The systematic study of the relationships
between people and tasks for the
purpose of redesigning the work process
for higher efficiency.
Defined by Frederick Taylor in the late
1800’s to replace informal rule of thumb
Taylor sought(wanted) to reduce the
time a worker spent on each task by
optimizing the way the task was done.
Taylor’s contribution to
Frederick Winslow Taylor (20 March 185621 March 1915), widely known as F. W.
Taylor, was an American mechanical
engineer who wanted to improve
He is regarded as the father of scientific
management, and was one of the first
He is also called as “Father of Scientific
It is the art of knowing what exactly you want
from your men to do & then seeing that it is
done in best possible manner.
In simple words it is just an application of
science to management
The systematic study of the relationships between
people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning
the work process to increase efficiency.
Taylor’s view about
Taylor believed that the industrial
management of his day was unprofessional,
that management could be formulated as an
Best results would come from the partnership
between trained and qualified management
and a cooperative and innovative workforce.
Each side needed the other and there is no
need for trade unions.
Principles of scientific
Science not the rule of thumb: scientific
investigation should be used for taking
managerial decisions instead of basing
on opinion, institution or thumb rule.
Harmony not discard/ cooperation
between employers and employees:
Harmonious relationship between
employees and employers. Cooperation
of employees that managers can ensure
that work is carried in accordance with
Scientific selection training and
development of employees: selection
means to choose the best employee
according to the need. Their skill and
experience must match the
requirement of the job.
Scientific development refers to
criteria for promotions, transfers etc..
So that work is done with full
Division of work/ responsibility: The
responsibility of workers and
management should be properly divided
& communicated so that they can
perform them in an effective way and
should be reward for the same.
Mental revolution: Acc. To Taylor, the
workers and managers should have a
complete new outlook; a mental
revolution in respect to their mutual
Workers should be considered as a part
His principles of
The four principles of management.
1. The development of a true science.
2. The scientific selection of the workman.
3. The scientific education and development of
4. Intimate and friendly cooperation between
the management and the men.
The main argument against Taylor is this
reductionist approach to work
dehumanizes the worker.
The allocation of work "specifying not
only what is to be done but how it is to
done and the exact time allowed for doing
it" is seen as leaving no scope for the
individual worker to excel or think.
1. The belief that increased output would
lead to less workers.
2. Inefficiencies within the management
control system such as poorly designed
How do today’s managers use
1. It was important because it could
raise countries’ standard of living by
making workers more productive and
2. Also it’s important to remember
that many of the tools and
techniques developed by the
application in the
Assembly Line Plants as Prototypical Examples
“Prisoners of Taylorism”
System of Remuneration (quotas - commission)
Re-Design - Reengineering
Data are used to refine, improve, change,
modify, and eliminate organizational processes
What is Bureaucracy?
complex, hierarchically arranged organization
composed of many small subdivisions with
Bureaucracy means “rule by administrative
Bureaucracy is complex
Bureaucracy is hierarchical
and transportation policies
make more efficient administration possible
lines of authority in a fixed area of
are implemented by neutral officials, not
the power elite
depend on technical
qualifications from organizations not individuals
Functions of Bureaucrats
Provide research and information
Quasi-judicial powers and responsibilities
Division of Labor
Devotion to Purpose
Advancement / Seniority
Authority and its flow
“Such a system offers the governed the
possibility of appealing the decision of a
lower office to its higher authority”
DIVISION OF L ABOR
Separation of roles and duties
“’higher’ authority [is not] authorized to
take over the business of the ‘lower’”
Who has the right to make decisions of
varying importance at different
Training and qualification is the number one
How to manage
How to carry out duties
Knowledge of the rules
the employee and the
organization view themselves
committed to each other over the
working life of the employee
The use of the most efficient means available to
accomplish a goal.
application in the
organizations guided by
countless rules are bureaucracies
Linked with inefficient, slowmoving organizations
Organizations have several
characteristics of bureaucracies
specific explanations for society in his
time are hard to generalize for other
circumstances in society
to see all the positive aspects of
rationalization and deemed society to be
doomed and trapped in an “iron cage” of its
features of Weber’s ideal
society might actually be inefficient (argued
Classical Theories of Organizations
Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
Two theories attempt to enhance
management’s ability to predict and
control the behavior of their workers
Considered only the task function of
communication (ignored relational and
maintenance functions of communication)
Designed to predict and control behavior