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English translationofmukhtarataladab


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A touch of Classical Arabic
Selection from the classical Arabic prose, text, Arabic to English vocabulary and English translation by

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English translationofmukhtarataladab

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa A TASTE OF CLASSICAL ARABIC VOLUME Isdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf SELECTIONS FROM ARABIC PROSE ‫مختا ات االدب‬ ‫ر‬ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj ‫قسم النثر‬klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklz Collected by Zaidan Badran Al-Misrixcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn ARABIC TO ENGLISH VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION BYmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq SALEEM A KHANANI, MD, MRCPwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe FOR STUDENTS OF ARABIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURErtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty SHREWSBURY MASSACHUSETTS, USA 2012uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjk
  2. 2. 1 ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ Literary Selections Prose section English translation of ‫مختا ات االدب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫قسم النثر‬ Collected by Zaidan Badran Al-Misri With Arabic to English vocabulary By Dr. Saleem A Khanani M.B., B.S. (PAKISTAN), M.R.C.P. (UK)MD (USA)
  3. 3. 2 ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ In The Name of Allah The Beneficient The MercifulThis collection is based on a short book by Zaidan Badran inwhich he collected 40 selections from the classical Arabicprose. . This book is used in Pakistan and India as aprescribed text.The selections are taken from the Holy Quran, traditions ofProphet Mohammad (peace be upon Him), speeches, lettersand other writings of prominent writers from the 7th centuryonwards. The selections are short and written in the classicalArabic and are particularly helpful to the students of theArabic language and literature.Most, if not all, of the selections are available freely on theinternet. A generous vocabulary is provided along withEnglish translations. Since it is not always possible toprovide a word to word rendering of the texts, due to therichness of the Arabic language, I have given an explanatorytranslation where necessary.
  4. 4. 3 Advice and pearls of wisdom from The Great Prophet peace be upon him ‫وصايا و حكم‬ ‫للرسوؿ االعظم‬ ‫قاؿ عليو الصالة و السالـ فيما ادب بو امتو‬ ٌ ‫أوصاىن رىب بتسع، وأنا أوصيكم ّٔا8 باإلخالص َب السر والعالنية، والعدؿ َب الرضا‬‫والغضب، والقصد َب الغٌت والفقر، وأف أعفو عمن ظلمٍت، وأعطى من حرمٍت، وأصل‬ ّ "‫من قطعٍت، وأف يكوف صمىت فكرا، ونطقى ذكرا، ونظرى عربا‬The Prophet peace be upon him said while teaching his community.“I convey the advice of my Lord to you about nine things. Headvised me to be sincere in privacy as well as in public. He advisedme to be just in states of happiness and anger, and to be moderatewhether I am rich or poor. He advised me to forgive whoevertransgressed against me, to give to him who deprived me and toconnect with whomever
  5. 5. 4severed ties with me. He advised me to make my silence a period ofthinking, my speech a means of his remembrance, and to look atthings with the intent of learning a lesson.ABOUT THE HOLY PROPHET PEACE BE UPON HIM.He was the great Messenger and the honorable Prophet, our MasterMohammad son of Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib whose lineageextends to Adnan. He was the last of the Messengers and Prophets.He was the most eloquent of speakers and most skillful of thetheologians. He was born at Mecca in the morning of the 12th ofRabi ul Awwal in the Year of the Elephants that corresponds to the23rd of April, 571. He passed away in Madina on the 12th of Rabi ulAwwal in the 11th year of his migration from Mecca. The details ofhis biography are more well-known than are mentioned here.VOCABULARY:silence ‫صمت‬ Pieces of advice ‫وصايا‬speech ‫نطق‬ wisdom ‫حكم‬Take warning, ‫عرب‬ taught ‫ادب‬learn a lessionmoderation ‫قصد‬ Advised me ‫اوصاين‬
  6. 6. 5 ‫احاسن االشياء‬ ‫لالماـ علي‬ ،‫ليس شئ أحسن من عقل زانو علم، ومن علم زانو حلم، ومن حلم زانو صدؽ‬ ‫ومن صدؽ زانو رفق، ومن رفق زانو تقوى. إف مالؾ العقل ومكارـ األخالؽ صوف‬ .‫العرض، واداء بالفرض، والوفاء بالعهد، واإلصلاز للوعد‬The above the actual text from the book but a slightly differentversion is given in the internet version of the book NahajjulBalagah, based upon the sermons and advices of Ali may Allah bepleased with him, as follows. ،‫ليس شئ أحسن من عقل زانو علم، ومن علم زانو حلم، ومن حلم زانو صدؽ‬ ‫ومن صدؽ زانو رفق، ومن رفق زانو تقوى. إف مالؾ العقل ومكارـ األخالؽ صوف‬ .‫العرض، واجلزاء بالفرض، واالخذ بالفضل، والوفاء بالعهد، واإلصلاز للوعد‬ The best of things By Imam AliThere is nothing better than intellect that is embellished byknowledge. Nothing is better than knowledge that is beautified withinsight or discretion. Nothing is better than insight that is associated
  7. 7. 6with truth, and truth that is coupled with leniency that is in turnbased upon piety.Indeed the foundation of intellect and nobility of character requireguarding of one’s honor and fulfillment of obligations, contracts andpromises.VOCABULARY:Guarding, ‫صوف‬ beauties ‫احاسن‬maintenancehonor ‫عرض‬ embellished ‫زاف‬fulfillment ‫اصلاز‬ basis ‫مالؾ‬leniency ‫رفق‬ Noble traits ‫مكارـ‬Ali, may Allah give him honor, was the Holy Prophet’s cousin(peace be upon him), the 4th of the rightly guided Caliphs and oneof the ten people given the glad tiding of being in the Paradise. Hewas one of the first Muslims and one of those known for theirbravery. He was also one of the famous speakers and God-consciousmen of knowledge. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was the city ofknowledge and Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was its door. Hewas martyred in the 40th year after migration.
  8. 8. 7 ‫ادلودة‬ ‫البن ادلقفع‬ Friendship By Ibn Muqaffah ‫ادلودة بُت االخيار سريع اتصاذلا بطئ انقطاعها ومثل ذلك كمثل كوب من الذىب‬ ‫الذي ىو بطئ االنكسار ىُت االصالح‬ ‫وادلوده بُت االشرار سريع انقطاعها بطئ اتصاذلا كالكوز من الفخار يكسره ادين عبث‬ ‫ٍب ال وصل لو ابدا‬Abdullah ibn Muqaffah said:“Friendship between good people is established quickly and doesnot end abruptly. Its example is like the example of a golden cupthat cannot be broken quickly and is easy to repair. Friendshipbetween bad people can end quickly and is difficult to establish like aporcelain mug that is broken by minimal negligence. It can never berepaired then.”Ibn Muqaffah was one of the leading scholars of literature whoconverted to Islam from Zoorastrianism. He was one of the eliteofficials of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansoor. He was renowned forhis interest in the sciences of language, philosophy and Persian
  9. 9. 8history. He was well mannered and modest who did not mix witheveryone except those who had similar interests. He displayedloyalty to his friends just as he was a beacon in the field of rhetoric.He was known for compactness of speech and distinguished himselfin exposition of thought, facility of language and elegance of style.He was killed in the year 142 after migration when he was no morethan 36 years old. His most famous book is Kalila wa Dimna.VOCABULARY:Cutting off ‫انقطاع‬ friendship ‫ادلودة‬easy ‫ىُت‬ slow ‫بطئ‬cup ‫كوز‬ quick ‫سريع‬negligence ‫عبث‬ connection ‫اتصاؿ‬clay ‫فخار‬ Lower, minor ‫ادين‬ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY FROM FOOT NOTES INTHE ORIGINAL:Educated, ‫متادب‬ scholars ‫ائمة‬manneredmodest ‫متعفف‬ chosen ‫اختص‬Mould, ‫شاكلة‬ unique ‫نادرة‬
  10. 10. ‫9‬‫‪temperament‬‬‫‪compactness‬‬ ‫رصانة‬ ‫‪mixing‬‬ ‫اختالط‬‫‪Did not cross‬‬ ‫مل يتجاوز‬ ‫‪elegance‬‬ ‫رشاقة‬ ‫‪Became famous‬‬ ‫اشتهر‬ ‫ُب ادلواساة‬ ‫ادلأموف‬‫‪The book only contains the response of Al Ma’moon. Since the text‬‬‫‪of the letter written by Queen Zubaida is available on the internet, it‬‬‫.‪is being included as well to provide a background to the response‬‬‫كتبت السيدة زبيدة زوجة ىاروف الرشيد إىل اخلليفة ادلأموف بعد أف قتل ابنها زلمد‬‫األمُت - تستعطفو وتعتذر8 كل ذنب يا أمَت ادلؤمنُت - وإف عظم - صغَت ُب جنب‬‫عفوؾ, كل إساءة - وإف جلت يسَتة لدى حلمك, وذلك الذي عودكو اهلل, أطاؿ‬ ‫و‬ ‫مدتك, ودتم نعمتك وأداـ بك اخلَت, ودفع عنك الشر والضَت.‬‫وبعد8 فهذه رقعة الوذلى اليت ترجوؾ ُب احلياة لنوائب الدىر, وُب ادلمات جلميل الذكر,‬‫فإف رأيت أف ترحم ضعفي واستكانيت وقلة حيليت واف تصل رزتي, وحتتسب فيما‬ ‫جعلك اهلل لو طالباً, وفيو راعياً فافعل, وتذكر من لو كاف حياً لكاف شفيعي إليك.‬‫فأجأّا ادلأموف جواب ادلواساة اآلٌب8 وصلت رقعتك يا أماه - أحاطك اهلل وتوالؾ‬‫بالرعاية - ووقفت عليها وساءين - شهد اهلل - رتيع ما أوضحت فيها, لكن األقدار‬‫نافذة واألحكاـ جارية, واألمور متصرفة, وادلخلوقوف ُب قبضتها ال يقدروف على‬
  11. 11. 10,‫دفاعها والدنيا كلها إىل شتات. كل حي إىل شلات, والغدر والبغي حتف اإلنساف‬ ‫و‬‫وادلكر راجع إىل صاحبو, وقد أمرت برد رتيع ما أخذ لك, ومل تفقدي شلن مضى إىل‬ .‫رزتة اهلل إال وجهو, وانا بعد ذلك على أكثر شلا ختتارين, والسالـ‬ CONSOLATION AL-MA’MOONLady Zubaida, wife of Haroon Al Rasheed wrote to the caliphMa’moon after her son Mohammad was killed, soliciting his mercyand apologizing. Every crime O leader of the believers, however,great it may be, becomes small under the wing of your forgiveness.Every tragedy, however great it may be considered, becomes easydue to your forbearance.And this is what Allah has returned to you, may it be prolonged foryou, and has completed His blessings on you, and may its goodremain with you forever, and has removed from you all the evil andthe harms.And after this, my passionate letter expresses hope for your life in theface of the upheavals of time, and good remembrance after death.And that is what Allah has returned to you, may it be prolonged foryou, and He has completed His blessing upon you, and may its goodremain with you forever, and has removed from you the evil and theharms. If you so consider to show mercy on me due to my
  12. 12. 11weakness, humility and lack of resources, and show regard forrelationship, expecting a reward from Allah that you look forwardto, and are able to do, then please do so. And remember him, who ifhe was alive, would intercede to you on my behalf.*******************************************Al Ma’moon wrote to her in response to her letter.“Your letter reached, o mother and may Allah protect you andguard you carefully! Allah is my witness that I feel bad after goingthrough what you have explained. But the destiny must be fulfilledand the orders have been implemented. Matters keep changing. Allthe creatures are under the grip of destiny and do not have thepower to prevent it from happening.Everything in this world will disperse and every living thing ismoving towards its appointed time of death.Treachery and rebellionlead human beings to destruction, and deception eventually comesback to haunt its perpetrator.I have already ordered for whatever has been taken from you to begiven back. You will miss nothing but the face of the one who hasreturned to Allah’s mercy. And after all this, I will strive to be theone that you cherish the most. And I end this letter with greetings ofpeace.
  13. 13. ‫21‬‫:‪VOCABULARY‬‬‫‪explained‬‬ ‫اوضح‬ ‫‪consolation‬‬ ‫مواساة‬‫‪destinies‬‬ ‫اقدار‬ ‫‪letter‬‬ ‫رقعة‬‫‪Taking place‬‬ ‫نافذة‬ ‫‪protected‬‬ ‫احاط‬‫‪issued or‬‬ ‫جارية‬ ‫‪guarded‬‬ ‫تويل‬‫‪implemented‬‬‫‪changing‬‬ ‫متصرفة‬ ‫‪carefulness‬‬ ‫رعاية‬‫‪disperesed‬‬ ‫شتات‬ ‫‪I came to know‬‬ ‫وقفت‬‫‪disloyalty‬‬ ‫غدر‬ ‫‪Displeased me‬‬ ‫ساءين‬‫‪destruction‬‬ ‫حتف‬ ‫‪transgression‬‬ ‫بغى‬‫‪returning‬‬ ‫راجع‬ ‫‪Fraud, deceit‬‬ ‫مكر‬‫‪Passed away‬‬ ‫مضى‬ ‫‪You won’t miss‬‬ ‫مل تفقدي‬ ‫‪You choose, like‬‬ ‫ختتارين‬ ‫من وصايا اإلماـ علي بن أيب طالب البنو احلسُت رضي اهلل عنهما‬ ‫يا بٍت . أوصيك بتقوى اهلل عزوجل ُب الغيب والشهادة ، كلمة احلق ُب الرضا‬ ‫و‬ ‫والغضب ومن حفر بئرا ألخيو وقع فيها ، ومن أعجب برأيو ضل ومن استغٌت بعقلو‬ ‫زؿ ، ومن خالط األنذاؿ حقر ، ومن جالس العلماء وقر ، والقناعة ماؿ ال ينفد و‬ ‫االدب خَت مَتاث و حسن اخللق خَت قرين‬
  14. 14. 13 From the advice Imam Ali bin Talib gave to his son Hussain may Allah be pleased with both of themO my beloved son I advise you to fear Allah in private and in publicand to speak the truth whether you are pleased or angry. He whodigs a well for his brother falls into it. He who is pleased with hisown opinion will be misguided. He who depends upon his ownintellect only, will make a mistake. He who mixes with rascals andfoolish people will be humiliated. He who sits in the company of thelearned will be respected. Contentment is a wealth that is neverdepleted. Education is the best heritage and good manners are thebest companion.VOCABULARY:Well ‫بئر‬ Dug ‫حفر‬Pleased,liked ‫اعجب‬ Fell ‫وقع‬Did not feel the ‫استغٌت‬ Misguided ‫ضل‬need ofMixed with ‫خالط‬ Made a mistake ‫زؿ‬Was disgraced, ‫حقر‬ Scoundrels ‫انذاؿ‬humiliatedWas honored ‫وقر‬ Sat in the company of ‫جالس‬
  15. 15. 14Does not deplete ‫ال ينفد‬ Contentment ‫قناعة‬companion ‫قرين‬ Heritage ‫مَتاث‬ ‫حسن ادلعاشرة‬ ‫للماوردى‬ ETIQUETTES OF LIVING AL MAWARDI
  16. 16. 15O wise person! Be concerned with your affairs, content with whatthe time has for you. Live peacefully among the people of yourtime. Be compatible with the trend of your time. Follow the onethat the people have appointed over you as a leader. Be kind to yoursubordinates. Do not isolate people otherwise they will dislike you.Do not oppose people openly otherwise they will become yourenemies. There is no life for the one who is disliked by others, andno comfort for the one with whom people harbor enmity.Abul Hassan Ali bin Mohaamad bin Habib Al-Mawardi was a chiefjustice who passed away in the year 450 AH. He was the author oftwo published books The Worldly and the other Worldly education
  17. 17. 16and the book about education for ministers. He is believed to havewritten several other books as well.VOCABULARY:affair ‫شاف‬ Concerned ‫مقبل‬ wise ‫عاقل‬ withtime ‫دىر‬ peaceful ‫سلم‬ satisfied ‫راضي‬kind ‫متحنن‬ Put forward ‫قدـ‬ follower ‫منقاد‬Do not ‫ال جتاىر‬ dislike ‫مقت‬ Do not ‫ال تباينهم‬do openly isolate them ‫بالعزلة‬life ‫عيشة‬ Will ‫يعادوؾ‬ opposition ‫سلالفة‬ become your enemycomfort ‫راحة‬ hostile ‫معادى‬ abhorred ‫شلقوت‬ ‫نصيحة ابوية‬ ‫للسهروردى‬
  18. 18. 17 Fatherly advice From Al SuharwardiO beloved son, he who does not fulfill his commitments has nointellect. One who is not honest has no sense of honor. No one canachieve knowledge without having an aptitude for it. There is nohonor for him who has no modesty. No treasure is more beneficialthan knowledge. No property is more profitable than wisdom. Nolineage is higher than education. No companion is purer thanwisdom. No evidence is clearer than the truth. No intercessor ismore beautiful than repentance. No burden is heavier than debt. Noharm is more harmful than a lie. No poverty is more harmful than alack of knowledge. No humility is more humiliating than greed.
  19. 19. 18Al Suharwardi was a write, a man of literature and poet who has leftbehind his mark in the world of literature.VOCABULARY:manliness ‫مروءة‬ Loyalty,faithfulness ‫وفاء‬aptitude ‫رغبة‬ truth ‫صدؽ‬treasure ‫كنز‬ honor ‫كرـ‬More ‫اربح‬ More beneficial ‫انفع‬profitablepurer ‫كى‬ ‫از‬ lineage ‫حسب‬clearer ‫اوضح‬ evidence ‫دليل‬More beautiful ‫أّى‬ intercessor ‫شفيع‬More harmful ‫اشر‬ harm ‫شر‬burden ‫زتل‬ repentance ‫توبة‬Debt,loan ‫دين‬ heavier ‫اثقل‬humiliation ‫ذؿ‬ More injurious ‫اضر‬greed ‫طمع‬ More humiliating ‫اذؿ‬ ‫وصية‬ ‫الىب بكر الصديق‬
  20. 20. 19 ADVICE FROM ABU BAKAR AL SIDDIQUEThe Caliph Abu Bakar As Siddique gave this advice to Yazeed sonof Abu Sufyan at the time of dispatching him with an army towardsDamascus.I am appointing you as the leader in order to test you and put you toan experiment. If you do well you will be reappointed and givenadditional responsibilities. If you fail to perform well I will removeyou. It is mandatory upon you to fear Allah since He is as aware ofyour inner thoughts as He is of your outwards actions. When youmeet with your soldiers then interact with them in a proper manner.
  21. 21. 20Assign them tasks in a good manner and give them good incentives.(literally start with them well and promise them well)And when you give them advice, be brief because people tend toforget parts of a long speech. (literally parts of a lengthy speech makeother parts forgotten)Reform yourself first since it will have similar effect on others.Abu Bakar Siddique’s real name was Abdullah bin Abi Qahafa AlQuraishi. He grew up as a knowledgeable, generous and wise personwho was one of the first Muslims. He also faced the most hardshipswhile helping the Messenger of Allah SAW. He was appointed asthe leader of the affairs of the Muslims after the Holy Prophet SAWand he led them with wisdom and leniency. He passed away in theyear 13AH.VOCABULARY:I have appointed ‫وليتك‬ sent ‫ارسل‬youI will try you ‫اجربك‬ So that I test you ‫البلوؾ‬I will augment ‫زدتك‬ I will return you ‫رددتك‬youI will remove you ‫عزلتك‬ If you do bad ‫اسأت‬
  22. 22. ‫12‬‫‪Be brief, make it‬‬ ‫اوجز‬ ‫‪Promise them‬‬ ‫عدىم‬‫‪short‬‬‫‪You meet‬‬ ‫قدمت‬ ‫‪It is mandatory‬‬ ‫عليك‬ ‫‪on you‬‬‫‪Start them with‬‬ ‫ابدأىم‬ ‫‪army‬‬ ‫جند‬‫‪Reform yourself‬‬ ‫اصلح نفسك‬ ‫‪Makes one forget‬‬ ‫ينسى‬ ‫عظة‬ ‫لالماـ على‬ ‫وعظ سيدنا االماـ على كرـ اهلل وجهو إِبنو احلسن عليو السالـ‬ ‫ُ َّ َ َ َ ِ َ َ َ ُ َّ‬ ‫يَا بػٍُت، احفظ عٍَت أَربَعاً وأَربَعاً، الَ يَضرؾ ما عم ْلت معهن‬ ‫ََّ ْ َ ْ ّْ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫إِف أَغٌت الْغٌِت الْعقل،‬ ‫َّ ْ َ َ ُ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫َ ْ َ َِْ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫وأَكبَػر الْفقر احلُمق،‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وأَوحش الْوحشة الْعُجب،‬ ‫َ َ َ َْ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫وأَكرـ احلَسب حسن اخلُلُق‬ ‫َ ْ ََ ْ َ َ ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫يَا بػٍُت، إِيَّاؾ ومصادقَةَ األَزتَق، فَِإنَّوُ يُريِد أَف يَػْنػفعك فَػيَضرؾ‬ ‫ُ ْ َ َ َ ُ َّ َ‬ ‫ََّ َ ُ َ َ ْ ْ ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ ُ ِ‬ ‫َ َ َُ َ َ ِ ِ‬ ‫وإِيَّاؾ ومصادقَةَ الْبَخيل، فَِإنَّوُ يبعد عْنك أَحوج ما تَكوف إِلَْيو‬ ‫ُ َ َ َْ َ َ‬
  23. 23. 22 ‫وإِيَّاؾ ومصادقَةَ الْفاجر، فَِإنَّوُ يَبِيعُك بِالتَّافِو‬ ِ َ ِ ِ َ َ َ َُ َ َ ِ َّ َ ِ َّ َ َ ً‫وإِيَّاؾ ومصادقَةَ الْكذاب، فَِإنَّوُ كالسراب شيئا‬ َ َ َُ َ َ ‫يػُقرب علَْيك الْبَعِيد، ويػُبَػعد علَْيك الْقريب‬ َ ِ َ َ َ ُ ّْ َ َ َ َ ُ ّْ َ ADVICE OF IMAM ALI TO HIS SON HASSANAli, may Allah honor him, advised his son Hassan may Allah bepleased with him:O my son! Remember these eight things from me and so long asyou act accordingly, nothing will harm you. The best independenceis through intellect. The worst poverty is foolishness. The mostfrightening thing is self-indulgence. The noblest of lineage is to havethe best manners. O my son avoid the friendship of a miser becausehe will turn you away from what you need the most. And avoid thefriendship of a dissolute person because he will deceive you for apaltry gain. (literally he will sell you in exchange for little). Andavoid the friendship of a liar because he is like a mirage. He willmake you see what is far as what is near, and what is far as what isnear.VOCABULARY:
  24. 24. ‫32‬‫‪foolishness‬‬ ‫زتق‬ ‫‪Will not harm‬‬ ‫ال يضرؾ‬ ‫‪you‬‬‫‪fear‬‬ ‫وحشة‬ ‫‪More frightening‬‬ ‫اوحش‬‫‪Beware of‬‬ ‫اياؾ‬ ‫‪Self indulgence‬‬ ‫عجب‬‫‪Make further from‬‬ ‫يبعد‬ ‫‪friendship‬‬ ‫مصادقة‬‫‪licentious‬‬ ‫فاجر‬ ‫‪More in need of‬‬ ‫احوج‬‫‪Little, paltry‬‬ ‫تافة‬ ‫‪Will sell you‬‬ ‫يبيعك‬‫‪mirage‬‬ ‫سراب‬ ‫‪liar‬‬ ‫كذاب‬‫‪Make far‬‬ ‫يبعد‬ ‫‪Make near‬‬ ‫يقرب‬ ‫الًتاحم‬ ‫للمنفلوطى‬ ‫لو تراحم الناس ما كاف بينهم جائع و ال عرياف و ال مغبوف و ال مهضوـ و القفرت‬ ‫اجلفوف من ادلدامع و اطمأنت اجلنوب َب ادلضاجع و زلت الرزتة الشقاء من آّتمع‬ ‫فيِأيها السعداء أحسنوا اىل البائسُت و الفقراء و كما ديحو نور الصبح ظالـ الليل‬ ‫امسحوا دموع االشقياء و احلموا من َب االرض يرزتكم من َب السماء‬ ‫‪COMPASSION‬‬ ‫‪AL MANFALUTI‬‬
  25. 25. 24If human beings show compassion then there will be among themno one hungry, naked, deprived or oppressed. The eyes will run dryof tears and people will be able to lie on their beds comfortably.Mercy will wipe out suffering from the society just like the light ofthe dawn wipes out the darkness of the night.O fortunate ones, be nice to the needy and the poor. Wipe the tearsof the unfortunate ones. Be kind to the people on this earth and theone above the skies will be kind to you.VOCABULARY:hungry ‫جائع‬ Mutual compassion ‫تراحم‬deprived ‫مغبوف‬ naked ‫عرياف‬Became empty ‫اقفرت‬ oppressed ‫مهضوـ‬tears ‫مدامع‬ eyelids ‫جفوف‬Sides, flanks ‫جنوب‬ Found comfort ‫اطمأنت‬Wiped away ‫زلت‬ beds ‫مضاجع‬darkness ‫ظالـ‬ wipes ‫ديحو‬society ‫رلتمع‬ Distress, suffering ‫شقاء‬Be good ‫احسنوا‬ Fortunate/successful ‫سعداء‬
  26. 26. 25 oneswipe ‫امسحوا‬ Those facing ‫بائسُت‬ hardshipUnfortunate ones ‫اشقياء‬ tears ‫دموع‬Will have mercy ‫يرزتكم‬ Be merciful ‫ارزتوا‬on youAl Manfalooti was brought up in Manfaloot and educated at AlAzhar. He wrote several literary articles in the magazine AlMuwayyid. He then joined the late Saad Pasha Zaglol whoappointed him as the editor of Al Muarif and then the editor of AlHaqqania. His writings portray the emotions of sadness and tragedy.He wrote but little poetry. He passed away in the year 1343 AH.His works are quite well known.
  27. 27. 26 PRUDENCE IBN MUQAFFAHPeople are of three types: prudent, more prudent and incompetent.A prudent person is one who is not alarmed when faced with aserious situation and whose heart remains firm. He is not short ofstrategy and planning that will help him get out of a tough situation.
  28. 28. 27A more prudent person is courageous and well prepared whoanticipates a problem before it happens and it increases hisdetermination. He prepares a strategy to deal with a problem. Hetries to eradicate a problem before it afflicts him and is prepared todefend himself against a danger ahead of time.An incompetent person remains hesitant, engaged in wishfulthinking and keeps delaying until he is destroyed.VOCABULARY:Prudent, ‫حازـ‬ Prudence, ‫حزـ‬determined determinationHelpless, ‫عاجز‬ More prudent ‫احزـ‬incapableDid not get ‫مل يدىش‬ A situation ‫نزؿ االمر‬alarmed occurredDid not become ‫مل تعى‬ scattered ً‫شعاعا‬helplessplanning ‫مكيدة‬ Trick, strategy ‫حيلة‬Intrepid, bold ‫مقداـ‬ exit ‫خروج‬Difficulty, trial ‫بالء‬ Well prepared ‫ذو العدة‬
  29. 29. 28determination ‫اعظاـ‬ Makes him ‫يعظم‬ determinederadicates ‫حيسم‬ Makes strategy ‫حيتاؿ‬Is put to trial ‫يبتلى‬ Disease, harm ‫داء‬Wishful thinking ‫دتن‬ hesitation ‫تردد‬ delaying ‫تواف‬
  30. 30. 29VOCABULARY:deprivation ‫حرماف‬ fasting ‫صوـ‬Discipline,teaching ‫تأديب‬ legislated ‫مشروع‬submission ‫خضوع‬ reverence ‫خشوع‬provokes ‫يستثَت‬ Obligation, ‫فريضة‬ dutycharity ‫صدقة‬ exhorts ‫حيض‬Enacts, establishes ‫يسن‬ breaks ‫يكسر‬ ٌUsed to, ‫ألِف‬ Characteristics, ‫خالؿ‬habituated qualitiesIs deprived ُِ ‫حرـ‬ rich ‫مًتؼ‬hurt ‫لذع‬ pain ‫امل‬ FASTING BY SHAWQUI BAKFasting is legislated by Islam as an obligatory deprivation and a wayof discipline through hunger. It is a way of showing reverence toAllah and submitting to him.
  31. 31. 30Every religious obligation has an underlying wisdom. Outwardly anobligation may appear to be a torture but internally it is a way ofkindness. It leads to compassion and provides motivation towardscharity. It is an antidote for arrogance and teaches patience. Itinculcates qualities of righteousness. Through fasting a glutton and aperson living in luxury will recognize how it feels to be deprivedand will know the pain of hunger.
  32. 32. 31VOCABULARY:poverty ‫فقر‬ Trouble,scourge ‫اٌفة‬accused ‫اهتم‬ Became poor ‫افتقر‬Blamed, censured, ‫اساء‬ Entrusted, confidant ‫مؤدتن‬disapprovedCommitted a crime ‫اذنب‬ suspicion ‫ظن‬Blame, accusation ‫هتمة‬ Other than he, ‫غَته‬ someone other than himPlace of, object of ‫موضع‬ Bad suspicion ‫سوء الظن‬praise ‫مدح‬ quality ‫خلة‬reckless ‫اىوج‬ Is named ‫ٌُى‬ ‫ُس‬Sedate, thoughtful ‫وقور‬ generous ‫جواد‬eloquent ً‫لسنا‬ Dull, stupid ‫بليد‬quiet ‫صموت‬ garrulous ‫مهذار‬ Unable to express ‫عيي‬ oneself
  33. 33. 32 THE SCOURGE OF POVERTY BY IBN MUQAFFAHWhen a man becomes poor, those who considered him trustworthystart accusing and suspecting him. Those who had a good opinionabout him, now become suspicious. He is blamed for things thatothers have done. He becomes an easy target for false accusationsand suspicion. Those qualities that are considered admirable in a richperson become his faults when he is poor. If he is courageous he iscalled careless and rash. If generous, he is considered extravagant. Ifhe is forbearing he is called weak. He is considered dull if he showspatience. If eloquent, he is called garrulous. If he is of a quitepredisposition, he is considered incapable of expression.________________________________________________ ‫وصية والد لولده‬ ‫دلا احتضر ذو اإلصبع العدواين‬ ‫دعا ابنو اسيد فقاؿ لو8 يابٍت اف اباؾ قد فٍت وىو حي وعاش حىت سئم العيش، واين‬ ‫موصيك مبا اف حفظتو بلغت ُب قومك ما بلغتو فاحفظ عٍت8 الن جانبك لقومك‬ ‫حيبوؾ وتواضع ذلم يرفعوؾ وابسط ذلم وجهك يطيعوؾ وال تستاثر عليهم بشيء‬‫يسودوؾ واكرـ صغارىم كما تكرـ كبارىم يكرمك كبارىم ويكرب على مودتك صغَتىم‬
  34. 34. 33‫واُسح مبالك واحم حرديك واعزز جارؾ واعن من استعاف بك واكرـ ضيفك و ع اىل‬ ‫اسر‬ ‫النهضة ُب الصريخ فاف لك اجال اليعدوؾ وصن وجهك عن مسالة احد فبذلك يتم‬ ‫سؤددؾ‬VOCABULARY:perished ‫فٌت‬ Death approached ‫احتضر‬Became annoyed, ‫سئم‬ lived ‫عاش‬displeasedBe lenient ‫الن جانبك‬ adviser ٍ ‫موص‬Do not prefer ‫ال تستأثر‬ Be humble ‫تواضع‬love ‫مودة‬ Will make you a ‫يسودؾ‬ leadersanctuary ‫حرًن‬ Guard! ‫اِحم‬ ِHelp! ‫اعن‬ Show honor! ‫اعزز‬Be quick!, hasten! ‫ع‬‫اسر‬ Sought help ‫استعاف‬help ‫صريخ‬ movement ‫هنضة‬asking ‫مسألة‬ Protect! ‫صن‬ ُDominion,power, ‫سودد‬ Will become ‫يتم‬rule complete
  35. 35. 34When Dhul Isba’a Al Udwani approached the time of death hecalled his son Usaid and said: O my son! Your father virtually diedwhile still alive, and lived long enough to be sick of living. I amgiving you an advice and if you remember it you will reach amongyour people the status that I have reached. So remember from me.Show leniency towards your people they will love you. Showhumility towards them they will raise your status. Meet them with asmiling face they will obey you. Do not prefer anyone over themthey will make you their leader. Respect the young among themjust like you show respect to their elders. In this way their elders willrespect you and the young among them will grow up loving you. Begenerous. Protect your property, honor your neighbors and helpwho seeks your help. And honor your guest and rush to theassistance of those who need it because you will also face yourappointed time. Avoid asking anything from anyone. In this wayyour dominion will be established.
  36. 36. ‫53‬ ‫الصرب‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬‫يقوؿ ابن ادلقفع 8 ذلل نفسك بالصرب على جار السوء ، وعشَت السوء، وجليس السوء‬ ‫، فإف ذلك شلا ال يكاد خيطئُك‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وليس الصربُ ادلمدوح يكوف جلد الرجل وقاحاً على الضرب، أو رجلوُ قويةً على‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ادلشي، أو يدهُ قويةً على العمل. فإمنا ىذا من صفات احلمَت‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ولكن الصرب ادلمدوح أف يكوف للنفس غلوباً، ولألمور زلتمالً، وُب الضراء متجمالً، و‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫لنفسو عند الرأي واحلفاظ مرتبطاً وللحزـ مؤثراً، وللهوى كاً، وللمشقة اليت يرجو‬ ‫تار‬ ‫حسن عاقبتها مستخفاً، وعلى رلاىدةِ األىواء والشهوات مواظباً، ولبصَتتو بعزمو‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫.منفداٌ‬‫:‪VOCABULARY‬‬‫‪associate‬‬ ‫عشَت‬ ‫‪Lower!, humiliate‬‬ ‫ذلل‬‫‪Will not miss you‬‬ ‫ال يكاد خيطئك‬ ‫‪companion‬‬ ‫جليس‬‫‪shameless‬‬ ‫وقاح‬ ‫‪praiseworthy‬‬ ‫شلدوح‬‫‪bearable‬‬ ‫زلتمل‬ ‫‪overcoming‬‬ ‫غلوب‬‫‪forbearing‬‬ ‫متجمل‬ ‫‪Adversity, distress‬‬ ‫ضراء‬‫‪United, attached‬‬ ‫مرتبط‬ ‫‪protection‬‬ ‫حفاظ‬
  37. 37. 36Bad desires ‫اىواء,ىوى‬ influential ‫مؤثر‬consequence ‫عاقبة‬ hardship ‫مشقة‬struggle ‫رلاىدة‬ disdainer ‫مستخف‬homeland ‫موطن‬ Temptations, desires ‫شهوات‬executor ‫منفذ‬ Foresight, insight ‫بصَتة‬ PATIENCE IBN MUQAFFAHShow humility with patience when dealing with bad neighbors,relatives and companions since you cannot go wrong by doing so.Patience is not commendable if the skin of a man is thick when he isstruck, or his feet are capable of walking and his hands are able towork since these are from the characteristics of donkeys. (A personshould show self-respect and not take every insult lying down if hehas the ability to respect.)Patience is commendable if it helps a person overcome his emotionsand makes his tough issues bearable. It is commendable if it leads toforbearance during dire situations. Self-control when expressingone’s opinion or resisting unlawful temptations requires patience.
  38. 38. 37Patience leads to determination and helps in giving up whims andfantasies. Patience alleviates the hardship that leads to a desirableoutcome. Patience is needed to overcome desires and temptations. Ifyou want to implement your vision with determination, you needpatience.
  39. 39. 38VOCABULARY:Living, life ‫عيش‬ means ‫وسيلة‬Collection, ‫تأليف‬ comfort ‫رغد‬joiningpains ‫آالـ‬ treatment ‫مداوة‬overspending ‫اسراؼ‬ Those in need and ‫بائس‬ difficultydestroys ‫يفٍت‬ spoils ‫يتلف‬fatigue ‫نصب‬ miserliness ‫شح‬Fortunate ones ‫سعداء‬ separates ‫حيوؿ‬humiliation ‫اذالؿ‬ spoiling ‫اتالؼ‬moderation ‫توسط‬ moderation ‫اعتداؿ‬both ‫كال‬ extravagance ‫تبذير‬If continued ‫اف داـ‬ grade ‫رتبة‬
  40. 40. 39 SPENDING THE WEALTHThe wealth is nothing except a means for living comfortably, forjoining the hearts in love and for alleviating the pain of those inneeds. Unnecessary expenditure wastes the wealth. Spending itwithout any benefit destroys it. Miserliness takes away its benefit andleads the wealthy to hardship. It stands between the wealthy personand a comfortable life.If there is decrease in wealth due to overspending, and self-humiliation due to miserliness with an inability to bear its burden,then there is a middle position between the two that is closer tovirtue and perfection and this is moderation. It is the balancebetween overspending and miserliness, and this is what the poetmeant when he said: Between overspending and miserliness is a grade These two traits if allowed to continue will kill their possessor ________________________________________________
  41. 41. 40VOCABULARY:Joining of ‫صلة الرحم‬ To be able to do ‫استغناء‬relationships withoutCounted as ‫عداد‬ To prefer (here ‫افضاؿ‬
  42. 42. 41 giving as a gift)withholding ‫امساؾ‬ rich ‫موسر‬remains ‫تبقى‬ Will not lose ‫مل يعدـ‬Soon will, will ‫مل يلبث‬ Is attributed to ‫يضاؼ اليو‬not continue himremorse ‫ندامة‬ regret ‫حسرة‬ WEALTH IBN MUQAFFAThe one who has wealth wants it and accumulates it whatever wayhe can to maintain his condition, his living, his worldly affairs andhis status in the eyes of people. His wealth ensures his independencefrom others and allows him to spend on his relatives, his childrenand to bestow upon his brethren. If a person does not spend hiswealth to fulfill his obligations, he is considered poor even if he iswealthy. If he spends appropriately and manages his wealth properlyhe will not be deprived of two things. His worldly affairs will betaken care of and he will be praised.
  43. 43. 42If you intend to spend your wealth in ways others than what youhave learnt, you will end up losing it and will always feel grief andremorse.
  44. 44. 43VOCABULARY:Do not ask for help ‫ال تستعينن‬ Do not offer excuse, ‫ال تعتذرف‬ ٌ ٌ do not complainDo not talk ‫ال حتدثن‬ ٌ Will help you ‫يظفرؾ‬Who considers, ‫من يرى‬ Profitable, beneficial ‫مغنم‬thinksGain, profit ‫مكاسب‬ Unless an ‫مل يغلبك اضطرار‬ emergency overcomes youpreparedness ‫عُدة‬ ٌ Luxury, comfort ‫رخاء‬help ‫معونة‬ difficulty ‫شدة‬ ٌDo not neglect ‫ال تفرطن‬ ٌ Hereafter ‫معاد‬acquisition ‫اكتساب‬ seeking ‫ابتغاء‬Does not equate ‫ال يعدؿ‬ means ‫وصالت‬Helpers, ‫مواسوف‬ helpers ‫اعواف‬sympathizersundesirable ‫مكروه‬ afflicts ‫ينوب‬
  45. 45. 44 REAL BROTHERS FRIENDS IN NEED IBN MUQAFFADo not offer apology except to one who loves to accept an apologyfrom you. Do not ask for help except the one who loves to fulfillyour need. Do not speak except with one who values your speechunless you are in dire need of it.And know that the true friends are the best earning of the world.They are a means of adornment in the times of ease and real benefitduring times of difficulty. They are helpers in good living and in theHereafter. So do not show any negligence in seeking them and infinding the means to connect with them. A wise person consideranything equal to his brethren since they are helpers in everythingthat is good and provide consolation in unfavorable situations.
  46. 46. 45VOCABULARY:May Allah honor ‫اعزؾ اهلل‬ scolds ‫يعاتب‬ ٌyou!Place of visiting, ‫موضع الزيارة‬ You do not consider ‫ال ترانا‬worth visiting usYou believe ‫تعتقد‬ To desire someone’s ‫استزارة‬ visitWhatever we had ‫ما كاف لدينا‬ You have received ‫استوفيت‬ in full
  47. 47. 46Our right on you has ‫سقط حقنا عليك‬ dropped ‫سقط‬ ٌlapsed, we have noright on youPeople, populace ‫رعية‬ Passed by ‫جتتاز‬Appears beautiful to ‫جتمل لو‬ deposed ‫معزوؿ‬ ٌhim, he likes itDismissal, removal ‫عزؿ‬ Does not embarrass ‫ال تعَته‬ ٌfrom office himYou show us ‫لًتينا‬ You did not visit us ‫مل تزرنا‬How often! ‫طادلا‬ Ascendency, ‫رجحاف‬ superiorityappropriate ‫صائب‬ Deficiency, loss ‫نقصاف‬Inevitable, fair, ‫واجب‬ By way of analogy ‫قياس‬proper A teacher scolds his studentMay God give you honor, if you think that we are no longer worthvisiting, then we are in need of your visit. If you believe that youhave received all that we had to offer then our right is no longer onus while your right still remains on us. A patient visits his physicianafter recovery from his illness and when he does not need anytreatment from him. People visit a governor after he has been
  48. 48. 47deposed and this looks good to him and does not embarrass him dueto his removal from office. If you do not visit us except to show usyour ascendency, just like we watched your deficiency for a longtime, then it will be appropriate to do and could be consideredproper. ‫وصف ما حيصل َب احملكمة‬
  49. 49. 48 DESCRIPTION OF WHAT GOES ON IN THE COURTWhen we go to the court we find in its court people with facesgloomy, complexions pale, breaths broken and palms elevated. Wesee lies being told and truth denied. We saw threats being given tothose who complain, and culprits being befriended. The witnesshesitates, the policeman threatens and the doorkeeper frets. Amother weeps and a child cries. A young man laments and an oldman grumbles. We hear words that are contradictory and statementsthat are conflicting. We see lawyers of both parties sharpening theirtongues and strengthening their hearts to get ready for theshowdown once the arguments start. They prepare their defense inorder to free their clients and to remove all charges and allegationsagainst them.VOCABULARY:courtyard ‫ساحة‬ court ‫زلكمة‬yellow ‫مصفرة‬ Overcast, ‫مكفهرة‬ gloomyIs denied ‫ينكر‬ palms ٍ ‫أكف‬Is threatened ‫يتوعد‬ One who ‫شاكي‬ complains
  50. 50. 49Is befriended, ‫يتودد‬ criminal ‫جاين‬shown lovehesitates ‫يًتدد‬ witness ‫شاىد‬threatens ‫يتهدد‬ policeman ‫جندي‬frets ‫يستبد‬ doorkeeper ‫حاجب‬laments ‫تتهلف‬ Weeps, cries ‫تنوح‬contradictory ‫متناقضة‬ grumbles ‫يتأفٌف‬Defense ‫زلامى‬ conflicting ‫متعارضة‬attorney,advocatesharpens ‫يشحذ‬ Adversary, ‫خصم‬ litigantpreparation ‫استعداد‬ Strengthens his ‫يقدح جنانو‬ heart, braces upfields ‫ميادين‬ encounter ‫نزاؿ‬Alertness, preparedness ‫تأىب‬ ٌ exchange ‫مقاؿ‬allegation ‫هتمة‬ Innocence, ‫برأة‬ withdrawal
  51. 51. 50 ‫قيمة ادلرء‬ ‫الديب‬VOCABULARY:preserves ‫ختلد‬ exploits ‫مأثر‬extinction ‫فناء‬ perishes ‫تفٌت‬
  52. 52. 51Takes away, steals ‫تسلب‬ What a difference ‫شتٌاف‬ there is betweenWipes away, hides ‫تطمس‬ circumstances ‫عوارض‬Engraves, leaves an ‫يرتسم‬ Signs, remnants ‫معامل‬impressionrepetition ‫كره‬ ٌ times ‫دىور‬passage ‫مرور‬ Freshness, renewal ‫جدة‬embarrassment ‫عار‬ greatness ‫اعظاـ‬impression ‫اثر‬ lasting ‫مقيم‬purer ‫اطيب‬ Praise worthy ‫زلمود‬remembrance ‫ذكرى‬ Value of a man By a writerThere is indeed delight and happiness in the actions and gloriousdeeds preserved by the history of the men of nations. Even if there isnothing more in that history than the recognition of the men ofthese deeds it still enjoys a life in the hearts of the people, a life that
  53. 53. 52does not end with their death and does not perish when they perishbut this is enough for delight and happiness.There is a difference between natural beauty, that is taken away bycircumstances and whose signs are removed by the time, and literarybeauty that is etched on the pages of time that only increases greatlyby repetition and the passage of time.Likewise there is a difference between a person who works for hisown sake and one who strives to serve his people and his country.And for this reason it is said that people are of two types. There arethose who do not leave behind anything that is praiseworthy. Suchpeople are an embarrassment to themselves and for their nation.The other types of people enjoy fond remembrance. They are asource of beauty for their nation, a beauty that lasts long.___________________________________________
  54. 54. ‫35‬ ‫الكتُب‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫الديب‬
  55. 55. 54VOCABULARY:cultivates ‫يهذب‬ mentor ‫مرىب‬Does not reach us ‫ال تنالنا‬ Faithful, loyal ‫وَب‬celebrates ‫حتتفى‬ sorrow ‫اسأة‬We return to it ‫نستعيد‬ Does not punish us, ‫ال تؤدلنا‬ does not cause us any painsolitude ‫وحشة‬ Gives us company ‫تؤنسنا‬plight ‫كربة‬ relieves ‫ج‬‫تفر‬Times gone by ‫عصور اخلالية‬ hidden ‫خافية‬Sweetness of talk ‫عذب احلديث‬ Exposes to us, ‫تكاشفنا‬ demonstrates to usWe like ‫هنوى‬ company ‫رفقة‬trustworthy ‫مأموف‬ Intelligent people ‫البٌاء‬Present, or in ‫مشهد‬ absence ‫غيب‬presenceeducation ‫تأديب‬ benefits ‫يفيد‬sovereignty ‫سودد‬ glory ‫رلد‬
  56. 56. 55 The booksA book is a teacher that teaches us, a mentor that makes us culturedand a loyal friend from whom no sorrow comes our way and noshort coming reaches us. We visit it any time we like and itwelcomes us with respect and happiness. We ask her and it neverfails to answer us. We refer to it again and again and it never harmsus with reproach. It provides us company in solitude and eases ourdifficulty. It tells us the stories of the times gone by and the secrets ofhidden nature. At times it exposes to us the ways of life and means ofsuccess in it and the life to come and the method of preparation forit. It overflows us with different arts and engages us in sweet talk thatmesmerizes us. It fills us with astonishment and wonders andreminds us with the words of one who said: ‫لنا رفقة هنوى استماع حديثهم‬ ‫ألباء مأمونوف غيبا ومشهدا‬ ‫يفيدوننا من علهم علم ماقد مضى‬ ‫وسؤددا‬ ‫ورأيا وتأديبا ورلدا‬ We have companions whose speech we love to hear The wise ones who can be trusted in their presence and absence They benefit us with their knowledge of the past And with their opinion, education, nobility and honor.
  57. 57. ‫65‬ ‫الرجل الكامل‬ ‫للحسن بن سهل‬
  58. 58. 57VOCABULARY:What concerns ‫ما يهمو‬ selection ‫اختيار‬himGood qualities ‫خصاؿ اخلَت‬ I am in need of ‫احتجت‬integrity ‫نزاىة‬ virtuous ‫ذى عفة‬cultivated ‫ىذب‬ Food, earning ‫طعمة‬experiences ‫جتارب‬ Made firm ‫احكم‬One who is ‫مطعوف‬ unreliable ‫ظنُت‬slanderedMade leader ‫قُػلٌد‬ Entrusted with ‫اؤدتن‬restrains ‫تقعد‬ sufficed ‫اجزأ‬Calms, ‫يسكنو‬ sagacity ‫رزانة‬reassuresshrewdness ‫فطنة‬ Is judged ‫فر‬ ٌ He possess all ‫عض على قارحة من‬ ٌ the means of ‫الكماؿ‬ perfectionguides ‫ترشد‬ One moment is ‫تكفيو اللحظة‬
  59. 59. 58 enough.authority ‫صولة‬ forbearance ‫اناة‬Does not trade ‫ال يبيع‬ humbleness ‫تواضع‬steals ‫يسًتؽ‬ deprivation ‫حرماف‬Able to carry ‫مضطلع‬ apparent ‫الئحة‬outIndependent, ‫مستقل‬ promoted ‫استهنض‬self contained,here able tocarry outShowed you ‫حبوتك‬ I have chosen ‫آثرتك‬goodwill youtrust ‫ثقة‬ search ‫ارتياد‬ Your ‫تأتيك‬ gentleness
  60. 60. 59 THE PERFECT MAN BY HASAN BIN SAHLHasan son of Sahl wrote to Mohammad son of Suma’ta the judge,asking about the choice of a man to fulfill an important assignment.He said:And after this I am in need of man to carry some importantassignments and I am looking for someone who possesses all thegood qualities, someone who is chaste and wants to pursue anhonest living. I desire a person who is refined through education andwho has been strengthened through experience. He should not besomeone whose opinions are unreliable or whose nobility has beensuspected and criticized. He should be able to keep secrets andshould be able to follow important orders. He should be mature inyears along with education and ability to communicate. He shouldhave the sobriety that restrains him and forbearance that makes himcalm. His intellect and insight should be evident and who possessesall the means of perfection. He should be able to purview thingswith a glance and whose silence guides him. He should have servedthe kings diligently and carried out their commands admirably.He should possess the forbearance of ministers, the strength of thegovernors, the humility of scholars, the deep understanding of the
  61. 61. 60jurists and the ability to answer like philosophers. He should not besomeone who trades off the share of today with deprivation oftomorrow. He should be able to steal the hearts of people with thesweetness of speech and the beauty of expression. The signs of hissuperiority should be evident and his knowledge should be obvious.He is willing to undertake any demand and carry whatever burden isplaced on him.And I have chosen you to help in finding such a man and have givenyou the task of searching for one with full confidence in your abilityto choose and find one.
  62. 62. 61VOCABULARY:Be humiliated ‫تذؿ‬ Succumbs, ‫ختضع‬ yields tosetbacks ‫نكبات‬ Remains ‫ال تلُت صعدهتا‬ relentless in
  63. 63. 62 risingwhatever ‫مهما‬ difficulties ‫ارزاء‬Became exalted ‫جل‬ ٌ Became great ‫عظُم‬Torment of ‫عض النوائب‬ Occurrence of ‫مر احلوادث‬difficulties accidentsexperience ‫مرانة‬ strength ‫مراس‬struggle ‫نضاؿ‬ Pleases him ‫لذ ذلا‬Receives its ‫يوافيها حظها‬ Prevents him ‫ياىب ذلا‬share frompleasant ‫سائغ‬fatigue ‫عناء‬ hardship ‫مشقة‬resists ‫جتالد‬ fights ‫حتارب‬Triumph,coping ‫مغالبة‬ overcomes ‫تغالب‬His eyes do not ‫ال دتتد عينو‬ extortion ‫اغتصاب‬fall uponDoes not savor ‫يهناء‬ prey ‫فريسة‬claws ‫سلاؿ‬ nails ‫انياب‬
  64. 64. 63 THE BRAVERY OF THE SOUL (THE BRAVE SOUL) BY MANFALOOTIThe high soul does not bow down in front of difficult situation nordoes it show weakness however grave it may be. Its hardness doesnot soften due to calamities and difficulties. The occurrence ofaccidents and the toughness of crises add to the soul’s strength andpower. Sometimes its struggle with the accidents of time andcalamities provides pleasure as if its greatness prevents it fromobtaining its full share of life with ease without struggle andhardship. It fights and struggles in its path. It overcomes the days ofdifficulty till it achieves its goal with its hand strongly and violently.Its example among the souls is like a lion among other beasts whoseeyes do not sweep towards an animal hunted down by someone elseand no food tastes sweet other than what its own teeth and clawshave collected.
  65. 65. ‫46‬ ‫وصية ىاروف الرشيد دلؤدب األمُت األزتر النحوي‬ ‫قاؿ األزتر النحوي8 بعث إيل الرشيد لتأديب ولده زلمد األمُت، فلما دخلت قاؿ8 يا‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫أزتر، إف أمَت ادلؤمنُت قد دفع إليك مهجة نفسو، وذترة قلبو، فصَتَ يدؾ عليو‬ ‫َ َّ‬ ‫مبسوطَة، وطاعتك عليو واجبة، فكن لو حبيث وضعك أمَت ادلؤمنُت، اقرئو القرآف،‬ ‫وعرفو األثار، وروهِ األشعار، وعلمو السنن، وبصره مواقع الكالـ وبدأه، وامنعو‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫الضحك إال ُب أوقاتو، وخذه بتعظيم مشايخ بٍت ىاشم إذا دخلوا إليو، ورفْع رلالس‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫القواد إذا حضروا رللسو، وال دترف بك ساعة إال وأنت مغتنم فيها فائدة تفيده إياىا،‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫من غَت أف ختْرؽ بو فتميت ذىنو، وال دتعن ُب مسازلتو فَػيَستَحلي الفراغ ويألفو، وقوموُ‬ ‫ّْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ما استطعت بالقرب وادلالينة، فإف أباُهَا فعليك بالشدة والغلظة.‬ ‫ُ‬‫:‪VOCABULARY‬‬‫‪Handed over‬‬ ‫دفع‬ ‫‪Soul, life‬‬ ‫مهجة‬‫‪make‬‬ ‫صَت‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫‪fruit‬‬ ‫ذترة‬‫‪Make him read‬‬ ‫أقرئو‬ ‫‪wide‬‬ ‫مبسوطة‬‫‪Make evident‬‬ ‫بصر‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫‪narrate‬‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ٌ‬‫‪beginning‬‬ ‫بدء‬ ‫‪Situation, time‬‬ ‫مواقع‬‫‪leaders‬‬ ‫قواد‬ ‫!‪Prohibit‬‬ ‫امنع‬ ‫ٌ‬‫,‪One who takes advantage‬‬ ‫مغتنم‬ ‫‪Not a second‬‬ ‫ال دترف بك ساعة‬ ‫ٌ‬‫‪seizes the opportunity‬‬
  66. 66. 65 should pass by youDon’t go to extreme, ‫ال دتعن‬ You will cause to ‫دتيت‬ ُdon’t be engrossed with dieHe finds it sweet ‫يستحلى‬ Pardon, ‫مسازلة‬ forgivenessHe becomes used to ‫يألف‬ leisure ‫فراغ‬Friendliness, kindness ‫مالينة‬ Make someone ‫قوـ‬ ٌ straightroughness ‫غلظة‬ He refused ‫اىب‬ ADVICE OF THE CALIPH HAROON AL RASHID TO HIS SON’S TEACHERHaroon Al Rahid advised the teacher of his son Ameen and said:O’ Ahmar! Indeed the Commander of the Believers has entrusted toyou the soul of his life and the fruit of his heart so make you handwide on him (be easy on him) and it is mandatory for him to obeyyou. So be to him as the Commander of the Believers has appointedyou. So teach him to recite the Holy Quran, introduce to him thetraditions, recite poetry to him and teach him the manners. Andshow him when to speak and how to start his speech. Prevent him
  67. 67. 66from laughing except at proper time and teach him to respect thepeople of the House of Bani Hashim when they come to him.Teach him to make the leaders sit in a high place when they attendhis sessions. No time shall pass by except that you seize theopportunity of benefiting him without making him sad because youwould kill his intellect otherwise. Do not go so easy on him that hebecomes fond of free time. Make him straight as much as you canwith closeness and gentleness. If he refuses that then you have thepermission to show harshness and ruggedness.
  68. 68. 67 ‫وصف اوؿ النهار‬ ‫الديب‬VOCABULARY:welcomed ‫استقبل‬ Came forward ‫اقبل‬Singing, ‫تغريد‬ types ‫انواع‬chirping
  69. 69. 68tranquility ‫ىدوء‬ split ‫شقت‬ ٌinclusive ‫شامل‬ quietness ‫صمت‬breeze ‫نسمات‬ The breeze ‫ىبٌت‬ blewMoist ‫بليلة‬ pleasant ‫عليلة‬hearts ‫فؤاد‬ Exhilaration, ‫انتعاش‬ revivalspread ‫انتشر‬ Became ‫عال‬ elevatedgroups ‫طوائف‬ Woke up ‫انتبهت‬singing ‫انشاد‬ birds ‫عصافَت‬procession ‫كب‬ ‫مو‬ Heralds the ‫تبشر‬ ٌ good news ofmultiply ‫تتكاثر‬ glowing ‫وىاج‬ ٌlifts ‫ترتفع‬ path ‫فج‬ ٌdarkness ‫ظالـ‬ ٌ veils ‫حجاب حجب‬flows ‫يتدفٌق‬ gradually ٌ‫تدرجيا‬
  70. 70. 69fills ‫ديالء‬ overflowing ٌ‫فيضانا‬reach ‫وصل يصل‬ atmosphere ‫فضاء‬rays ‫اشعة‬ appears ‫تربز‬garment ‫حلة‬ golden ‫عسجدية‬Universe, ‫كوف‬ golden ‫ذىبية‬worldinundates ‫تفيض‬ growth ‫مناء‬fascinates ‫خيلب‬ sparkle ٌ‫سنو سنا‬captivates ‫يفنت‬ intellect ‫لب‬ ٌloftiness ‫جالؿ‬ splendor ‫روعة‬ DESCRIPTION OF THE DAY BREAK BY A WRITERWhen the dawn breaks, it is welcomed by different varieties of birdsthat start singing and chirping. The tranquility of the night is brokenand its all-pervading silence is interrupted. This is followed by theswift movement of pleasant and dew-laden breeze that providespleasure to the soul and exhilaration to the heart.
  71. 71. 70Very shortly after the day break the light of the dawn starts to spreadand other birds wake up to add to the music. This is as if they werewelcoming the glowing procession of the queen of the day from theeastern horizon before it actually appeared.Then many voices from all over the place multiply. The veils ofdarkness are lifted gradually till the morning light inundates and fillsthe atmosphere reaching everywhere between the earth and the sky.At that time the sun manifests with its golden attire spreading itsgolden rays imparting life and growth to the world inundating itwith sunlight.This scene fascinates the intellect and captivates the eyes filling thesoul with its splendor and loftiness
  72. 72. ‫17‬ ‫النفاؽ‬ ‫لالديب‬‫:‪VOCABULARY‬‬‫رتع خلة‬ ‫خالؿ‬ ‫‪hypocrisy‬‬ ‫نفاؽ‬‫‪despicable‬‬ ‫مستهجنة‬ ‫‪ugly‬‬ ‫قبيحة‬
  73. 73. 72lower ‫ادىن‬ Natural ‫خلة‬ dispositionHarmful, ‫وبيل‬ disease ‫داء‬pernicisouThey get ready ‫يهيئوف‬ Violent, ‫الد‬ quarrelsomeCollapse, ‫انتقاض‬ opportunity ‫فرص‬rebellionattacker ‫مهاجم‬ diminution ‫انتقاص‬Deter, divert ‫صد‬ It prepared ‫هتيأت‬prepared ‫عتيد‬ raids ‫غارات‬It warded off ‫تدرأ‬ resistance ‫مقاومة‬transgression ‫عدواف‬ Warding off ‫درأ‬resist ‫تقاوـ‬ Lurking, ‫رابض‬ restingwondering ‫حَتى‬ impedes ‫حيذر‬ ًreality ‫كنو‬ sad ‫واذلة‬ abode ‫مقر‬ ٌ
  74. 74. 73 HYPOCRISY By a writerAmong the bad dispositions and despicable characteristics of humannature nothing is lower than the disease of hypocrisy. It is apernicious disease that is more harmful to a nation than the mostviolent of its enemies who are always waiting for the opportunity tobring out its collapse and to diminish its land from its sides. Becauseif the nation is able to recognize the attacker it can prepare to defendagainst its harm and stop the raids that the enemy comes prepared forby use of means of defense and ways of resistance. And even if it isnot able to prevent the enemy’s wickedness completely it can stillavert some of its transgression.However, a hypocrite is an enemy to a nation hiding in its veryheart. The nation does not know how to fight this enemy since itdoes not know who to resist. This enemy weakens its strength andimpedes its movement leaving it wondering about its afflictionsuffering from a disease whose reality is unrecognizable and whoseabode is unknown. The nation is not capable of finding a way todefend it.
  75. 75. 74 ‫النفس العالية‬ ‫للمنفلوطى‬VOCABULARY:Enough, ‫حسب‬ high ‫عالية‬sufficiencychanges ‫يتلوف‬ ً Line of action, ‫خطة‬ path
  76. 76. 75flatters ‫ديلق‬ Flatters (in order to ‫يداىن‬ deceive)Stains, filth ‫ادراف‬ Stained, soiled ‫ملوثة‬ ًEven if it missed him ‫لئن فاتو‬ Vices, depravities ‫رذائل‬Decoration, insignia ‫وساـ‬ White striped (garment) ‫مفوؼ‬ ًEssence, ‫جوىر‬ shining ‫المع‬substance,gemsDoes not miss it ‫ال تفوتو‬ Bright, shining ‫ساطع‬dislike ‫اباء‬ Opinion, ideology, ‫مذىب‬ doctrinepurity ‫نقاء‬ Wrong, injustice ‫ضيم‬Filled with ‫شللوء‬ forehead ‫جبهة‬pride ‫فخر‬ shines ‫يتالالء‬Shame, disgrace ‫عار‬ Did not cling to ‫مل تعلق‬Dirt, spot, flaw ‫شائبة‬ Did not stain ‫مل تلوثو‬ ًMeanness, lowliness ‫دناءة‬ ‫رتع شائبة‬ ‫شوائب‬disregards ‫يغضى‬ fears ‫يهاب‬Scratch, abrasion ‫خدش‬ Feels ashamed ‫خيجل‬
  77. 77. 76 THE ELEVATED SOULSuffice it is for the gracefulness of man to be the noble of spirit andstraight of action. He does not lie, change colors or flatter todeceive. He should possess a pure soul unsullied by despicablequalities and faults. Even if he does not possess a beautiful face,white striped clothes, shining medallions and glistening jewels, hestill possesses the nobility of opinion, self-dignity, dislike forinjustice and purity of conscience.A lofty forehead does not need a crown to adorn it. A heart filledwith honor and virtue is not debased by a medallion shining over it.The boastful ones boast due to their silver, gold and high positionswhile a noble man prides himself on his ability to walk among menwith a high head, lofty forehead, content soul and pure whileclothes not touched by a speck of the dust of embarrassment orstained by meanness of nature. Such a man does not fear anyone anddoes not ignore anything. He is not embarrassed to do anythingexcept that which is likely to harm the nobility of his character.
  78. 78. 77 ‫الصلوة‬ ‫لشوقى‬VOCABULARY:clothes ‫ارداف‬ It was counted ‫لعدت‬different ‫شىت‬ ٌ psyche ‫وجداف‬girls ‫جوارى‬ Becomes a youth ِ ‫يشب‬ ٌ
  79. 79. 78Habituates them ‫عودهتم‬ ٌ persistent ‫مثابر‬Looks for ‫يرود‬ Early rising ‫بكور‬Common people ‫زمع‬ leaders ‫علية‬Threshold, doorstep ‫عتبة‬ Equal, united ‫ع‬‫شر‬Noses, nostrils ‫مناخر‬ prostrate ‫خر‬ ٌTo have a front seat ‫تصدر‬ Sitting in the front ‫متصدر‬ rowTo be late, ‫تاخر‬ Late, standing in the ‫متاخر‬ rear THE PRAYERS BY SHAWKIEven if it was not the most important of the acts of worship, theprayer would be counted one of the most virtuous of habits. It is aphysical exercise for the body, requiring cleanliness of the clothesand leading to the spiritual refinement. It has several other noblecharacteristics that positively affect the growth of girls and boys.Those who pray regularly tend to be patient and persistent, and areable to fulfill their obligations. They get used to waking up early.Offering of prayers is the key to the door of livelihood. It establishes
  80. 80. 79a connection between a servant and his Provider. This is the bestway of through which the creature shows attentiveness to itsCreator.Look at the greatness of the congregation on Fridays and ponderover its influence over the society. How does it bring about equalitybetween the leaders and the masses? The foreheads of the peopletouch the earth, all equal and alike. At the threshold of God, theleaders and the populace are equal. Everyone prostrates on his nose,the first row is not unlike the last row. The ones in the front rowsare not privileged due to their being in the front rows, neither arethose in the back rows humbled due to their position at the back
  81. 81. 80 ‫تعزية‬ ‫لعبد اهلل باشا فكري‬VOCABULARY:condolence ‫تعزية‬ It is difficult ‫يعز‬ ٌcounseling ‫معزيا‬ I correspond ‫أكاتب‬distress ‫ملمة‬ I cause pain ٌ‫أمل‬Cannot be ‫ال يقابل‬ sympathising ‫مسلٌيا‬facedmeans ‫عدة‬ ٌ Without submission ‫بغَت تسليم‬
  82. 82. 81May His praise ‫جل ثناؤه‬ May Allah beautify ‫ارتل اهلل صربه‬ ٌ his patience!be exalted!Put into trial, ‫امتحن‬ May His favors ‫كت آالؤه‬ ‫بار‬tested be blessed!substituted ‫عوض‬ ٌ rewarded ‫آجر‬prolonged ‫طالت‬ death ‫آجاؿ‬Trouble, ‫كدر‬ hopes ‫آماؿ‬distressprocurement ‫حتصيل‬ Makes easy ‫يسهل‬ ٌ Condolence Abdullah Bash FikriIt is difficult for me to correspond with my chief to expresscondolences or to add to his pain while sympathizing. The order ofAllah SWT cannot be faced without submission. There is no way ofdealing without noble patience what Allah SWT has written. As mychief knows, and may Allah beautify his patience, and may not showhim anything after this (tragedy) except what would make himhappy and open his heart, that when Allah SWT, may his praise be
  83. 83. 82magnified and may his favors be blessed, puts one of his servantsthrough a test, He SWT rewards him and give him something inexchange out of His generosity, provided the servant showspatience.And we are not in a permanent place or ever honorable abode, evenif our appointed time has not yet arrived and our hopes are longdrawn out, while we grieve those who have left us. We remain injourney in this distressful world. And Allah SWT will make the pathof patience and the procurement of reward easy for my chief.
  84. 84. ‫38‬ ‫َب الشوؽ‬ ‫البن العميد‬ ‫كتابً إلٌك وأنا بحال لو لم ٌنغصها الشوق إلٌك‬ ‫ولم ٌرنق صفوها النزوع نحوك لعددتها من األحوال الجمٌلة وأعددت حظً منها فً‬ ‫النعم الجلٌلة فقد جمعت فٌها بٌن سالمة عامة ونعمة تامة‬ ‫وحظٌت منها فً جسمً بصالح وفً سعًٌ بنجاح‬ ‫ولكن ما بقى أن ٌصفوا لً عٌش مع بعدي عنك‬ ‫ٌخلو ذرعً مع خلوي منك وٌسوغ لً مطعم ومشرب مع انفرادي دونك‬ ‫وكٌف أطمع فً ذلك وأنت جزء من نفسً وناظم لشمل أنسً‬ ‫وقد حٌرمت رؤٌتك وعٌدمت مشاهدتك‬ ‫وهل تسكن نفس متشعبة ذات انقسام وٌنفع أٌنس بٌت بال نظام؟‬ ‫وقد قرأت كتابك جعلنً هللا فداءك‬ ‫فامتألت سروراً بمالحظة خطك وتأمل تصرفك وما أقرظهما‬ ‫فكل خصالك مقرظ عندي وما أمدحهما‬ ‫فكل أمرك ممدوح فً ضمٌري وعقدي‬ ‫وأرجو أن تكون حقٌقة أمرك موافقة لتقدٌري فٌك‬ ‫فإن كان كذلك وإال غطى هواك وما ألقى على بصري‬
  85. 85. 84VOCABULARY:Disturb, spoil ‫نغص‬ I am in a state ٍ ‫انا حباؿ‬someone’spleasure Desire, longing ‫شوؽ‬clarity ‫صفو‬ To cloud, to ‫رنق يرنق‬ make muddyI would have ‫لعددهتا‬ Inclination ‫نزاع اليك‬counted it towards youFound my ‫حظيت منها‬ Share, fortune ‫حظ‬ ٌshare from itBeing in need ‫خلو‬ ٌ Life is not ‫يصفو ىل عيش‬of, devoid of pleasant for meFood or drink ‫يسوغ‬ Devote whole ‫خيلو ذرعى‬goes down heartedlypleasantly,organizer ‫ناظم‬ loneliness ‫انفراد‬sociability ‫انس‬ unity ‫مشل‬
  86. 86. 85I have been ِ ‫عدمت‬ I have been ‫حرمت‬ ُ ُdeprived of forbiddenBroken into ‫ذات انقاسم‬ Saturated, ‫متشبعة‬parts satisfiedattention ‫تأمل‬ Observation, ‫مالحظة‬ notingI praise lavishly ‫اقرظ‬ ٌُ Action, ‫تصرؼ‬ demeanorI praise ‫امدح‬ praiseworthy ‫مقرظ‬ ٌsoul ‫ضمَت‬ praiseworthy ‫شلدوح‬In conformity ‫موافقة‬ belief ‫عقد‬withYour desire ‫ىواؾ‬ covered ‫غطٌى‬ Thrown over ‫القى‬ IN EAGERNESS IBN AL AMEEDI am writing this while in a state such that if my desire towards youhad not spoiled it and my inclination towards you had not tarnished
  87. 87. 86its purity, I would have counted it among my most beautiful states.And I would have counted it as my share from the most honorableblessings. I had indeed found in it a general peace, a sense ofreformation in my body and success in my efforts. However, it doesnot remain for me to enjoy living while I am away from you, and tobe devoted to my affairs while isolated from you. Neither food nordrink pleases me while I am alone. And how can I desire anythingwhile you are a part of me, and the organizer of the wholeness of mysociability? And I have indeed been forbidden from looking at youand deprived of seeing you. And how can a soul divided intomultiple parts be satisfied and how can the familiarity of homebenefit without proper arrangement?And I have read your letter, may Allah make me myself sacrifice toyour wishes. My heart filled with happiness by looking at yourhandwriting and your skills in choice of words.My praise is no too lavish since all of your personal traits arepraiseworthy for me. And I do not praise you superficially since allof your conduct is praiseworthy in the depth of my heart and belief.And I hope that the reality of it is as I consider you to be. And if itwere not like this then my love for you has covered my eyes.
  88. 88. 87 ‫الكرامة‬ ‫للمنفلوطى‬VOCABULARY:independent ‫حر‬ Self respect ‫كرامة‬I debate ‫اناضل‬ free ‫طليق‬I criticise ‫انتقد‬ I argue ‫اجادؿ‬
  89. 89. 88bound ‫مقيد‬ flattering ‫متملق‬Excuse me ‫يعفٌت‬ restriction,shackles ‫قيد قيود‬Acts of ‫صنائع‬ favors ‫اياد‬goodwillrejected ‫مرذوؿ‬ hated ‫شلقوت‬talents ‫مواىب‬ enslaved ‫مستعبد‬Cypress tree ‫سرو‬ A tree ‫زيزفوف‬ Self-respect By ManfalootiI like to live independently and freely, to debate whom I wish, toargue with whom I wish and to criticize whom I wish. I could utterwords that are good and bad in front of good and bad peoplewithout flattery or fear.A person who is imprisoned by gratitude and favors can never beindependent and free. Hence people should excuse me from theirfavors since I do not want to be their slave or be a prisoner in theirhands. I would prefer to live while hated by people and driven awayby them over a life of humiliation and servitude. I do not want to
  90. 90. 89rise like trees if the hand that made them grow is not my own. It isenough for me to achieve my share of status and nobility from myown efforts and talents. I seek no more than this.______________________________________________________ ‫خطبة اىب بكر اذ وىل اخلالفة‬ ُ ‫و من حكمو‬
  91. 91. 90VOCABULARY:praised ‫اثٌت‬ Appointed to ‫وىل‬ ٌَ ُsmarter ‫اكيس‬ legislated ‫سن‬ ٌPiety, God ‫تُقى‬ smartness ‫كيس‬consciousnessimmorality ‫فجور‬ foolishness ‫زتق‬innovator ‫مبتدع‬ follower ‫متبع‬Oppose me ‫ردوىن‬ ٌُ Help me ‫اعينوىن‬Breaking a ‫نكث‬ transgression ‫بغى‬promiseMemorized, ِ ‫وعى‬ deception ‫مكر‬ َ ُpreserved Abu Bakar’s sermon when he was appointed to the caliphate (May Allah SWT be pleased with him)He (Abu Bakar) praised Allah SWT and eulogized him and thensaid:“And afterwards! So I have been appointed over you (as a caliph)while I am not better than you. But the Quran has been revealed
  92. 92. 91and the Holy Prophet (peace be upon Him) has issued thelegislation, and he (pbuh) taught us so we learnt. And know that thepiety is the smartest thing, and immorality is the most foolish ofactions. And indeed the strongest of you in my sight is the weakuntil I regain (for him) his right. And indeed the weakest of you inmy sight is the strong until I take back from him someone else’sright (that he has obtained unjustly). O people! Indeed I am afollower and not an innovator. So if you see me following the truth,then help me. And if you find me to be wrong then oppose me.Obey me so long as I am obeying Allah SWT in your matters. Andif I disobey Allah SWT, then (my) obedience is not obligatory uponyou. I make this statement and ask forgiveness from Allah SWT formyself and for all of you.And from his words of wisdom:Three things are a source of liability for the one who possesses them:(three things come back to (haunt the) the one who possesses them.)1. Transgression2. Breaking of promises3. Deception