S.SEETARAM SWAMY, M.Pharm.,
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
•Fungi are eukaryotic cells and therefore represent a more complex
and evolved organism.
• Thousands of fungal species, predominantly parasitic in nature.
•Less frequent than bacterial & Virus but common.
•Mycology - the study of fungi
Four main Characteristics of Fungi
fungi are eukaryotic (they have a nuclei &
they are heterotrophs (they depend on
other organisms for food)
they are multicellular
they cannot move on their own
Fungi may be classified as yeast or moulds:
Yeast like pathogenic
Mould group of pathogenic
Therapy of fungal infections usually requires prolonged treatment. Fungal infections
are usually more difficult to treat than bacterial infections, because fungal organisms
Aspergillus fumigatus Infection Aspergillus flavus Infection
The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus &
Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin which is both
a toxin and a carcinogen and which can potentially contaminate foods
such as nuts.
Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause
Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The
symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness.
•Cryptococcus neoformans can cause a severe form of
meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV
infection and AIDS. The majority of Cryptococcus species live in
the soil and do not cause disease in humans.
Histoplasma capsulatum can
cause histoplasmosis in humans, dogs
The fungus is most prevalent in the
Americas, India and southeastern
Asia. It is endemic in certain areas of
the United States. Infection is usually
due to inhaling contaminated air.
Pneumocystis jirovecii [or] Pneumocystis carinii
can cause a form of pneumonia in people with
weakened immune systems, such as premature
children, the elderly, and AIDS patients.
Stachybotrys chartarum or "black
mold" can cause respiratory damage
and severe headaches. It frequently
occurs in houses in regions that are
Microsporum canis is
a fungus that can cause tinea
capitis in humans, and
simple ringworm in pets.
The organism's major reservoir
in companion animals is within
domestic cats and dogs.
SOME ADVERSE REACTIONS OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
Dr.K.Saminathan.M.Pharm, M.B.A, Ph.D
ketoconazole, miconazole, econazole, clotrimazole
Triazole derivatives: Itraconazole, fluconazole.
Mechanism of action
-Inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase, a cytochrome P450-
blockade of the synthesis of ergosterol in fungal cell membranes
-The ultimate effect may be fungicidal or fungistatic depending on
the organism and on drug concentration.
SYNTHESIS OF FLUCONAZOLE