correction available
Patient expectations
History of wavefront sensing
 DOD in the 1980’s to support “star wars”
 Measure the constantly fluctuating refractive power of the
atmosphere to improve accuracy of satellite photos and
accuracy of weapons
 Led to adaptive optics – real time measurements of refractions
using “deformable mirrors” that rapidly
 Astronomers were interested to improve telescope images
www.opt.pacificu.edu
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
Hartmann first looked at this a century
ago
Shack elaborated on this in the 1980’s
working for the air force
Liang was the first to use the wavefront
sensor to measure the human eye in
1994.
By the late 1990’s commercial
development was occuring.
Airy Disc
When wave encounters and obstruction, the direction of the wave changes.
This is called DIFFRACTION
An Airy disc shows how a point image is degraded by aberration
Point Spread Function
Consider an object consisting of a perfect point. The image of
this object will be at least one point wide. Normally it’s image will
consist instead of a spot of several points, brightest in the centre
and progressively darker away from the centre. This image
function is the point-spread function.
Point Spread Function
used to assess the spatial resolution of an
imaging system.
The PSF need not be symmetrical, so there may
be different spatial resolutions in different
directions.
Note that the PSF is, in most cases, a function
with significant variation over the field of view.
Modulation Transfer Function
Used to assess the overall spatial resolution of an
imaging system. It is formally defined as the magnitude
of the Fourier transformed point spread function
The concept of the MTF is to portray how much of the
contrast at a specific resolution is maintained by the
imaging process.
Modulation Transfer Function
How can the degradation of an optical
system be evaluated?
SQUARE WAVE
Max luminance
Min luminance
Modulation= Lmax-Lmin/Lmax+Lmin
Modulation Transfer Function
Square wave grating of specific frequency
and contrast is passed through an optical
system. The MODULATION can then be
measured
MTF= Mi/Mo Luminance of stimulus
Luminance of image
Modulation Transfer Function
In the optimal case, the MTF value is
1 meaning that object and image
contrast are identical.
MTF usually starts with a value 1 at 0
spatial frequency which represents a
homogeneous background. It then
drops in a system-specific manner
down to zero. By using the MTF, two
systems can readily be compared: At
each spatial frequency (or
1/resolution) that system with the
higher MTF maintains better contrast.
Wavefront analysis (wavescan)
Light is has both particle and wave
characteristics
Wavefront analysis describes the wave
behavior of light in the eye
Actual image displacement of the point
source from foveola as it passes through
the optical system of the eye compared to
the ideal image.
Custom Lasik-Wavescan
Wavescan uses the principles of MTF
Custom can correct for
Myopia or hyperopia
Astigmatism
Spherical Aberration
Coma
Custom does not correct for
Chromatic aberration
Diffraction
Hartmann-Shack Aberrommetry
How does it work….
Analyze light that emerges or is reflected
from the retina and passes through the
optical system of the eye.
Produces a “fingerprint” of the aberrations
for an individual eye.
Measuring Aberrations
Emmetropia/ no aberrations
Myopia/distorted wavefront
Aberrometers measure the shape of the wavefront
Wavefront analysis
The distance between the wavefront surface and a reference plane
Wavefront exiting
The eye. Distance
From the reference
Plane is measured
At many points.
Hartmann Shack aberrometer
Each lenslet is a fraction of a mm. It divides the broad beam of light
Into many sub-beams for measurement. Each lenslet focuses onto the
Video sensor. We analyze the position of each spot.
Wavefront Analysis
Wavefront Analysis
In an aberration free eye dot is centered and focused with respect
To a grid/array.
Wavefront Analysis
Wavefront Analysis
Sometimes it is easier to visualize the wavefront in a 3D surface plot
Wavefront Analysis
Spherical Aberration
Astigmatism
Trefoil
Quadrafoil
Wavefront Analysis –
Root Mean Square
Measure of the deviation of an actual
image from an ideal image of the source
point object
RMS of ideal system is 0
RMS of human eye increases from 0.1 to
0.25 at 60yo.
Standard LASIK increases RMS
especially for large pupils.
What are Zernicke polynomials?
Monochromatic aberrations can be decomposed
into Zernicke polynomials
Each ZP corresponds to a specific geometric
pattern of aberration and are grouped into
orders
These are mathematical expressions that
describe how much of what type of geometric
pattern is contributing to the total wavefront
aberration.
Basically it is a system for categorizing higher
order aberrations
Wavefront Errors described
By Zernicke analysis
Custom Lasik- Zernicke Polynomials
Each mode will have a number that is + or -.
This coefficient tells you how much of that
aberration is present
The units are not diopters, but microns
Pupil size is included
Will give you RMS
Zernicke modes are grouped into orders
2nd
order non wavefront
3rd
order and above are “higher order”. They are labelled
using a double index scheme Zn
m
, where n refers to the
order and m to the mode within the order.
Some of the modes have names
Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms
after LASIK. Sharma M, Wachler BS, Chan CC.
RESULTS: Blurring of vision was the most common symptom
(41.6%) followed by double image (19.4%), halo (16.7%), and
fluctuation in vision (13.9%) in symptomatic patients. A
statistically significant difference was noted in UCVA (P = .
001), BSCVA (P = .001), contrast sensitivity (P < .001), and
manifest cylinder (P = .001) in the two groups. The percentage
difference between the symptomatic and control group mean
root-mean-square (RMS) values ranged from 157% to 206%
or 1.57 to 2.06 times greater. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with
visual symptoms after LASIK have significantly lower visual
acuity and contrast sensitivity and higher mean RMS values
for higher order aberrations than patients without symptoms.
Root-mean-square values of greater than two times the
normal after-LASIK J refractive surgery March 2007
Ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast
sensitivity after conventional laser in situ
keratomileusis Yamane N, Miyata K, Samejima T,
IOVS 2004
Summary
Understand that ametropia is not the only
thing that causes blurry vision
Understand that aberrations also plague
lens systems in glasses, microscopes, etc.
Introduction to how refractive surgery (and
IOL’s, spectacls and CLS) is attempting to
compensate for aberrations inherent in the
optics of the eye.
Presbyopic IOLs
Multifocal IOLs
 http://www.eyeclinic.com.br/acrysoft/foto_04.jpg
 Apodized diffractive optics for a full range of vision
 The AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL was designed to provide a complete range of vision independent of
the ciliary muscle body. To achieve this, the AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL combines the functions of
both apodized diffractive and refractive regions.
 Apodized Diffractive
The apodized diffractive optics are found within the central 3.6 mm optic zone of the lens. This
area comprises 12 concentric steps of gradually decreasing (1.3-0.2 microns) step heights that
allocate energy based on lighting conditions and activity, creating a full range of quality vision –
near to distant.

 Refractive
The refractive region of the optic surrounds the apodized diffractive region. This area directs light
to a distance focal point for larger pupil diameter, and is dedicated to distance vision.
 Apodization for minimal visual disturbances
 Apodization is the gradual reduction or blending of diffractive step heights. This unique
technology optimally distributes the appropriate amount of light to near and distant focal points,
regardless of the lighting situation.
 The apodized diffractive optic of the AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL is designed to improve image
quality while minimizing visual disturbances. The result is an increased range of quality vision that
delivers a high level of spectacle freedom.
ReStor
ReZoom
Balanced View Optics™ Technology
ReZoom
Five focusing zones for a full range of
vision The ReZoom™ Multifocal Lens has
uniquely proportioned visual zones that
provide it with its major advantage. Each
ReZoom™ Multifocal Lens is divided into
five different zones with each zone
designed for different light and focal
distances.
Distance center
Near adjacent
Low light near and dist in the peripehry
Intermediate one zone
Wavefront IOL
Tecnis IOL (AMO)Only wavefront-
designed IOL with claims approved by the
FDA for reduced spherical aberration, i
The Tecnis Z9001 IOL with a modified prolate anterior surface
produces negative spherical aberration and consequently reduces the
higher-order aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. This leads to
enhanced contrast sensitivity and improved functional vision
compared to conventional spherical IOLs.

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Optical abberations pp

  • 2. The Perfect Image There is no such thing as a perfect image All light rays passing through optical systems are subject to distortions
  • 3. Outline Chromatic Aberration Spherical Aberration Oblique Astigmatism Coma Curvature of Field Distortion Point Spread Function Modulation Transfer Wavefront Analysis Custom Lasik and Zernicke Polynomials
  • 4. Chromatic Aberration A lens will not focus different colors in exactly the same place. the focal length depends on refraction and the index of refraction Short wavelength has higher n and is refracted more than long wavelength The amount of chromatic aberration depends on the dispersion of the glass. Lens Eye http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/aberrations/spherical/index.html
  • 5. Chromatic Aberration Dispersive power (abbe value) is based on change in index for different wavelengths If the index is the same for all wavelengths, there is NO DISPERSION The n increases as wavelength decreases
  • 6. Chromatic Aberration  Some patients can detect this  Dispersion usually increases in high index  May be noticeable with IOL’s
  • 7. Chromatic Aberration Duochrome Test Duochrome test helps you determine position of focal point with respect to the fovea Useful to avoid overminusing pt.
  • 8. Duochrome Test Too much minus green is clearer Too much plus red is clearer
  • 9. Chromatic Aberration- Duochrome Test Red clarity= green clarity then image is positioned correctly. 534 560 564
  • 10. Correction of Chromatic Aberration  An achromat doublet does not completely eliminate chromatic aberration, but can eliminate it for two colors, say red and blue.  The idea is to use a lens pair – a strong lens of low dispersion coupled with a weaker one of high dispersion calculated to match the focal lengths for two chosen wavelengths.  Cemented doublets of this type are a mainstay of lens design. Achromatic Doublets
  • 11. Correction of Chromatic Aberration APOCHROMATIC LENS The addition of a third lens corrects for three colors (red, blue and green), greatly reducing the fuzziness caused by the colors uncorrected in the achromatic doublet.
  • 12. Correction of Chromatic Aberration In the human eye, chromatic aberration is reduced by the lens, which changes index from the nucleus outward.
  • 13. Spherical Aberration For lenses made with spherical surfaces, rays which are parallel to the optic axis but at different distances from the optic axis fail to converge to the same point. http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/aberrations/spherical
  • 14. Spherical Aberration- correction Spherical aberration in the human eye is reduced by the aspheric shape of the lens and the cornea
  • 15. Spherical Aberration- Correction Meniscus Lenses The amount of spherical aberration in a lens made from spherical surfaces depends upon its shape. Best form, depends on base curve
  • 16. Oblique Astigmatism This aberration primarily influences the image quality of spherical lenses. When the wearer looks at an angle through the lens, there is a deviation which he perceives as blur. The higher the dioptric power of the lens, the more pronounced this error becomes.
  • 17. Oblique Astigmatism A dot is no longer imaged as a dot, but as two image lines.
  • 18. Oblique astigmatism- correction Mitigated by deviating from the spherical shape Aspheric Surfaces to the Rescue
  • 19. Coma . Coma is an aberration which causes rays from an off-axis point of light in the object plane to create a trailing "comet-like" blur directed away from the optic axis.
  • 20. Coma A lens with considerable coma may produce a sharp image in the center of the field, but become increasingly blurred toward the edges.
  • 21. Coma The resulting image is called a comatic circle. The coma flare, which owes its name to its cometlike tail, is often considered the worst of all aberrations, primarily because of its asymmetric configuration.
  • 22. Coma- correction For a single lens, coma can be partially corrected by bending the lens. More complete correction can be achieved by using a combination of lenses symmetric about a central stop. Coma is not well compensated for in the human eye.
  • 23. Curvature of Field Causes an planar object to project a curved (nonplanar) image. It can be thought of as arising from a "power error" for rays at a large angle. Those rays treat the lens as having an effectively smaller diameter and an effectively higher power, forming the image of the off axis points closer to the lens.
  • 24. Curvature of Field A lens aberration that causes a flat object surface to be imaged onto a curved surface rather than a plane. http://www.microscopyu.com/tutorials/java/aberrations/curvatureoffield/ =n*f2
  • 25. Curvature of Field- Correction The surface of the image formed by the eye is also curved, fortunately, the retina is also curved! For lens systems, using best form lenses with non-spherical shapes can help.
  • 26. Image Distortion Not about sharpness, but faithful reproduction of the shape of the object. It occurs when magnification varies with the distance of the object from the optic axis. Problem only for high powers Tends to falsify the positions of objects and cause vertical lines to wave Aphakes! Minimized by very steep back base curves
  • 28. Outline Chromatic Aberration Spherical Aberration Oblique Astigmatism Coma Curvature of Field Distortion Point Spread Function Modulation Transfer Wavefront Analysis Custom Lasik and Zernicke Polynomials
  • 29. Beyond sphere and cylinder… Higher order aberrations have been traditionally ignored clinically Now are routinely considered Post lasik increase in higher order aberrations Can be easily measured Wavefront guided correction available Patient expectations
  • 30. History of wavefront sensing  DOD in the 1980’s to support “star wars”  Measure the constantly fluctuating refractive power of the atmosphere to improve accuracy of satellite photos and accuracy of weapons  Led to adaptive optics – real time measurements of refractions using “deformable mirrors” that rapidly  Astronomers were interested to improve telescope images www.opt.pacificu.edu
  • 31. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor Hartmann first looked at this a century ago Shack elaborated on this in the 1980’s working for the air force Liang was the first to use the wavefront sensor to measure the human eye in 1994. By the late 1990’s commercial development was occuring.
  • 32. Airy Disc When wave encounters and obstruction, the direction of the wave changes. This is called DIFFRACTION An Airy disc shows how a point image is degraded by aberration
  • 33.
  • 34. Point Spread Function Consider an object consisting of a perfect point. The image of this object will be at least one point wide. Normally it’s image will consist instead of a spot of several points, brightest in the centre and progressively darker away from the centre. This image function is the point-spread function.
  • 35. Point Spread Function used to assess the spatial resolution of an imaging system. The PSF need not be symmetrical, so there may be different spatial resolutions in different directions. Note that the PSF is, in most cases, a function with significant variation over the field of view.
  • 36. Modulation Transfer Function Used to assess the overall spatial resolution of an imaging system. It is formally defined as the magnitude of the Fourier transformed point spread function The concept of the MTF is to portray how much of the contrast at a specific resolution is maintained by the imaging process.
  • 37. Modulation Transfer Function How can the degradation of an optical system be evaluated? SQUARE WAVE Max luminance Min luminance Modulation= Lmax-Lmin/Lmax+Lmin
  • 38. Modulation Transfer Function Square wave grating of specific frequency and contrast is passed through an optical system. The MODULATION can then be measured MTF= Mi/Mo Luminance of stimulus Luminance of image
  • 39. Modulation Transfer Function In the optimal case, the MTF value is 1 meaning that object and image contrast are identical. MTF usually starts with a value 1 at 0 spatial frequency which represents a homogeneous background. It then drops in a system-specific manner down to zero. By using the MTF, two systems can readily be compared: At each spatial frequency (or 1/resolution) that system with the higher MTF maintains better contrast.
  • 40. Wavefront analysis (wavescan) Light is has both particle and wave characteristics Wavefront analysis describes the wave behavior of light in the eye Actual image displacement of the point source from foveola as it passes through the optical system of the eye compared to the ideal image.
  • 41. Custom Lasik-Wavescan Wavescan uses the principles of MTF Custom can correct for Myopia or hyperopia Astigmatism Spherical Aberration Coma Custom does not correct for Chromatic aberration Diffraction
  • 42. Hartmann-Shack Aberrommetry How does it work…. Analyze light that emerges or is reflected from the retina and passes through the optical system of the eye. Produces a “fingerprint” of the aberrations for an individual eye.
  • 43. Measuring Aberrations Emmetropia/ no aberrations Myopia/distorted wavefront Aberrometers measure the shape of the wavefront
  • 44. Wavefront analysis The distance between the wavefront surface and a reference plane Wavefront exiting The eye. Distance From the reference Plane is measured At many points.
  • 45. Hartmann Shack aberrometer Each lenslet is a fraction of a mm. It divides the broad beam of light Into many sub-beams for measurement. Each lenslet focuses onto the Video sensor. We analyze the position of each spot.
  • 47. Wavefront Analysis In an aberration free eye dot is centered and focused with respect To a grid/array.
  • 49. Wavefront Analysis Sometimes it is easier to visualize the wavefront in a 3D surface plot
  • 51. Wavefront Analysis – Root Mean Square Measure of the deviation of an actual image from an ideal image of the source point object RMS of ideal system is 0 RMS of human eye increases from 0.1 to 0.25 at 60yo. Standard LASIK increases RMS especially for large pupils.
  • 52. What are Zernicke polynomials? Monochromatic aberrations can be decomposed into Zernicke polynomials Each ZP corresponds to a specific geometric pattern of aberration and are grouped into orders These are mathematical expressions that describe how much of what type of geometric pattern is contributing to the total wavefront aberration. Basically it is a system for categorizing higher order aberrations
  • 53. Wavefront Errors described By Zernicke analysis
  • 54. Custom Lasik- Zernicke Polynomials Each mode will have a number that is + or -. This coefficient tells you how much of that aberration is present The units are not diopters, but microns Pupil size is included Will give you RMS Zernicke modes are grouped into orders 2nd order non wavefront 3rd order and above are “higher order”. They are labelled using a double index scheme Zn m , where n refers to the order and m to the mode within the order. Some of the modes have names
  • 55. Higher order aberrations and relative risk of symptoms after LASIK. Sharma M, Wachler BS, Chan CC. RESULTS: Blurring of vision was the most common symptom (41.6%) followed by double image (19.4%), halo (16.7%), and fluctuation in vision (13.9%) in symptomatic patients. A statistically significant difference was noted in UCVA (P = . 001), BSCVA (P = .001), contrast sensitivity (P < .001), and manifest cylinder (P = .001) in the two groups. The percentage difference between the symptomatic and control group mean root-mean-square (RMS) values ranged from 157% to 206% or 1.57 to 2.06 times greater. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with visual symptoms after LASIK have significantly lower visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and higher mean RMS values for higher order aberrations than patients without symptoms. Root-mean-square values of greater than two times the normal after-LASIK J refractive surgery March 2007 Ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity after conventional laser in situ keratomileusis Yamane N, Miyata K, Samejima T, IOVS 2004
  • 56. Summary Understand that ametropia is not the only thing that causes blurry vision Understand that aberrations also plague lens systems in glasses, microscopes, etc. Introduction to how refractive surgery (and IOL’s, spectacls and CLS) is attempting to compensate for aberrations inherent in the optics of the eye.
  • 59.  Apodized diffractive optics for a full range of vision  The AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL was designed to provide a complete range of vision independent of the ciliary muscle body. To achieve this, the AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL combines the functions of both apodized diffractive and refractive regions.  Apodized Diffractive The apodized diffractive optics are found within the central 3.6 mm optic zone of the lens. This area comprises 12 concentric steps of gradually decreasing (1.3-0.2 microns) step heights that allocate energy based on lighting conditions and activity, creating a full range of quality vision – near to distant.   Refractive The refractive region of the optic surrounds the apodized diffractive region. This area directs light to a distance focal point for larger pupil diameter, and is dedicated to distance vision.  Apodization for minimal visual disturbances  Apodization is the gradual reduction or blending of diffractive step heights. This unique technology optimally distributes the appropriate amount of light to near and distant focal points, regardless of the lighting situation.  The apodized diffractive optic of the AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL is designed to improve image quality while minimizing visual disturbances. The result is an increased range of quality vision that delivers a high level of spectacle freedom. ReStor
  • 61. ReZoom Five focusing zones for a full range of vision The ReZoom™ Multifocal Lens has uniquely proportioned visual zones that provide it with its major advantage. Each ReZoom™ Multifocal Lens is divided into five different zones with each zone designed for different light and focal distances.
  • 62. Distance center Near adjacent Low light near and dist in the peripehry Intermediate one zone
  • 63. Wavefront IOL Tecnis IOL (AMO)Only wavefront- designed IOL with claims approved by the FDA for reduced spherical aberration, i The Tecnis Z9001 IOL with a modified prolate anterior surface produces negative spherical aberration and consequently reduces the higher-order aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. This leads to enhanced contrast sensitivity and improved functional vision compared to conventional spherical IOLs.