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  1. 1. THE GENERAT PRESCRIPTS OF BETIEF IN THE OU'RANAND SUNNAH Abdur-Rahmaan Abdul-Khaliq Translation and Commentaryby MahmoudMurad €PA,t-->))t1vt-' d"a
  2. 2. S:' A WORD OF THANIG TheMayliss Al-Haq of Publication Society grateful thosewho helped is to in producing English the version thisbook,andbrotherKhorshid of Bateson in particular, who never hesitated offeringhis editingservices the in to workspublished the Society. by May Allah rewardthem all alongwith thoseMuslims who supportthe Society reacheverycontinent the world. to in
  3. 3. TABTE CONTENTS OF Translato/sWord. ...... i Introduction " " 'iii lssues Belief Allahthe Exalted of in ..... 1 TheexistenceofAllah ....'....1 Uniqueness the tssence Allah of of .' ..' 1 TheUniqueness HisAftributes of 1 r+ Thewisdombehindcreation Unificationof worship 5 Thebeliefin angels 7 ., Thebeliefin the Scriptures . . . Thebelief theApostles Allah in of B ThebelieiintheHereafter.... ..... -..12 T h e b e l i eifn p r e d e s t i n a t i o n a n d f a t a l i s m .... '..16 The Muslim ummah(nation) . . . ."17 T h e b a s i co l d a ' w a h t o A l l a h s .........22 Attitudestowardsnon-Muslims . ' -.....24 The fundamentalsof Fiqh liurisprudence) 27 TheSunnah .....29
  4. 4. TRANSLATORS WORD All praiseis due to Allah the Exalted, and may peace be on Muhammad, the Sealof the Prophets,who delivered the messageof his Lord in the best manner. t he Apostle of Allah was reported to have said:"lf you deal with eenah,' and hold the cows' tails,and become content with employing yourselves with agriculture,and abandon jihad' in the way of Allah, Allah would per- mit your humiliation and would not relieve you of it until you return to your religion."' The preoccupationsmentioned in the above hadeethare not all that we must be aware of. We must also beware of all that may be inferredfrom them, takingthem in a metaphoricalsense.Eenahtransactions and holding cows' tails, and contentment with employing in agriculture represent in- clinationtowards the affairsof this world. They all lead to abandoningjihad in the way of Allah. Indeed, the wordS of the Prophet (Peacebe on Him) serye as a warning to the Muslimsof a future which has been realized.He was describingour presenttime, and informing us of the significance our presentactivities. of Reliefcannot come through embracingfalse beliefsand deviant tenets. The Prophet Muhammad, (Peacebe on Him) on the other hand, foretold the fact that his ummah would be divided into sevenw-threesects,all of which would end up in the Fire except one only, and that is Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-lama'ah. Many of those sects claim their adherenceto the Book and Sunnah.lf, for the sake of argument, their claim is held to be true, then there has to be somethingelse which distinguishes safe sect from the the other sevenw-two. lndeed, it is the way of understandingthe Book and the Sunnahwhich makes the difference. The tvvo great sources of lslam have to be understood the way they were understood by the pious predecessors amongstwhom the Prophetlived. Allah says:"Whoever opposes the Apostle after the right way has been clearlyshown to him, and follows other than the believers'wav. shall we keep him in the path he haschosen,and burn him in Hell,and what an evil d e s t i n a t i o n . ". 1 1 5 4 'fenah is one of the prohibited form of buying and selling,as it involvesusury 'Strivingin the way of Allah. tAbu Dawood.
  5. 5. The beireverswhom Allah cornmands us to follow held the right a<7r'edah gainedprosperity. is unfortunate and lt that most of the books in Englishdeal rvith lslamic issueswhich representparticularschools of thought refleetrng opinionsof one particular the imam or another.In marty casesthey are supported by weak ahaadeeth (traditions) by none at all. or Thus we have taken upon ourselvesin Al-Haq PublicationSocietythe task of makingworks of our pious predecessors, As-Sa/afus-Saalih, of those and who follow their suit.available our Muslim brotherswho do not speak to Arabic,by translating French thoseworks into English, and other languages. We also have taken upon ourselves the duty of addressing the pressing issues the N'luslims usuallyencounterin non-Muslim societies. M.A.P.Societypresents this book with a senseof fulfillment, it indeed as containsthe articles beliefthat are incumbenton all Muslimsto g,eneral of hold in order to safeguard themselvesagainstevery hideoustenet and belief introducedto them under the falsepretenseof defendinglslam. The reader will find in this book the fundamentals lslam and the of prescriptsof faith, and other important issuessupported by proofs from the Qu/an and Sunnahand other reliablereferences. I tried my best to convey the messageof the basictext of this book, and be faithful to the languageof the original.Where necessary the sakeoi for making an idea clear, a strictly literal translationhas been abandoned,and besides the quotations from the Qur'an and Sunnah,I have introduced footnotes and commetrtary where | {elt that a term or a concept requried some elaboration.However, I would like to draw the kind attention of the reader that although Qur'anic texts and Prophetic traditions in this book are preceded with "Allah says"or "the Prophet said",yet only their mean- ing is quoted in this book. In conclusion,I am gratefulto ,qllahthat He gave me the chanceto serve His religion and my brothers-in-lslam. Mahmoud Murad 27, Raiab 14O5 A p r i l1 7 , ' 1 9 8 5 8.C,, CANADA
  6. 6. u, INTRODUCTION Praisebe to Allah of Whom we ask help, forgiveness and guidance,and in Whom we seek refuge againstour own wrongdoing5."He who Allah guides there is none to lead astrayand he whom Allah misguidesthere is none to guide." It has been almost ten years since this discoursewas first published in Arabic, a period in which it has been reprinted or photocopied in various countriesthroughout the Muslim world, where it has been received with approval, praisebe to Allah for His grace. It is our purposein publishing this concisediscourse presentto our to brothers-in-lslam articlesof our creed in their entirety.Followingthe ex- the ample of those of our pious predecessors who have composed concise discourses the tenets of lslanr,I have written this in a simple style, and on numbered it in order to facilitate comprehending and retaining its con- tents. lt was my intention to write explanatorycomments on this discourse, had I not been preoccupied with the daily editing of articles on issues which required immediate attention. Allah, however, made it possibleto expound on the subject in consecutive lessonsand lectures that were recorded in about forty-fiveaudio tapes,copies of which are available,by the grace of Allah, in the Eastand West, to the benefit of many people irr terested in learningthroughout the world. ln the ten yearssince the first edigpn of this discourse,Muslims have suf- fered many afflictions, that causedsome to swervefrom the right way and others to tamper with the fundamentals lslam,while still others came to of claim partners to Allah, to whom they ascribed His attributes. This necessitated expositionof terms of referenceto safeguard Muslims the the againstdeviation from the right way. ft is common knowledge that lslamic atlee<Jah1presentedin the Qu/an is in two types of ayat (verses): 1) Statements which Allah plainly and clearly informs us (e.g. ,,Say: in He is Allah,the One, Allah,the absolutely independent upon whom all de pend. He does not beget nor was he begotten. And there is none com- parableto Him." [5.1120. Thissurah(chapter)is Divinestatementinform- a ing us about His Exaltedessenceand His attributesand His Oneness,praise be to Him. He is Self-sufficient, who standsout matchless, with none equal to Him, and He neither begets nor was begotten. The reason behind revealing the above surah, as it has been reported, was that the Prophet(Peace be on Him) was asked either by ''Aqeedah'is a rehgioustenet upon whrch one's mind and heart is firmly senled and to which he holds or adheres.
  7. 7. or Quraishl by somebedouins: "Tellus of your Lord's The lineage!"2 surah was revealed response their query.lrrespective the particular in to of cir- cumstances the revelation thissurah, and manyothersimilar of of it ones were revealed Allahto makeusawareof Hisattributes hisexistence. by and 2) Statements which Allah rebutsor repelsdubiousor profaneteneB in held by the paggns People tre Boo[ to verify*re truth and ordainHis or of aqeedah. example: For "And they saidthe Compassionate taken unto has Himself offspring." Allahin the aboveayahreftrtes beliefheld by tre [19.SS] a pagans angels that werethe daughters Allah.Theangels Hishonourable of are not slaves, Hisdaughters they alleged. as Anotherexample: 'The Jewssay:Allah'shandis tied up (.e. He doesnot spendof His bounty).' treir hands Be tied up and be *rey accursed what frey for uttered.Nal Both Hishands widelyouBtretched. givesand are He s p e n d s ( o f H i s b o u n t y ) a s H e w i l l s .. . " 5 . 6 4 and: 'Thosewho takepartners worship) Allahwill say:'lfAllahtnd (in with willed,we would not havetakenparhers(n wonhip)withHim,nor would our fahers,andwe would not haveforbidden dring(against a those who were beforetrem gave*re lie (to His Will).' Likewise Aflah'smessengers). 6.148 cr . ." The latterayahin whichAllahrebuts rebukes and unbelief confirms and the true beliefrepresents type commonlyfound in the Qu/an. a No doubt, the lessonof correct aqeedahis more froroughly leamed tlrroughthe presentation dre falseand is refutaton. of Ihis is dtrc to dre fact thatthings recognized are befterwhenplaced opposition theircontraries; in to lightfor instance be distinguished by contrast can only with darkness. Similarly, truth may be sought throughan awareness falsehood. of Allah the Exalted says: 'lA/hoever disbelieves the falsedeities in and believes Allah,then in he has graspedthe most trustworlfiy handhold,fiat will never break.. ." 2.256 Thismeans that in orderto belie taghoot'one mustbe aware it andits first of nature. I havecompiledthis discourse accordance in with the conceptof Ahlus- Sunnah wallamaah(the SunniMuslims) order to presentthe authentic in creedas perceived as-Salafus-5aa/ih piouspredecessors).is due to by (the lt Hisgracethat neithera tenet which is held by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-lamaah, 'Quraish is the tribe of the Prophe(Peace be on Him). rlt is customary for the Arabs to take pride in their family lineage and to set it as a criterion by which social status is judged. ''At-taghctctt'isany derty worshipped beside or other than Allah, or any obiect of wonhip.
  8. 8. nor any issuerelated to the subject matter, were left out of this discourse. In other.words, this work comprisesall of'the issuesrelevantto aqeeda dealt with by scholarsof the past and by contemporaryones, along with other commentariesrelatingto disruptivecontroversies our time. of Anyone who is well acquainted with works on aqeedahrealizesthat there have been times when many of religion'sminor issueshave been treated as fundamental,e.g., wiping over boots (in ablution),the imamate (leadership) Abu Bakr, Urrrr and Uthman (may Allah be pleasedwith of them),the definitionof the term Ahlul-Beit (the family of the prophet(peace be on Him), the marriage of mut'ah (enjoyment), stoning the married adulterer,and other minor judicial issues, differingover which resultedin attackson the reputationsof the companionsof the Prophet(may Allah be pleasedwith them all), Differingover these issuesultimately led some to regardthe Prophefs respectedcompanionsas infidels,and even to go so far as to regard the Qur'an as incomplete. Thus there have been times when people so exceeded the bounds of correct behaviour in pursuingdifferencesin minor issuesin religion,that they ended by differing over fundamentals. Similarto them are many people of the presenttime, who form a small group to invite to the way of Allah and deem themselves the sole lslamic group, while holding all others to be either infidelsor polytheists. Invariably, source of this anitude is a disagreement the over some minor question which later developsinto the centralfeatureof their sect and the criterion by which they judge others. Motivated by the concern over this situation,I brought together all the major issues aqeedahin this work, includingthe articlesof faith (i.e.the of belief in Allah, His angels,His Scriptures, Messengers, His the Final Day, predestiny(of good or bad))and other issues importanceon which peo- of ple have differed now and in the past. I have also included that which it is incumbent on the Muslims to believe with regard to jurisprudenceand ijtihadl, and the stand that the believers must take in relation to both Muslims and non-Muslims. the basic issueshave been included,of All which the Muslim should be aware in order to learn,and to evaluatehis convictionsso that he may hold fast to the right way. The SunniMuslims have no choice but to accept this pure aqeedah to achieve their unity and avoid all innovationsin belief or acts of worship, and to resistdeviationfrom and perversionof religion,and to rebuff false opinions and the deviantseventy-twosectsto which the prophet(peace be on Him) referred: "The Jews were divided into seventy-onesects, and Nasaraa (Christians) were divided into seventy-twosects,and my Llmmah (nation) shall be divided inb seventy-threesecrs;all of them are in the (Hell) Fire except one, that is Al-Jamaahr." "litihad'is drawing forth judiciallaws or rulingsby studyingrelevanttextsfrom the eu/an and Sunnah. ')'Al-lamaah'is assemblage SunniMuslims. the of
  9. 9. v, ln another hadeeth, referredto them saying, group of my Um- he "A mahwill remain victorious theirstruggle the course the truthuntil in in of Allah's order(theFinalHour)comesupon them."' The above authentichadeethmakesit abundantly clear that only the sa/afls (thosewho follow the methodology the Prophet(Peace on of be Him)and hiscompanions) constitute lama'ah, peopleof the truth the the who hold fastto the Bookand Sunnah who shundisbelief, and falsehood and shirk.'l The sa/afi and the aqeedah the safesectis what thisdiscourse call of is all about. We hope that this aqeedahdwellsin the heartsof everyMuslim,and that everyda'ee(inviter) Allah promotesit. We also hope that Allah to makes feasiablecompleting a concise Arabic commentary on this discoursesubstantiated valid argumentsand by proofs from the by Qu/an and Sunnah. It is entirelyup to Allahto makeour endeavour purelyfor Hissake, and to help usavoiderrorsin belief,utterance deed;He is the Hearer and the Knower. Abdul Khaliq Abdur-Rahmaan lBukhari ,Shirk - The attribution of partners or offspring to Allah.
  10. 10. I. ISSUES BELIEF ATLAH OI IN THEEXAITTD Ahlus-Sunnah wal-famahh believe and bear witness that: THT EXISTTNCE AttAH OT 1. Allah is the Cod Whose existence, Divinity,Lordshipand Onenessare provecl to be true, and are acknowledged by everv existingbeing.' uNtQurNrss THrrssENcr AIIAH oF ot 2 . Allah, Clory be to Him, is on His throne, mounting it in rhe manner which suitsHis Majesty,as He describedHimselfin seven different ayat (verses).'] Allah is "the Firs(', before Whom there is none, and "the Las('after Whom there is none, and "the Predominanf'above Whom there is none, and "the Internal" nearer than Whom there is none,j and all of His attributesare ever eternal, with neither a beginning nor an end. 4 . The essenceof Allah, the Exalteddoes not resemblethat of any of His creatures,as verified in the ayah: "There is none like unto Him, and He is the Hearer the Seer."a is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible.He is He the Lord without Whom no affairs are accomplished and to Whom Lordshipultimately pertains.He neither begetsnor is bcgoften. There is none equal to Him.t 5 . Allah never indwellsin any of his creatures do they indwell in Him. nor All other than Him are created by His ordinance and are subservientto H i sw i l l . THEt'N|QUENTSS HtSATTRTBUTTS OF 6. Allahis Everliving, Self-subsistrng, Sustainer, by Whom all things, the He "The seven heavensand the earth and all that is therein glorify Him. and there is not a thing but celebratesHis praise,but you understand not their oraise."17.44 l Q u / a n 7 . 5 4 .i 0 . 1 , 1 3 . 2 .2 0 . 5 , 2 5 . 5 9 . 'Qu/an 57.3 'Qur'an 42.11 tcf. Q u r ' a n :1 1 2
  11. 11. 2 al-Arsh,' alKursi,2the heavens,the earth and all that is therein were created;they all stanciin need of Him, and He standsin need of none. To Him belong Clory and Majesty. 7. Allah is the Omniscient,Whose knowledgecomprehends the most in perfect manner all things.hidden or open, the small and the great.3. Nothing is absent from His knowledge, nor anything is hidden from Him even if it be the weight of the smallestant.4Whether at rest or in motion, the stateof thingsis known to Him prior to and during its oc- currance.He is neither'heedless nor is He errant.'s 8. Allah the Supremeis the Lord of everythingand is its proprietor. He nas a free hand in the disposalof all affairs.There is no one to slrareHis do- main nor is there an aider or supporterfrom His creatures. the Merciful Whose mercy 9. Allah the Glorified is the Conrpassionate, encompasses things. He is far removed from iniusticeor tyranny.6 all 10. Allah is well acquaintedwith internal and external affairsof all things, and is All-Wise. He is free from defect or imperfection.There is no in- congruitynor any unsoundness His judgment.? in NothingHe chooses is in vain, nor is there anythingnot under His control. 11. Allah the Exalted loves,feelscontentment,reioices and He and laughs, also hates, dislikes, abhors and becomes angry, yet none of these Divine attributes resemblesthose of human beings.' 12. Allah the Exalted Craciousand Merciful,Who deliversHis believing is 'Al-Arsh was the first created thing and it is the Sreatestof all. lt is one of the things which mankind knows not in reality,but only by name. lt is erroneouslytranslatedas "throne" for if it were that, it would be a support to Allah. Allah says:"Verily Allah holds the heavensand the earth, lest they should move from their place; and if they should move from their place, no one would hold them after Him." 35.59 [cf. Mufradat of ar-Raghib] 'lAlthough there are different traditions describing al-Kursi, none of them is proven to be authentic, according to ash-Sheikh Nassirud-Din al-Alban(the leading authority in the science of Hadeeth of the present time) except one hadeeth quoted by him in his SilsilatulAhaadeeth 'The as-sahihah (No. 1@ of Vol. l): The Prophet(Peacebe on Him) was reported to have said: seven heavens by the side of the KURSIare nought but as a ring thrown down in a desert land: and such is the KURSIwith resoect to the ARSH." 'cf. Qu/an 76.14 'cf. Qur'an 1o.61 'Qu/an 20.52 'Qu/an 18.49 'Qu/an 21.16 rThe term'Dvine aftributes'is restricted to the attributes imputed to Allah by Himsel{, or by His Apostle(Peace be on Him). They should not be carried beyond their lingr;i5116 meaning. One should avoid trying to imdgine the reality of these 3ttributes; to deny them, or to attempt to interpret them, leads to kufr (unbelieo.
  12. 12. 3 slaves supports and them.Thedisbelievers the other hand.,He leaves on bereft of aid, punishes, exactsvengeanceupon, deceivesand draws to destructionlinle by linle. 13.Allah the Most Highspeak to his slaves He wishes.l descends as He and comescloserto Hisslaves He wills.,He hasa face,ra hand,.a as legr and a foot.6Yet none of the attributesof His essenceresembles those of humanbeings. 14.Allah, Praise to Him, is the Omnipotent, be and there is nothingto Hispoweror ability attain accomplish -frustrate to or anything, does nor 'the preservation the heavens of and earth burden Him.' ihere is no strengthnor power to do anythingexceptby meansof Him, 15.Allahthe Supreme Benignant, is Generouswith Hisbounty.He confers benefisandfavours upon Hisslaves. Thereis neither gift nor a grace a but from Him,and thereis nonewho can repelor withholdHisboun- ties. 16.Allah the Cloriousis far greaterthan to be encompassed theby knowledge Hiscreatures,t thereis no reignwhich can surpass of and l-lis.No one can praiseAllah as well as Allah praises Himself, nor is there any who can comprehend essence Allahas Allahdoes. the of r"And to Moses Allah spoke direc('4.164 rAbu Hurairah narrated: "Allah's Apostle said: Every night when it is the last third of the night, our Lord, the Supreme, the Blesseddescends to the nearest heaven and savs:'ls there anvone to invoke Me that I may respondto his invocation? there anyone to ask Me that I may grant ls his request?ls there anyone asking My forgiveness so that I may forgive himl," Bukhari Vol. lX, p 435. rThere are eleven ayat (verses) the in Qur'an referringto the "Faceof Allah" (viz 2.115,2.272, 13.22, 30.38, 3039, s5.27,76.9,92.20, 6.52, 18.28, 28.ffi) 'There are ten ayat in the Qu/an referringto the "Hands of Allah' (viz 3.73, 5.6412), 48.10, 57.29, 3.26, 23.88, 36.83, 67.1, 49.1, 38.75, 36.711 "The day the Shinshall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to prostrate,but they shall not be able to do so." 68.42 'Anas narrated: The Prophet(Peacebe on Him) said: 'The peopfe will be thrown into Hell Fire 'Are and it will keep on saying there any morez Until the Lord of the Worlds puts His feet over it, whereupon its sides will come close to each other, and it will say: 'Enough,enough'..." Bukhari Vol. lX, p.157 'd. Qu(an:2.255 ''He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they cannot encompassHim with their knowledge." 20.11O
  13. 13. 4 THTWISDOMBTHINDCTEANON jinn and mankind, 17.Allah the All-Wisedid not createangels, heavens and earthbut to worship,' praise,2 glorifyHim in their own way. and 18.Anyone who refrains from glorifying worshipping or Allah, be it an angel, jinn or a humanbeing.Allahcasts and curses, whoso a out and contends with Allah'sDivinityand callsothersto worshiphim, Allah shall curse and punish him.! 19.The only form of worshipaccepted Allah is the fulfillment His by of commands, wheJher approved reason btherwise, by or with absolute obedience, humility and lovefor Him.o 20.Allah shallacceptnone other than the religionof lslamfrom angels, jinn or men.tlslamis submission Allahby beingobedient Him, to to and by makingone'swill subservient His. to 21.Upon bringinginto existence the creation,Allah apportionedfor including everything, jinn,and mentheirmeans subsistence.6 angels, of andassigned eachits mansion habitat, madeeachcleave to and and to it. 22.Allahthe Most Highcreated jinn and men only to worshipHim alone and He triesthem with good andevil by way of probation thereby and teststheirobedience Him.7 to Jinnand men earngood or evil through their choice,yet neitherof them can gain good unless Allah accom- modatesthem and grantsthem His help; evil deedsare committed within the frameworkof Allah'swill and permission and are not a frustration Hiswill. of 23.Allah SubhanahumadeAdamfrom the clayof thisearthwith HisOwn hand,as an independent then He commanded form of creation, Jibril, "'l have onlv created iinn ond men to worship Me." 51.56 ,The seven heavensand the earth and all beingstherein declareHis Clory. There is not a thihS but celebratesHis praise,but you understand not (how they) celebrate His praise."17.44 r"And if any of them should say, I am a god besideHim, such one We should reward him with Hell. Thus do We reward those who do wrong." 21.29 'The word "worship" in its broad meaning, accordingto Sheikhul-lslam lbnu Teimiyyah,refers to everythrngAllah loves and to the deeds or utteranceswith which He is pleasedwhether they are hidden or manrfested. 3"lf anyone desires a religion other than lslam never will it be accepted of him and in the Hereafter e wrll be among the losers." .85 h J ""Verily for all things Allah has appointed a due proportion." 65.3 'cf. Qu/an 4.79
  14. 14. 5 His Spirit,to breathe life into him, turning him thus into man.1lt is also a fact that bringing Adam into existencetook place in Heaven. Allah Subhanahu commanded angelsto prostrateto Adam, and all of them obeyed. The jinn lblees, refused out of arrogance, disbelief and rebellion. Allah expelled him from His mercy, and warned Adam againsthim. 24. Allah created Hawwa'(Eve)from one of Adam's ribs and made her his wife.3Allah then tested them both by permitting them to eat all of the fruits of Jannah,while commanding them to stay away from one par- ticular tree. They disobeyed Allah by eating from it, so He sent tnem down to earth to live with their posterity,i that He may test their obe dience and submissionto Him. Those who obey shall end in Jannah, and those who disobev shall end in Hell. UNIFICATION OF WORSHI? 25. No slave shall attain belief in the oneness of Allah unlessand until his love, sincerity, fear and reverence of Allah become incomparably greater than that for any other than Him,s and unlesshe entrustsand submits to Allah alone, and gonsidersAllah sufficientas a reckoner. 26. Bowing prostrating,offering sacrifices, fasting vows and oaths6are all due to Allah alone. He who rendersthem to other than Allah commits shirk.' 27. No tawaafsaround an object other than the Ka'bahis permitted as an ',Ver@e|ikenessofAdam.HecreatedhimthenHesaid unto him: Be!and he is. Allah sent Jibril.who is the spirit of Allah, to breatheinto lviaryam,as a resultof which she conceivedand lssawas born to her. SinceAllah confirmsthat the creatron of lssawas as that of Adam then it is quite clear that rt was none but libril who breathed life in- to Adam. ':cf. Qur'an 2.34 rAbu Hurairahnarrated;Allah'sApostle said:,,Treat woman nicely,for woman is createdfrom a rib, and the most curved part of the rib is its upper end, so if you try to straightenit, it will break." Eukhari,The Book of Prophets. 'cf. Qur'an 2.30 t"Say:lf it be that your fathers,your sons, your brothers,your mates,or your kin, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce for which you fear a decline or the dwellings in which you take delight are dearer to you than Allah or His Apostle or the strrvingin His cause,then wait until Allah brings about Hrs decision,and Allah guides not the rebellious.', 9.24 6The Prophet(Peace on Him) was reported to have sard:"He who be swears by other than A l l a h c o m m r t sr h r r A . ' "'Say:Verily my prayer, my serviceof sacrrfice, my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the L o r d o f t h e W o r l d s . "6 . 1 6 2 E'Tawaalis circumambulation round the K.r'bah,in Meccah. Allah ',We says: assignedto lbraheem the site of the (Sacred) House sayrng:Assocratenot anything(in worship)with Me, and sanctify My House for those who compass it round or stand up, or bow or prostrate themselves(therein in prayerl.' 22.26
  15. 15. 6 act of worship. A kiss,as an act of worship may be given to nothing other than the Black Stone of the Ka'bah.Coing on a journey for the purpose of worship is permined only to al-Maslidul-Haraam (Meccah), Masjidun-Nabi (Medinah), and al-Masjidul-Aqsa(Jerusalem).' 28. Whoever goes to a kaahin or arraaf2 and askshis advice respectinga thing, and believes in what he says, denies what was revealed to Muhammad(Peace on Him).rThe knowledge of the unseenbelongs be to Allah alone. He who lays a claim to havingaccessto the unseenor to the Tablet Preservedlis an unbeliever and a mushrik.' 29. The Messenger of Allah(Peacebe on Him) made unlawful er?cting mosqueson graves, (Chris- forbade us from praisinghim as the Nassara tians)praisedthe Messiahson of Maryam, and forbade owning or mak- ing imagesor figures.He thereby safeguarded Ummah (nation)from his practicestantamount to shirk. 30. Karamah6 may be performed by a righteousman. lt can also happen that events breaking normal laws of nature may be performed by the rebellious,and by imposters and hoaxers.He who is well aequairrted with the truth of religion can differentiatebetween the two categories; the obeyers of Allah and the obeyers of Shaitan. 31. Pride,greatness and glory are qualitieswhich pertainto Allah alone. No one intercedeswith Him (on the Day of Judgment)on behalf of others exceptby His permission.T one can make fa-al/i,!nor compete with No Allah in any of Hisqualities.Thereis no repellerof Hisdecreeand judg- ment.s sovereignty 32. Creation, and authoritybelongexclusively Allah,and it is to Allah Who holds command legislateslaws respectingworship' Whoso contendswith Allah in His iurisdictioncommits shirk. 33. He who complieswith the command of a master, leaderor a ruler in a 'cf. Bukharibook 30 lKaahidor 'arraafis a diviner or astrologerwho laysa falseclaim to the knowledge of the un- seen which Allah restrictedto Himself. 'cf . fmam Ahmad (in his "Musnad') 'A record which contains whatever Allah willed and decreed. 'Mushrik - a person who commits shrrk.(see footnote p.Vl) 6'Karamah'is miracle performed by a righteousperson not claimrngto be a prophet. lt is per- a formed with the help of Allah as a sign of His love to the pious siave. ' " W h o i s t h e r e w h o c a n i n t e r c e d e n H i s p r e s e n c e x c e p ta s H e p e r m i t s . "2 . 2 5 5 i e s ' I . l - , t / / i ' m e a n s s s i n gu d g m e n ta n d p r o n o u n c i n B e n t e n c e , i t hr e g a r d so s o m e o n e ' sa t e i n pa l s w t t t h i s l i f e o r i n t h e H e r e a f t e re . g . ,s a y i n g : S u c ha o n e i s d e f i n t e l yi n . l a n n a h n d s u c h a o n e l s , " a d e f i n i t e l y n H e l l " ,o r s w e a n n B y A . l l a h h a t s u c h a t h i n g w i l l a s s u r e d l y e f u l f i l l e db y A l l a h i b t b " ' ( W h e n )A l l a h p a s s e su d g m e n t ,t h e r e i s n o n e t o p u t b a c k H i s r u l i n g . "1 3 . - 1 4 l
  16. 16. 7 to disobedience and defiance Allahis an unbeliever a mushrik. of and Thereshallbe no obedience a creature Allahwhen it would in- to of volve disobeying displeasing or Allah.l 34.All statements words of Allah are truthfuland all His rulings and are just."And the word of your Lordhasitsfulfillment truthandjustice." in 6.115 THTBEUTF ANCTIJ IN 35.Allahcreated angels of lightand madethem perfectly out obedientto Himanddevotedto constant worship Him.'Theyspeak untilHe of not hasspokenand they.actby Hiscommand. knowswhat is bbtore He them and what is behindthem;theydo not intercede with Himexcept for thosewho are acceptable Him, and they (the angels) to standin awe for fear of Him;' 21.27 36.Alfah Subhanahu tasks the angelsto undertakenumerousduties besides praising Him,suchasdelivering DivineMessages(revelation) to HisApostles and Prophets, givingthe believers courage and firmness whenfighting enemies, the recording man'sgoodandbaddeeds, guar- ding and wardinghazards from thosewhom Allahwishes protect, to collectingsoulsat the time of death,breathing into the foetus, life directingcloudsand other dutiesasstated Allahin HisBook,or by by the tongueof HisMessenger(Peaceon Him). be 37.We lovethe angelsbecausethey lovethe believers prayfor them, and and because sharewith them the beliefin the Oneness Allah, we of and we, alongwith themglorifyHimand proclaim Holiness. His Con- traryto whatJews we makeno distinction do, between one angeland another. THEBTUEF THTSCRIPTURES IN 38.Allahsentdown the Scrrptures HisApostles, beingwordsfrom to and Allah,they were free from any imperfection errorsat the time of or their revelation. of the scriptures All preceeding Qur'anhavebeen the tamperedwith and distortedby their people,' while the Qur'an is 'cf. 'SahihMuslim', book Al-lmarah P. 1469 rThereare many versesin the indicatingtasksfor which angelsare assigned. e.g..6.6i, ' 1 0 . 2 1 , 1 3 . 1 2 , 2 6 . 1 9 3 , 3 2 . 1 1Qur'an . R e f e r e n c ets s u c ht a s k s r e m a d e i n a u t h e n t i c r a d r t r o na s w e l l . o a t s "'Do you (O believers) hope that they (the people of the book) wrll be true to you when a par- ty of them used to hear the words of Allah (their Book),then they knowingly changed it after thev had understood it." 2.75
  17. 17. I protected by Allah from changeand tampering.' lt will be kept as such, by means of Allah's bounty, until He removes it from the earth., 39. The Qu/an which is revealed to Muhammad(Peace on Him) is in be truth the words of Allah, not a created thing.sFalsehoodcannot be ad- ded to it nor can a portion be removed from it. lt is a miracle which stands on its own merits, and the like of it in terms of speech, elo- quence, meaning and laws could not and never can be produced by any other than Allah.' ,lO.Allah has sent down the Qur'an to make manifesteverythingwhich He considersto be for the good of the people in this world as well as in the Hereafter,and there is no inconsistency its verses.Allah approv- in ed is recitation as a means of devotion, and considered the best of Muslims to be the one who learnsthe Qur'an and teachesit.' THT BEI.IEF THE APOSTTTS AIAH IN OT 41.Allah la'ala chose from mankind prophets and apostlesto guide and invite people to the way of Allah. The first of them was Adam and the last of them and their Seal was Muhammad(Peace on Him), after be whom there shall be no prophet. They are all brothers-in-faith and in- viters unto the Lord of the Worlds. Although their laws were different they share the same aqeedah.' 42. All of the apostlesare protected from attributingto Allah somethingof their own invention,judging accordingto their own desires, falling into major sins and adding to or diminishing from the religion.They are directed by Allah to be upriiht in the dispositionof their affairs. they As were human, they could make mistakesin matters not pertaining to religion, but Allah did not endorse any erroneousjudgment they may r"No doubt We have sent down the dhikr (i.e. Qur'an and Sunnah)and surely We will guard it." 15.9 rAnas narrated:Allah's Apostle sard:"lt is among the signsof the LastHour that knowledge would be taken away." This is explained in another hadeeth: "Allah does not take away knowledge by snatching it from the people but He takes it away by taking away the scholars.. ." Muslim p.1zlo+ 'Some deviated sectsclaim that the Qur'an which we read in Arabic containsonly the mean- ing of words of Allah rather than His words themselves. a'And it you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to our slave (Muham- mad(Peace on Him)),then produce a Surahthe like thermf and call your witnessesbeside be Allah if vou are truthful." 2.23 !cf. Eukhari.Narrated on the authority of Uthman bin Affan. Vol.Vl p.502. ."And We did not send any apostle before you (O Muhammad) but We revealedto him that there is none who has the right to be worshippedbut | (Allah).5o rvorshipNle (aloneand none elsel." 21.25
  18. 18. 9 have made.t 43. The apostleswere human beingslike we are. None of them was made of the light of Allah or of the light of His Arsh,2 some infidelsamong as Muslimsallege with regardsto the nature of Muhammad(Peace on be Him). Nor were they made of the word of Allah, as the Nassara (Chris- tians) allege with regardsto lssa (Jesus).' They experiencedsickness, pain and death just like their fellow human beings. 44. lt is only be.causethey achieved full submissionto Allah, that He honoured thenl with the Divine assignment. They are the most perfect in belief, most Cod-fearing and most knowledgeable among the believers.Not one of them called people to magnify himself, rather they called all people to worship Allah alone.' 45. Of the unseen the Apostles knew only that which Allah revealed to them. They made public what they learned, and they concealed nothing of what was revealed to them.s 46. Muhammad(Peace on Him) is the Seal of Prophes and Apostles, bc- their head and the best of them in the sight of Allah6. He has the highest degree in the estimation of Allah. He delivered the message perspicuouslyand concealed nothing of that which was revealed to him by the Lord of the Worlds. 47. No one shall maintain perfect belief unlessthe love he holds for the Messengerof Allah, Muhammad(Peace on Him) is greater than the be love he holds for his parent,childrenand himself,and honours,reveres and follows His message, and placesobedience to Him above his obe dience to any other creature.T. "'[He, (Allah) prot€rts them] r.rntilHe sees that they (the apostles)have <onveyed the message of their Lord, and He surroundsall that which is with them and He keepsaccount of all things." 72.i "'Say(O'Muhammad)lam but a man like yourselves; revelatron the has come to me that your Lordis One." 41.6 tThe Christrans subxribe to the beliei that "the word of Allah was made flesh and dwelt among them.'"ln the beginningwas the Word, and the Word was with Cod, and the Word was Cod." Gospel of Saint fohn. r'lt is not (possrble)that a man to whom is given the book and wisdom and the Prophetic of- fice should say to people: Be you my worshippers rather than Allah's, (on the contrary he woufd say):Be you worshippersof Him Who is truly the cherishero( all." 7.79 t"He (alone) knows the unseen. He does not make anyone acquarntedwrth Hrs mystenes." 'Alaa'narrated; 72.26Um T h e P r o p h e t ( P e a cb e o n H i m ) s a i d :" . . . 8 y A l l a h , l d o n o t k n o w e what Allah will do with me (in this world) though I am Allah'sApostle " Bukhan Vol.l p. 1{). '"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he islthe Apostle of Allah and the Seal of Proohets."11.40 'Anas narrated:The Prophet(Peace on Him) said:"Mne of you shallhave farth till he loves be me more than his father, his children and all mankind." BukhariVol. Vl, p. 19.
  19. 19. 10 48. On the Day of Judgment,the Prophet Muhammad(Peace on Hrm) be' shallbe able to rnakethe CreaterIntercession mankind.'that Allah for may give His verdict arrd let people depart the place of cong,reg,ation. At thrs pornt Allah will permit him too, to intercedefor ,r number of believers,that they may be admitted into paradise.We attrrmthe fact that his intercession will also be f'or the disobedient among the believers.'We affirm that the Messengerwill intercede orrly for those for whom Allah permits it. 49. Allah sent Muhammad(Peace on Him) to all peoples,' Arabs and be non-Arabsalike, and the messagehe brought will be in force until the final Hour. He is Allah's Apostle to mankind as well as to iinn.' 50. The veracityand straightforwardness Muhammad(Peace on Him) of be were manifested by the amazing miracles he performed. Allah revealed ,Pre{erringhrm over Hrsother Prophets and N'lessengers, Allah favoured Muhanrmad(Peacebe on Him) by grantinghrrn the (lreater Intercessron the Day of ludgment Anas bin Mahk nar- on rated: Thc Prophet(Peace on Him) said:"Allah would g,ather be pe.opleon the Day of Resur- rectron lnd they would be concerned about rt." (lbnu Ubeid elaborated upon this Hyrng:'The people would be inspired to look for sorneone to intercede on therr behalf.') The people would say: "lf we could soek intercession wtth our Lord, we may be relieved from this predica' merrt of ours." The Prophet Muhammad(Peace be on Him) said: "They would come to Adam 'You are Adam, the father of mankind, Allah created you with His Own hand and and say: breathed Into you of His spirit and commanded the angels and they orostrated be{ore you, so intercede for us wrth your Lord that He may relieve us from this podtion of ours.'He would 'l say, am not in a posrtronto do this',and would recallhis error and would feel shy of His Lord on account of that." The harleeth rs too long to be quoted in its entirety, but in brief, Adam would drrect people to Noah, who in tuin would direct them to lbraheem, after recallinghrs error. lbraheern wouki drrert them to Musa who directs them to lssa (Jesus). Finally lssa refrainsfrom intere< gJirrg saying:'You should go to Muhammad(Peace on Him) a servant be whose former and latrer srnshave been forg,rven." He, (the narrator)sard:thc Messengerof Allah observed;"S<> they would come to n)('and I would ask the permissionot my Lord and tt would be grarrtedtrr rrrr, an(i wlrcn I woul<lsrle Hrm. I would fall down tn prostration,and He ( A l l a h ) o u l d l e a v em r . t h u sa s k n g a s f l c w o u l d w r s h ,a n d t h e n r t w o u l d b e s a r d : ' CM u h a m - w ) mad, raise your head, say and you w<;uld be heard; ask and it would be granted; intercede a n d r n t e r c e s s i ow o u l d b e a c c e p t d . . . " ' M u s l i n t V o l . l p . 1 2 5 . n rAbu Sa'eed al-Khudn reported: Verily the Messengerof Allah said: "Allah wall admit into paradisethose deservingof paradrse, and lle will admit wlrom He wishes,out of His mercy, 'See,he whom and He wrll admrt those condemned to fiell, Into the Fire.He would then say: you tind having as much faith rn his heart as a grain of mustard,brrng him out.' They will then be brought out, burned and turned into charcoaland would be cast into the rrverof ftfe,and they would sprout as does a seed in the silt carried away by a flood. . .'Mus|m Vol.l p. 119. 'Say:"(O Muhammad) O Men! lam sent unto you all as the Apostle of Allah." 7.158 'lT is a fact that the ProphetMuhammad(Peace on Hrm) was sent not onlv to mankind but be to the pnn as well. ln confirmatron of thr: Allah says: "And (remember) when We turned towards you (C)Muhanrmad)some of the 1nn listeningto the Qu/an; when they anended rts 'listen re(rtatronthey sard rn srlence'. And wherqrtwas finishedthey returned to their people to 'O warn them: our people resJrondwrth qdedience to Allah's caller (r.e., Allah's apostle Muhammad(Peace orr llrn) and beheve rn hrnr (rn his message.'[Allahlwrll forgrve sins of be ' 'Af yours and will saveyou trom a parnfultorm{,nt. 46 29,ttO. There is a whole Surahentitled, lrnn' No. 72 whrch conlrrrnsthe fact that Muhammad(Peace on Him) is sent for both men be and iinn.
  20. 20. 11 to him the miraculousQur'an, and He transportedhim to Jerusalem in one night.' The believers bear witness too that in that night, he was taken to heaven where he saw angels and Apostles and spoke to them.2 Allah the Exalted spoke to him, honoured him and made obligatory on him and on his Ummah (nation)prayerfive times a day.3 51. Of the miraclesperformed by the Prophe(Peace on Him) were: The be feeding hundredsof peo- springingof water from between his fingers,a ple from food that normally would not sufficea ferv tens of people,' the sound of grief made by the trunk of a tree in his presence,6the '"Prarse to Him who took His slave(Muhammad(Peace on Him))for a journey by night be be fronr the SacredMosque to the farthestMosque (in Jerusalem) surroundings the whereof We have blessed,that We might show him of Our signs.Verily He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer." 17.1 rlhe authenticahadeethrndicate,implicitlyas well as explicitly,that the Prophe(Peacebe on Him) saw the angels. I refer in particular to the one recorded by Bukhari Vol.l. The Prophet(Peace on Him) was reported to have said:". . . Then he (Jibril) be took my hand, and 'Open ascendedwith me to the nearestheaven.Jibrilsaid to the g,atekeeper the Heaven: of (the gate).'The gatekeeperasked: 'Who 'Jibril.' 'ls is itl librii answered: He asked: there anyone 'Has with youl .libnl replied: 'Yes, Muhammad(Peace on Him) is wrth me.' He asked, be he 'Yes!' " In the same hadeeth mentioned been calledl Jibrilsaid: So the gate was opened. . . above, the Prophet(Peace on Him) mentioned that he passedby some Apostles such as be Adam, lbraheem, Edrees,Musa and others and he exchanged greetingswith them. They welcomed him sayrng: 'Welcome O pious Prophet. . ."' 'The Prophet(Peace on Him) describedhow sa/aahwas enjoined (accordingto the narra- be tron of Anas bin Malik) sayrng:"Then libril ascendedwith me to a place where I heard the creakingof the pens. . . Then Allah enjoined fifty prayersa day on the Muslims.Musa said:Go back to your Lord (and appeal for a reduction),for your followers will not be able to bear it. 5 o . l w e n t b a c k t o A l l a h a n d r e q u e s t e d r e d u c t i o n a n d H e r e d u c e di t t o h a l f. . . " T h e P r o - a , phet(Peace on Hrm)went back and iorth between Musa and Allah askingior further reduc- be 'These tions until Allah reducedthe prayer to five times a day saying: are five prayersand they a r e a l l ( e q u a lt o ) f r f t y( i n r e w a r d )f o r M y w o r d d o e s n o t c h a n g e . . . " B u k h a r i o l . l . V oAnasbin Malik narrated:"l saw Allah's Apostle(Peace on Him) when the Asr prayer was be due, and the people searchedfor water to perform ablution, but they could not find it. Later on a pot containrngrvater,enough for one ablution. was brought to Allah'sApostle(Peace be on Him). He put his hand rn that pot and ordered the people to per{orm ablutionfrom it. I saw the water springingout from between his fingerstill all of the people performed the ablution." B u k h a rV o l . l . , . 1 1 8 . i p 'Jabrrbin Abdullah narrated:"When the trench was dug (in preparationfor the baftle against the mushrikeen)| saw the Prophet(Peace on Him) in a state of extreme hunger.5o I return- be ed to my wrfe and said:'Have you got anythinSto eatl Shebrought one Saa'of barley,and we had an animal which I slaughtered while my wife ground the barley.Shefinishedat the trme I frnishedbutcheringthe animal. I cut the meat and put it in a pot to cook. ,labirthen askedthe Prophet(Peace on Him) to come with only a few of his companionsfor a meal, because be what was there would barelysufficea small number of people. The Prophet(Peace on Him) be started distributingthe bread and meat titl they all ate therr fill, and even then some food re 'Eatand presentto mained. Then he said to fabi/s wife, others as the people are struck wrth h u n g e r . "B u k h a r i o l . V , p . 2 9 6 . ' V 6Jabir Abdullah narrated:"'TheProphet(Peace on Him) used to stand bv the trunk of a bin be d a t e - p a l mt r e e ( w h i l e d e l i v e r yh i s k h u t b a h . )W h e n t h e p u l p i t w a s s e t u p f o r h r m ( a n d h e m o u n t e d i t t o d e | v e r t h e k h u t b a h ) e h e a r dt h a t t r e e t r u n k c r y i n gl i k e a p r e g n a n t h e - c a m e l w s t r l l t h e P r o p h e t ( P e a cb e o n H i m ) g o t d o w n f r o m t h e p u l p i t a n d p l a c e d h i s h a n d o v e r i t . " e B u k h a rV o l . l l . . 1 9 . i o
  21. 21. 12 praisingof Allah by pebbles and food in his hands,' and the com- municationof a complaint made to him by a camel.? 52. Allah made Muhamnrad(Peace on Him) excel the other Apostles, be giving him jawami-al-Kalim,3 and victory by filling the hearts of his enemies with terror, making the earth a place for prayer and a means of purificationfor him and his followers, making spoilsof war rawfurfor him, sendinghim as a Messenger all mankind.and makinghim the to last of the Prophets.And we bear witnessthat the Howds in Jannahis a reality;we ask Allah to give us to drink from it. THE BTUEF THE HEREAFTR IN 53. Allah has predecreeda term for each individual,and a term for the life of this world. lts end will be rnarkedby the soundingof the Horn, then it will sound againand mankind shallbe resurrected send before the to Lord of the Worlds on the Day of Requital.G 54. Jannahand Hell Fireare two everlastingcreated things that are already "'Duranga visit paid to the Prophet(Peace on Him) by the first three Khulafa.Abu Bakr, be Umar and Uthman, the Prophet(Peace on Him) picked up seven or nine pebbles and put be them in his hand. Thereupon they made tas-beeh (praising Allah) in audible sounds like that of the bees, .." Al-Bazzar. zYolireported that he had witnessedamazing incidentswhen he was in the companv of the Apostle of Allah. of those incrdents, reported that a camei came to hrm. He saw tears In rts he eyes, whereupon he called for its owners and told them: 'The camel is complainingthar you will keep drawing water with rt until it becomes old and then you will slaughterit. Do not kill it, let it be with the company of the camels."Ahmad 4-1Zj rAbu Hurairah reportecl the Prophet(Peace on Him) be as saying:"l have been sent with jawami al-kalim"(conciseness speech; having many meantngscompnsed in a few words) of M u s l i m .V o l . l o . 2 6 5 . 'Jabirbin Abdullah narrated:The Prophet(Peace on Him) said:"l have be been given five things which were not given to any of the Prophets; Allah made me victoriousby meansof terror (fill- ing the heartsof my enemres) a distanceof one month's journey. The earth has been made at for me a placefor praying and a means of purification(tayammum or dry ablution);therefore my followers can pray wherreverthe time of prayer is due. The spoilsof war have been made lawful for me; it was never made so for anyone else.Everyprophet was sent particularly his to o r v n p e o p l e ,w h e r e a sl w a s s e n t t o a l l m a n k i n da n d t h e l i n e o f p r o p h e t si s c l o s e dw i t h m e . " B u k h a n& M u s l i m . 'There are numerous authentic traditions concerning al-Howd or the pool of the Apostle, w h i c h i s r e f e r r e d o i n t h e Q u r ' a n i n S u r a h1 0 8 e n t i t l e d ' A / - K a w r h a r ' ( w h i c s t h e n a m e o r a r - t ih Howd). Abdullah brn Amr narrated:the Prophet(Peace on Hrm)said:"My Hctu,drs so large be t h a t i t t a k e sa m o n t h ' sj o u r n e yt o c r o s si t . l t s w a t e r i s w h i t e r t h a n m i l k , a n d i t s s c e n ti s n r c e ' r t h a n m u s k ,a n d i t s d r r n k r n g u p s a r e ( a sn u m e r o u s a s t h e s t a r s f t h e s k v ;a n d w h o e v e ro r r n x s c ) o from tt, wtil never be thjrsty."Eukhari, /ol.Vlll, p. lBO.Only the believersshall drink thereot and will never be thirsty thereafter. " " A n d t h e t r u m p e t w i l l b e b l o w , n .a n d a l l x ' h o a r e r n t h e h e a v e n s n C t h e e a n h r v r l ls w o o n a a w a y s a v eh r m w h o A l l a h w i l l s T h e n i t w r l l b e b l o r v na s e c o n dt r m e .l h e n b e h o l dt h e v w r l l b e s t a n d i n ga n d l o o k i n go n . " . 1 9 . 5 8
  22. 22. 13 in existence. The people of Jannah (paradise),without doubt shallenter it on the Day of Judgment,and the people of Hell shall have to fall into it; they shall not find any room to turn aside or back away from it. 55. Allah will ultimately remove from Hell those believerswho entered it becauseof sins they committed, which were neither forgiven by Allah nor atoned for by good deeds in their ilfetimes., 56. The joy and blissin Jannah sensualrealities, are and so is the torment of Hell Fire.' Both bliss and torment are grahicallydescribed by Allah in His Book and by the Prophet(Peace on Him) in his traditions. be 57. The residentsof .fannah will certainlyfind there things that no eye has seen, ahd no ear has heard of and no human mind has imagined.The people of Hell Fire will certainly find there torment and sufferingthat they could never think of nor imagine,"for that day His torment will be such as none else can inflict and His bond will be such ;rs none (other) can bind." 89.25-26.We ask Allah to make us not of the latter. 58. Anyone who is to be of the people of Jannah,shall be at peace in his grave,and anyone who is to be of the people of Hell shall be tortured in his grave.Thus, peace and torture in the grave are facts,as is the in- terrogation by the two angelstherein.. 59. There are signsof the FinalHour, both major and minor, some of which Allah mentioned in His Book, which are clearly explained by the Pro- phet(Peace on Him). Of the major ones are the Beastof the Earth'; be 'There are many ayat in Qur'an, and authentic traditionsin the Sunnahconfirming this fact, e.g., on /annah: 57.21: on Hell: l.-131.As for the Sunnahit suffices refer to hadeeth on the to subject of the mrrai (the ascendingof the Prophet up to the heavenswhere he actually saw both lannah and Hell. The tradttionists have recorded his account of what he saw in both of them. I quote here a sampleo{ such traditions.lmran narrated:The Prophet(Peace on Him} be said:"l looked into fannahand saw that the maiority of its people were poor, and llooked into the Fire and saw that the maiority of its people were women." BukhariVol.Vlll, p.362. rReferto Para.48. 'The versesdealingwith this fact leave no room for those who deivatedfrom the right path to rnsert their false allegation that the bliss and torment in the Hereafterare merely spiritual. Allah preparedfor the people of Jannahthrngsto eat, palacesto live in and beautifulfemales to mate with while the people of the Hell will eat biner planS and thosecretion of wounds, a n d d r i n k b o i l i n gw a t e r , a s d e s c r i b e d n 5 u r a h 5 6 . 1 5 - 5 6 . i 'Allah describesthe punishment in the grave of the people of Fir'awn(Pharoah): 'The Fire; they are exposedto it, morning and evening,and when the Firral Hour is established will be (it 'cause sard) Pharoah's folk to enter the severesttorment."' 40.46. 'A'ishah Masrook narrated: said that a Jewess came to her and mentioned the punishmentin the grave, sayrnB her 'May Allah protect you from the punishmentof the grave.''A'ishah to then asked Allah'sApostle about the punrshmentrn the grave.He said:'Yes,(there is) punish- ment In the grave.''A'rshah 'After said: that I never saw Allah'sApostle without seekingrefuge r v r t hA l l a h f r o m t h e p u n r s h m e n itn t h e g r a v e . " B u k h a r V o l . l l ,p . 2 5 6 . ' i '"And when the Word is fulfilled againstthem, We shall produce from the earth a beast to s p e a kt o t h e m ( t o p e o p l e ) . " 7 . 8 2 . 2
  23. 23. 14 the descent of the Messiah, lssa son of Maryam, from heaven to earth in Damascus,' from whence he will rule in accordancewith the Qur'an, break the cross, kill the swine and waive the lizyah'1; the appdarance of ad-Dajjal and Cog and Magog3;and the eruption of a fire in Aden which will drive the people to the Land of Congregationa(of the Day of Judg- ment). 60. Of the minor signsof the Final Hour are the contraction of time, the prevalence of afflictionsand bloodletting,sthe outnumbering of men 'Abu Hurairah narrated: Allah's Apostle said: "By him in Whose hand my soul is, surely lssa (Jesus)the son of Maryam wdl soon descend amcngst you as a just ruler; he will break the cross(thus declaringthe religionof Nassara null and void), kill the swine and waive the Jizyah." Bukhari Vol.lV, o.437. l'lizyah'is alorm of tax paid by non-Muslims the Muslim governmentto which they are sub- to iect rn lieu of par$cipating in military servrce,and to ensure their protection. lt is rmposed only on those who can afford it. rThe Prophe(Peace be on Him) described ad-Dalial (pseudo-Chnst) sayrng: "He would be a young nlan with twisted curly hair and wrth a blind eye. . . He amongst you who would sur' vive to see him should recite over him the opening lerses of Suratul-Kahf (No.18).He would appear on.the way between Syriaand lraq, and would spread mrschief right and left. O slaves of Allah, adhere to the path of truth." We said: "Allah's Messenger,how long would lre stay on the earthl' lle said, "Forty days, one day like a year, and one day like a month, and one day like a week, and the rest of the days w'ould be like your days." We said:"Allah'sMessenger, would one da/s prayer sufficefor the prayersof a day equal to one yearl'Thereupon he said, "No, but you must make an estimate of ti:'ne (and observe prayersaccordingly)." We said: "Allah'sMessenger,hor,r'quicklywould he walk upon the earthl'Thereupon he said: "Like a cloud driven by the wind. He would come to the people and invite them (to a wrong religion) and they would affirm their faith in him and respond to him." The Prophet(Peace on Him) be went on to say that ad:Dajial'later on would be killed by lssa.ThereafterCog and Magog would swarm down from every slope ("until when Cog and Magog are let loose, and they swiftly swarm from every hiil." 21.96).The first of them would pass the lake of Tiberiasand 'There was drink out of it; when the last of them would pass it he would say: once water there!" Allah would send worn-rs(which would attach therr necks)and in the morning they would perish as a single person. Allah's Apostle lssaand his companions would then come down from Tur (a place to which Allah commanded lssa to take the believers as a safe refuge from Cog and Magog) and they would not find in the earth the space of a single span whrch was not filled with the putrefac- tion and stench of the corpsesof Cog and Magog. Allah'sApostle and his companionswould then beseech Allah, who would send birds whose necks would be like those of bactrian camels and they would carry them (the carcassesof Cog and Magog) and throw them where Allah would will. Then Allah would send rain, which no house of clay nor tent (made of camel's hair) would keep out. lt would wash the earth shiny clean. The earth will be told to bring forth its fruits and restore its blessings. There would grow a pomegranate so big that a group of persons would be able to eat it, and seek shelter under its skin. A cow would give so much milk that a whole tribe would be able to drink of it. At that time Allah would send a pleasantwind which would soothe people. lt would hold them by their armpits, and would take the life of every believer and every Muslim. Only the wicked would survive,and they would commit adultery like asses(in public).The FinalHour would c o m e t o t h e m . " M u s l i m ,V o l . l V , p . 1 5 1 7 - 1 5 1 8 . 'The hadeeth of Fire is recorded by Muslim in book 53-13. tAbu Hurairah related that the Prophet(Peace on Him) said that of the signsof the Final be 'The Hour are: contraction of time, decrease of (religious) knowledge, prevalence of nig' gardliness, appearanceof afflictionsand the increaseof bloodshed."(lbnu Maiah E 36126l.
  24. 24. 15 by women,'the fight bt'tween the Muslimsand the Jelvs,r and jornrng togetlrerirr banle of the Muslimsand Nasaraagainst the infidels,follow- ed by another fight between the Muslims and Nasararesultingin the deleal of thr' latter.' 61. The FinalHour will not come until Rome is conquered,nor until the ap- perance at the end of time, o( al-M,thdi, who is from the Ummah of Muhammad, whose name is the same as the Apostle's name, and whose name is the same as the Apostle's name, and whose fathe/s name is Abdullah"' Al-Mahdiis not the "hidden mahdl', Mohamed. son of al-Hassanal-Askariof the Shiites.' 62. The Day of Judgment will last fifty thousand calendar years,6during which time people will stand before therr Lord to receive His sentence.tHe will judge berween them on the matters wherein they used to differ." They wtll be distinct in respectof therr rnranand their 'Also r.rfthe signsof the FinalHour are: "Dimrnishrng (the number ot) men t r of the porni thar there wrll be left one man for every fifty women." lbtd. rAbu Hurarrahreported Allah'sMessenge(Peace on Him) as sayrng ''The l.rst Hour would be n o t c o m e t i l l t h e M u s l i m sf r g h ta g a i n s t h e j e w s , a n d t h e , l u s h m s , r lk r l lr h e n ru n t t l t h e , e w s w l hide thernselves behrnd the storres and trees,and the storres and treeswould s,teakup sayrng: 'O Musfrnr! O slaveot Allahi Ihere rsa lew hrdrngbehrnd me; come and hll hrm' I he Ch,rrtprl t r e c w o u l d s p e a k ,f o r r l 1 5t h e t r e e o f t h e J e w s . " u s h n rV o l . l V p . 15 l ( ) M 'Dhi Makhmor reported:"l heard the Prophet(Peace on Hrm) sayrng t hc Ronrans be {Nasara) wtll enter rnt(, a p€rJ(€-[)a(t wrth you. ,rnd you wrll rard along,w,rththent an en(.tny (peclplr) a n d w r l l c o n q u e rt h t r r t . g a r nt h e s J r o ra n d r e t u r ns a f e l yt o s ( 4 o u r nr n a h r l l yp a s ' u r t ,l a n d . A l man of the pwpl+r.of the rross wrll ratsethe crossup and say:"Ihe r ross nrarle :he vrctory" Thereupona Mushm man would stdnd up in angerand kill hrm. At thar Jrcrnt the ,lt.rmans wrll breach.the pact and g,atherrhenrselves the massacre." for lbnu Mayah,j(r,/35. 'AMullah narrated;''1he Prophet(Peace on Hirn)said:'li there were <;nlyorre y left rn be di ttrc hfe of thrs world, Allah would prolong rt to send a man from nry iarnrlywhose r.anrers hke mine, and whose fathers narne rs hke my father's!" Abu l)awurd Book ot Al,Mahdr.p.10(, rThe hadeeth (crtedairove rn footnote 4) refutesthe alleg,atr<rns nradt b'y rhe Shirt(rs rhat th(' awartedMahdr rs he whom they falselyclarm t<> the s.rn of al-Hasan be al,Askarr In additron hrstorians have shown tlrat Hasanal-Askarr drd not even trave any sururvrng rssue "[he angels and the Sprrrtasct'nd to Him rn a Day the- m('asure "Upon he'anngthe ay:th whcreof is frhy thousand yvars.' l7o.l), people sardto the l.rophet(Pea< be on Hrm): 'What a e long day thrs will bel" l hereupon the Prophet(Peace orr Hrm) sard:"By the One rn Whose be Hand rs my soul. lt Mll tle all<'vrated thc bt'lrever.trll becomes slrr>rttrtlr.rrrthr trme of ior rl one prescrrbedprayer lrt' used to pray rn thrs world. Ah,:nradand lbun Jantr ' " T h r n kt h e y n o t t h a t t h t y w r l l b e r a r s e d p , o n a C r e a t D a y , a d a y r v h e n ( a l l )r n a n l r n d w r l l u stand before the Lord ot the Worldsl 8J.4.516 ]'Allah will ludge berween them on the Day of Resurrer tron about that wherern they have been diffenng."2.113
  25. 25. r6 ranl6.' TheMizarr'is a fact,andas-Siratt a fact,andthe intercession is of the Chiefof the Messengers a fact,a the intercession thoseen- is and by titled to it by Allahis a fact.' THTBEITTIN PREDESTINANON TATAIISM AND 63.Allah createdeverythingin due proportion.His determination the of natureof thingswasestablished thousand fifty yearsbeforeHe created the Heavensand earth.' Nothing occurs or takes shape within the heavens earthbut with His knowledge, by Hisorder.Thereis or and nothingabsent from the knowledge Allah.' of '". . . of them are some who wrong themselves and of them are some who mix good deeds with bad, and of them are some who outstrip (others) through good deeds, by Allah's l e a v e .. . " f 5 . ) 2 'The scale which will be set up on the Day of Judgment for weighing the deeds of men. ,'siral'is a bridge ertending over the midst of Flell, and over it mankind will pass. Upon being asked: "What is the bridge.r THe Prophet(Peacebe on Him) said: "(tt is) slippery. On it, there are hooks, tongs and spits like the thorns that are found in Najd known as as-sa'dan.The believers would pass over it in the twinkling of an eye, like lightning like wind, like birds, like the finest horses and camels. Some will escape and be safe,some will be lacerated and let go, and some will be pushed into the Fire of Hell. . . " Muslim, Vol.l, p.118 Al-Mqdad reported the Prophet(Peace be on Him) to have said: The people would be submerged m persptrat'on according to their deeds some up to the knees, some up to the waist and some would have the bridle o{ perspiration.'While saying this, Allah's Apostle(Peace be on Him) pornted his hand towards his mouth. Sahih Muslim Vol.lV, p.1,188. Abu Hurairah reportd that the Apoctle(Peace be on Him) of Allah had said: "Seven are (the persons)Whom Allah would Bive protection with this Shade(i.e., the shade of His Arsh) on the Day {of Judgment) when there would be no Shade but His: A iust ruler; a youth who Srew up with the worship of Allah; a person whose heart is attached to the mosques (who loves to spend most ol his time in the mosque), two persons who love each other and meet each other and depart from each other for the sake of Allah, a man whom a beautiful woman of high rank tries to seduce, but he refuses(to respond) saying:"l fear Allah"; a person who gives charity and correals it (to such an extent) that the left hand does not knor'v what the right hand has given; and a person who remembered llah in private and his eyes shed tears." Sahih Musfim Vol.ll, p.491. 'Refer to para. 48. iAllah will allow some people other than Muhammad(Peace be on Him), such as other pre phets, angels and beliwers, to lntercde on behalf of others on the Day of ludgement '"No misfortune can happen on earth or rn yourselves but it is recorded in a decree, before We brrng it into existence. That is truly easy lor Aiah." 57.22. Abdullah b. Amr B. al-Asreported: "l heard Allah'sAlrcstle(Peace on Him) saying:'Allahor' be darned the destrny o{ the creatron fifty thousand years be{ore He creirted the heavens and the earth."' lr.luslim, Vol.l'. p. 1j97. '<i Quran 2.255
  26. 26. 17 64.Allahhasalready happiness someandadversity others.l ordained to to It is an inalterable decree.The pen hasrun dry and the recordshave beenfolded up.'There can be no change the wordsof Allah. in 65.Good and evil existby Allah'sdecree,and everyone gains one or the other throughhis own choiceand by the exercise his own will. of Nonetheless, goodoccurs the only with the helpof Allah,and the evil occursnot against will but only by Hisleave. His 66.We do not say that man has no power to act and is forced to do whatever does,rnor do we-saythat man creates he and chooses his own deedsentirely hisown freewill, operating of independent and of superior the will of Allah.o to THT MUS1IAAU'1'VIAH 67. We believe that all of the apostlesand Prophetsand their followers are one singienation:the umrnah(nationof iman),as Allah says:'Verilythis lJmmah of yours is one single ummah, and I am your Lord, therefore worship Me.' 68. We attach ourselvesto every believer from our predecessors back to Adam, and from those of succeeding generations down to those who wifl fight ad-Daj1al6 the end of time. We love them all whether or not at they are know to us, and defend their honour. 69. The followers of Muhammad(Peace on Him), the first and last of be whom compriseone single ummah,the ummah o( lslamand lman, are 'Ali reported the Prophet(Peacebe on Him) as saying: 'There is not one amongst you for whom a seat in Paradiseor Hell has not been allotted and about whom it has not been written down whether he would be a miserableperson or a happy one. A man said:"O Apostle of Allah: Shouldwe not then depend upon our destinyand abandon our deedsl'Thereupon,the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever belongs to the company of happiness he will have good works made easier for him, and who belongs to the company of misery, he will have evil acts made easier for him." Then he recited: "fu for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah, and believesin the best reward from Allah, We will make easy for him the means of good deeds, (which leads to Jannah)and who is miserly and considers himself above need (for Allah),We shallmake easyfor him the meansof evil deeds (which leadsto Hell Fire."(92.5-10) M u s l i mV o l . l V ,p . 1 3 9 3 . rThe expression 'The pen has run dry'' implies that the decreesof Allah are decisiveand final and can never be changed or altered. 'This is the doctrine o( al-labriwah. This sect believesthat rnan is compelled to lead life the way he does and has no voluntary actions. 'This is the doctrine o( al-Qadariyyah. This sect takes a position at the opposite extreme to that of al-iabriyyah, denying predestination by Allah altogether. (Lanes Lexicon) tcf. Q u r ' a n :2 1 . 9 2 6Seeoara. 59.
  27. 27. l8 joined together by one aqeedahand one set of laws regardless their of race or country of origin.' We love them all and believe that all believers are brothers. 70. We extend our love and support to the people of our urnmah and aid no infidelnor enemy againstthem. 71. We battle with and abhor racist, nationalistic,sectarianand partisan zealotswho would sunderthe unity of the Muslims., 72.The best of men in the Muslim ummah'l,next to the Prophet, is Abu Bakras-Siddiq,then Umar bin al-Khattabthen Uthman then Ali.r lt's best generation,according to the authentic ahadeeth,(traditions)is that of the lifetime of the prophet, then that generationwhich succeededit.o 73. We love all the companions of the Apostle of Allah, and attach ourselves to them. Of all the companions of all the prophets, they were the best; they aided the religionof Allah and struggledalong with the Chief of Messengers.' who imputes to them disbeliefor infideli- He ty we regardas an unbeliever,becausehe rejectsthe evidenceof their excellencegiven by the Lord of the worlds.' 74.We abstainfrom dwelling on any differences opinion among the of companions of the Prophet(Peace on Him), and we hold the belief be that they were Mujtahidoon'whose rewardsare with Allah; they were not infallibleapostles. "'O mankind: We created you from (a singlepair of) male and female and made you into na- tions and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you in the sight of Allah is that (believer)who is most God{earing." 49.13. "'Those who divide their religionand break it up ihto sects,you have no part in them." 6.159. "And be not among the mushrikeen; those who split up their religionand form sects." has been narratedon the authority of Arfaiahwho said:"l have heard the Messenger Allah of 'Differentevilswill make their appearancein the near future. Anyone who say: tries to disrupt theaffairs of this Ummah while thev are united vou should strikehim with the sword whoever h e b e . " ' M u s l i mV o l . l l l , p . ' 1 O 3 1 . 'SunniMuslimsare in unison with regardsto the superiorityof the four khulala(caliphs) accor- ding to their chronologicalorder; Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman then Ali. 'Abdullah b. Masood reported Allah's Messenger(Peace on Him) as saying: 'The be best among people are of my generation,then those next to them." Muslim Vol.lV, p.-1346. "'And the first to embrace lslam of the Muhajirin (those who migrated from Mecca to Medinah)and Ansar (citizensof Medinah who helped the Muhajirin)and those who followed them exactly (in faith). Allah is well-pleasedwith them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has oreoaredfor them Cardensunder which riversflow. to dwell therein forever. That is the ultimate success." 00. 9.1 "Abu Hurairah narrated: Allah's Messengersaid: "Do not revile my companions. By Him in Whose hand is my life if one of you would have spent (in charity)a pile of gold as big as Mount Uhud, it would not amount to as much as one rnudd (about 2/3 of a kilo) of one of them nor even half o( mudd (soent in charrtv). 'Muitahtdoon (pl. of ['lurtahid):scholarswho use their reasonfor the purpose of forming an oprnion or making a ruling on a religiousrssue.
  28. 28. t9 75. The believersare distinct in respect of their iman. Ol them are those who do themselves injustice,those who pursue the middle road in their affairsand those who, by the will of Allah hastento good deeds.' Allah promised all of them a good outcome in the Hereafter,each in accordancewith his level of irnan. 76. We regard a person as a Muslim immediately upon witnessing his recitationof the Shahadah': his oerformanceof a Muslim act of wor- or ship.i 77.We do not cast a Muslim out of the fold of lslam upon his commission of an act of disbeliefdue to his ignorance,misunderstanding com- or pulsion, or due to an assumptionby him that his act is conducive to good. The verdict of disbeliefcan only be given when there is establish- ed evidencethat the person committed the wrong wilfully, and know- ingly. 78. We do not attribute disbelief to anyone of the people of the Qiblah (i.e.,Muslims in general)by reasonof any sin he committed, unlesshe did it knowing it to be unlawful, and treating it as if it were lawful. 79. Jannah has been guaranteedonly to those to whom Allah gave His assurance His Book, and to those in whose favour the Messengerof in Allah testified.Visionsand dreams are not proofs of admissionto lan- nah. Although we wish lannahfor those we deem to be pious, we cannot decisivelyassertthat any individualwill be admitted to it.' 8O.The believingmen and women are all awliyaa5 (proteges) the Com- of passionate. The further the slave advanceson the path of irnan the greater his support of Allah's cause becomes and the greater support 'cf. Quran:35.32. 'The testification faith, 'There is no god truly worthy of worship but Allah and Muhammad of is His Messenger. tThe author has explainedthat performingan act of worship that is exclusively lslamicis suffi cient for a person to be regardedas a Musftm. Without a doubt, performing a singleact of worship without the Shahadah will be considerednull and void, but the author most properly refers to the following tradition: Anas reported the Prophet(Peacebe on Him) as saying: "l 'There is no god but Allah; and if they have been orderedto fight the people until they say: 5ay so, and pray like we do, iacing our Qrb/ahand slaughteranimals(for food) as we do, then therr blood and property will be sacredto us. and we will not interferewith them except legaf l y , a n d t h e r r r e c k o n r n g i l l b e w i t h A l l a h . 'B u k h a r i V o l . l , p . 2 3 4 . w , '"5o ascribe not ptety to yourselves.He knows best who it is that keep his duty to Allah." 5] t2 tArvIyaa (pl ol walry) those who are rn recerpt of the constant beneficenceand favour of A l l . r h ;b e h e v e r s h o a r e f a v o u r e db y A l l a h . w