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Anti Fungal Drugs

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Antifungal medicines are used to treat fungal infections

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Anti Fungal Drugs

  1. 1. ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS S.SEETARAM SWAMY, M.Pharm., Asst. professor, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, E-mail:seetaram.443@gmail.com
  2. 2. •Fungi are eukaryotic cells and therefore represent a more complex and evolved organism. • Thousands of fungal species, predominantly parasitic in nature. •Less frequent than bacterial & Virus but common. •Mycology - the study of fungi Four main Characteristics of Fungi fungi are eukaryotic (they have a nuclei & mitochondria) they are heterotrophs (they depend on other organisms for food) they are multicellular they cannot move on their own
  3. 3. Fungi may be classified as yeast or moulds: Yeast like pathogenic Histoplasmosis Coccidioidomycosis Blastomycosis Cryptococcosis Candida Mould group of pathogenic  Aspergillosis  Dermatophytes  Mucormicosis Therapy of fungal infections usually requires prolonged treatment. Fungal infections are usually more difficult to treat than bacterial infections, because fungal organisms grow slowly.
  4. 4. Systemic fungal infections: Affect deeper tissues and organs. Systemic candidiasis (RTI) Meningitis, endocarditis Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (Thrombosis) Pulmonary aspergillosis Blastomycosis (lesion of skin) Histoplasmosis (cough , fever, multiple pneumonic infiltrates) Coccidioidomycosis Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  5. 5. 6 TYPES OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS CANDIDA ASPERGILLUS CRYPTOCOCCUS HISTOPLASMA PNEUMOCYSTIS STACHYBOTRYS MICROSPORUM TRICHOPHYTON
  6. 6. Aspergillus fumigatus Infection Aspergillus flavus Infection ASPERGILLUS The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus & Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin which is both a toxin and a carcinogen and which can potentially contaminate foods such as nuts. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness.
  7. 7. CRYPTOCOCCUS •Cryptococcus neoformans can cause a severe form of meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. The majority of Cryptococcus species live in the soil and do not cause disease in humans.
  8. 8. HISTOPLASMA Histoplasma capsulatum can cause histoplasmosis in humans, dogs and cats. The fungus is most prevalent in the Americas, India and southeastern Asia. It is endemic in certain areas of the United States. Infection is usually due to inhaling contaminated air. PNEUMOCYSTIS Pneumocystis jirovecii [or] Pneumocystis carinii can cause a form of pneumonia in people with weakened immune systems, such as premature children, the elderly, and AIDS patients.
  9. 9. STACHYBOTRYS Stachybotrys chartarum or "black mold" can cause respiratory damage and severe headaches. It frequently occurs in houses in regions that are chronically damp.
  10. 10. MICROSPORUM Microsporum canis is a fungus that can cause tinea capitis in humans, and simple ringworm in pets. The organism's major reservoir in companion animals is within domestic cats and dogs.
  11. 11. TRICHOPHYTON INFECTION
  12. 12. Inhibitor of cell wall synthesis:  Caspofungin Drugs altering membrane permeability  Amphotericin-B,  Nystatin,  Hamycin Inhibit nucleic acid Synthesis  5 Flucytosine Disruption of mitotic spindle  Griseofulvin Drugs altering membrane synthesis  Inhibition of ergosterol Trimidazoles  Fluconazle,  Itraconazole,  Voriconazole Imidazoles  Ketoconazole,  Miconazole,  Clotrimazole. Inhibition of ergosterol+ lanosterol  Terbinafine
  13. 13. WWW.Pharmawisdom.blogspot.in
  14. 14. CHEMICAL STRUCTURES OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
  15. 15. SITES OF ACTION OF COMMON ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
  16. 16. 17 SOME ADVERSE REACTIONS OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS Dr.K.Saminathan.M.Pharm, M.B.A, Ph.D
  17. 17. N NN N N H3C CH3 O O O N N N Cl Cl O Itraconazole 4-(4-(4-(4-(((2R,4S)-2-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4- yl)methoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-2-sec-butyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-one Chemistry: Imidazole derivatives: ketoconazole, miconazole, econazole, clotrimazole Triazole derivatives: Itraconazole, fluconazole. Mechanism of action -Inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase, a cytochrome P450- dependent enzyme.  blockade of the synthesis of ergosterol in fungal cell membranes -The ultimate effect may be fungicidal or fungistatic depending on the organism and on drug concentration.
  18. 18. F F C O CH2CH2Cl 2,4-difluorobenzyl ethalene chloride N N H N -HCl (1,2,4-Triazole) F F C O CH2CH2 formation alkoxide F F C H2C H2C O N N N H (1,2,4-Triazole) F F C OH H2 C N N N N C H2 Fluconazole N N N N N N N N SYNTHESIS OF FLUCONAZOLE

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