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TYPES OF 
BIOMARKERS 
Mandeep Singh 
B.Sc. (H) Medical 
Biotechnology
Types Of Biomarkers 
There are mainly four types of molecular biomarkers : 
 Genomic biomarkers: based on the analysis of...
Genomic Or DNA Biomarkers 
 A measurable DNA characteristic that is an indicator of 
normal biologic processes, pathogeni...
Genomic Biomarkers 
 In a new study published in Science Translational Medicine 
Journal scientists have discovered that ...
Genomic biomarkers in cancer 
Drug discovery
Transcriptomic Biomarkers 
 The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, 
including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non...
Transcriptomic Biomarkers 
 That analysis has also provided increased prognostic capability, 
predicted response to neo-a...
Transcriptomic biomarkers use in 
Cancer drug discovery
Proteomic Biomarkers 
 Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, 
particularly their structures and functions. 
 ...
Ongoing & anticipated implications of 
Proteomics biomarkers in medicine 
 Proteomic-based approaches for 
biomarker inve...
Proteomics biomarkers use an 
effective Dignostic Biomarker
Metabolomic Biomarkers 
 Metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical 
fingerprints that specific cellula...
Metabolomic Biomarkers 
 The feasibility of metabolomics for biomarker discovery is 
supported by the assumption that met...
Metabolomic approach in Cancer 
dignosis
Types of Biomarkers Based upon application and 
Use in Drug Development and Disease 
Management
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Types of Biomarkers

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This ppt will provide you a brief yet effective information about major types of biomarkers, their definitions, their significance in disease dignosis & treatment, how they are being & are developed to be used as an effective dignostic tool for Cancer & their other future implications in other fields of medicine.

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  • "9th International Conference on Biomarker” welcomes all the attendees, speakers, sponsor’s and other research expertise from all over the world which is going to be held during October 26 -28, 2017 in Osaka, Japan. We are very much honoured to invite you all to exchange and share your views and experience on the Biomarkers Congress 2017. Oncology & Cancer has evolved into one of the most dynamic specialties in medicine. Biomarkers Congress 2017, in the hands of clinical investigators, provide a dynamic and powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of diseases with obvious applications in analytic epidemiology, biomarkers and clinical research in disease prevention, diagnosis, and disease management. Cancer biomarkers have the additional potential to identify individuals susceptible to disease. For more details: https://goo.gl/stHOQa
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Types of Biomarkers

  1. 1. TYPES OF BIOMARKERS Mandeep Singh B.Sc. (H) Medical Biotechnology
  2. 2. Types Of Biomarkers There are mainly four types of molecular biomarkers :  Genomic biomarkers: based on the analysis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) profiles, especially the analysis of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), i.e. identification of punctual variations in genomic DNA.  Transcriptomic biomarkers: based on the analysis of RNA expression profiles.  Proteomic or Protein biomarkers: based on the analysis of the protein profiles.  Metabolomic biomarkers: based on the analysis of metabolites (metabolites are the inter-mediates and products of metabolism).
  3. 3. Genomic Or DNA Biomarkers  A measurable DNA characteristic that is an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, and/or response to therapeutic or other interventions.  Scientists have discovered that virtually all cancers carry somatic DNA mutations. Unlike hereditary mutations that are passed from parent to child and are present in every cell in the body, somatic mutations form in the DNA of individual cells during a person's life. Because these somatic mutations are only present in tumor cell DNA, they provide an extremely specific biomarker that can be detected and tracked.  Mutations in oncogenes, tumour-suppressor genes, and mismatch-repair genes can serve as DNA biomarkers.
  4. 4. Genomic Biomarkers  In a new study published in Science Translational Medicine Journal scientists have discovered that dying tumor cells release small pieces of their DNA into the bloodstream. These pieces are called cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This study examines the potential of screening ctDNA for somatic mutations as a way to detect and follow the progression of a patient's tumor.  Mutations in other cancer-related genes, such as the RAS oncogene or the tumour-suppressor genes CDKN2A (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor A, which encodes p16INK4A), APC (the adenomatous polyposis coli gene) and RB1 (the retinoblastoma gene), also have the potential as markers for prognosis or selection of therapy.
  5. 5. Genomic biomarkers in cancer Drug discovery
  6. 6. Transcriptomic Biomarkers  The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non-coding RNA produced in one or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.  RNA-based biomarkers undergoing clinical evaluation consist of multi-gene molecular patterns or ‘fingerprints’.  For example, pattern-based RNA expression analysis of clinical breast cancers has identified previously unknown molecular subtypes that are associated with differences in survival.
  7. 7. Transcriptomic Biomarkers  That analysis has also provided increased prognostic capability, predicted response to neo-adjuvant therapy, predicted the likelihood of metastasis in lymph-node negative patients and correctly predicted tumour grade from laser-capture microdissected specimens.  Gene expression profiling offers an unparalleled opportunity to develop biomarkers that are useful in diagnosis and prognosis and in helping to achieve the goal of individualized cancer treatment.
  8. 8. Transcriptomic biomarkers use in Cancer drug discovery
  9. 9. Proteomic Biomarkers  Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions.  Proteomics technologies are emerging as a useful tool in the discovery of cancer biomarkers.  These advances overcome in part the complexity and heterogeneity of the human proteome, permitting the quantitative analysis and identification of protein changes associated with tumor development. With the advent of new and improved proteomic technologies, it is possible to discover new biomarkers for the early detection and treatment of cancer.
  10. 10. Ongoing & anticipated implications of Proteomics biomarkers in medicine  Proteomic-based approaches for biomarker investigation can be employed in different aspects of medicine, such as – 1. elucidation of pathways affected in disease, 2. identification of individuals who are at a high risk of developing, 3. identification of individuals who are most likely to respond to specific therapeutic interventions, and prediction of which patients will develop specific side effects
  11. 11. Proteomics biomarkers use an effective Dignostic Biomarker
  12. 12. Metabolomic Biomarkers  Metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.  Metabonomics, was introduced to refer specifically to the analysis of metabolic responses to drugs or diseases. Metabonomics has become a major area of research; it is the complex system biological study, used as a method to identify the biomarker for various disease.  In general, in most disease cases, a metabolic pathway had or has been either activated or deactivated - this parameter can thus be used as a marker for some diseases.  For eg., Serotonin production pathways, activated in a person who has recently consumed alcohol for instance, can be a metabolic marker of recent alcohol consumption.
  13. 13. Metabolomic Biomarkers  The feasibility of metabolomics for biomarker discovery is supported by the assumption that metabolites are important players in biological systems and that diseases cause disruption of biochemical pathways. In fact, metabolomics, has shown to have benefits in various clinical areas.  Compared to classical diagnostic approaches and conventional clinical biomarkers, metabolomics offers potential advantages in sensitivity and specificity.  Despite its potential, metabolomics still retains several intrinsic limitations which have a great impact on its widespread implementation.
  14. 14. Metabolomic approach in Cancer dignosis
  15. 15. Types of Biomarkers Based upon application and Use in Drug Development and Disease Management

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