Menopause

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  • Newton KM; Reed SD; LaCroix AZ et al. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Dec 19;145(12):869-79. Rossouw JE; Anderson GL; Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33. Utian WH; Archer DF; Bachmann GA, et al. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4 Pt 1):584-602.
  • Menopause

    1. 1. Menopause<br />Alicia Carl<br />Jamie Mathias<br />
    2. 2. What is Menopause?<br />The state of an absence of menstrual periods for at least 12 months.<br />Starts with varying menstrual cycle lengths and ends with the final menstrual period.<br />
    3. 3. When do women reach Menopause?<br />Average age: 51 years old. <br />HOWEVER, there is no way to predict when exactly an individual woman will enter menopause. <br />Most women reach menopause between the ages of 45 and 55.<br />May occur as early as age 30.<br />
    4. 4. Menstruation<br />Pituitary gland in the brain secretes FSH and LH, initiating menstruation.<br /> These hormones act on the ovaries to begin the process of releasing an egg from the ovary each month. <br />Under the action of these hormones, the ovary will produce estrogen and progesterone. <br />These four hormones all work together to cause the growth and release of one egg each month. If pregnancy does not occur to put a stop to this process, each cycle ends with a menstrual flow. <br />
    5. 5. Review<br />Anterior Pituitary<br />FSH & LH<br />Ovaries<br />Estrogen & Progesterone<br />Ovulation<br />Menstruation<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Follicle-stimulating_hormone_%28FSH%29_during_menstrual_cycle.png<br />
    6. 6. What causes menopause to occur?<br />Loss of responsiveness to LH and FSH; causing ovaries to produce less estrogen and progesterone by age 40. <br />Production FSH and LH increase significantly in an attempt to stimulate ovaries. <br /> Changes in the cycle begin to take place anywhere from 2 to 10 years before actual menopause. <br />Ovaries produce less estrogen and progesterone; therefore, menstruation stops completely.<br />
    7. 7. Symptoms<br />Irregular vaginal bleeding<br />Hot flashes & night sweats<br />Vaginal dryness, itching, irritation and/or pain with sexual intercourse<br />Urinary tract infection and/or urinary incontinence<br />Fatigue, memory problems, irritability, and rapid changes in mood.<br />Weight gain <br />Acne<br />Hair growth on face or abdomen <br />
    8. 8. Health Concerns<br />Osteoporosis<br />Deterioration of bone and bone density.<br />Results in an increased risk of fracture.<br />Density begins to decline by age 40.<br />Accelerated during menopause.<br />Both age and the hormonal changes due to the menopause transition act together to cause osteoporosis. <br />
    9. 9. Health Concerns<br />Cardiovascular disease<br />Prior to menopause, women have a decreased risk of heart disease and stroke when compared with men. <br />Around the time of menopause, however, a women's risk of cardiovascular disease increases.<br />
    10. 10. Reducing Symptoms and Health Risks <br />Hormone Replacement Therapy (with Estrogen)<br />Benefits: Relief of hot flashes Prevention of osteoporosis<br />Risks: Endometrial cancer if not taken with progesterone Blood clots Breast cancer Gallbladder disease<br />Possible risks: Cardiovascular disease Ovarian cancer Alzheimer’s disease Colon cancer<br />No risk or benefit<br />
    11. 11. Reducing Symptoms and Health Risks <br />Venlafaxine (Effexor) <br />Shown to relieve hot flashes.<br />Can also be used to treat depression.  <br />Paroxetine (Paxil) <br />Antidepressant that has been shown to work for hot flashes. <br />Clonidine <br />Medication used to treat high blood pressure and may help women with hot flashes.<br />
    12. 12. Non-Hormonal Therapy<br />Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants.<br /> Not as effective in relieving vaginal symptoms as replacing the estrogen deficiency with oral or local estrogen.<br />
    13. 13. Non-Hormonal Therapy<br />Lead a healthy lifestyle. <br />Regular exercise <br />Help protect against cardiovascular disease as well as osteoporosis, and exercise also has known mental health benefits. <br />Proper nutrition <br />Quit smoking!<br />Lowers risk of cardiovascular disease<br />
    14. 14. Key points<br />Menopause isn't an illness. It's a natural part of your life.<br />It happens when your body stops making certain hormones. <br />The symptoms of menopause can be distressing, but you don't have to put up with them. You can get help.<br />
    15. 15. Key Points<br />The main treatment for menopause is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). But if you don't want to take this, there are other treatments that might also help. <br />There are things you can do yourself to help relieve symptoms of menopause. <br />
    16. 16. References<br />Newton KM; Reed SD; LaCroix AZ et al. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Dec 19;145(12):869-79. <br />Rossouw JE; Anderson GL; Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33. <br />Utian WH; Archer DF; Bachmann GA, et al. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4 Pt 1):584-602. <br />Weber, Valerie. Menopause FAQs.Hamilton, ON, CAN: B.C. Decker Incorporated, 2007. p 1.http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csufresno/Doc?id=10171435&ppg=9Copyright © 2007. B.C. Decker Incorporated. All rights reserved. <br />The North American Menopause Society.Menopause Core Curriculum Study Guide.The North American Menopause Society; Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.; 2000.<br />Menstration Graph.<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Follicle-stimulating_hormone_%28FSH%29_during_menstrual_cycle.png<br />

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