MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS OF

                         EVOLVING CITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE LIVING

         ...
INTRODUCTION

For the first time in history, the majority of the people on our planet live in cities. In 1800 only 3% of
t...
EVOLUTION OF HUMANS FROM HUNTER TO URBANITE

Human beings living on this earth historically have evolved diverse character...
any fabric of feeling. Therefore, cities disappoint and countenance monotony, or a lack of feeling, even
cohesiveness.
Cit...
changed and expansion was able to occur more easily. Building technologies today allow for buildings
which have projected ...
MULTIFUNTIONAL DIMENSIONS
MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS




MULTIFUNTIONAL / MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS




    CASE STUDY 1
    Culture of Hyderabad


    The h...
In the last few years it has been argued by many city planners that city problems have assumed such
proportions and comple...
CONCLUSION


Already the urban population, living mostly in cities has reached greater than 50% of the world
population. T...
2. http://www.inspiringcities.org/index.php?id=18225&type=article
   3. http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2008/06/is-th...
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MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS OF EVOLVING CITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE LIVING

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Cities are growing at a rapid phase, due to exponential growth of populations all over the world. The world population might stabilize by 2070 after reaching the peak population levels of about 9 billion. Already the urban population, living mostly in cities has reached 50% of the world population. Cities in the last few centuries have evolved coping with changes in social, economic, cultural, aesthetics, utility, historical, political, natural and environmental factors. There is always an interface between the interests of old and new generations of people sharing the same space. The buildings have more life than the people living in them. Each building is at least able to provide space for at least two generations. The comfort levels of one generation and the next are different in same space. There are often changes brought with time in any building. Similarly the infrastructure is also changing at a rapid phase as the transportation means and systems are changing. The access to power, drinking water, and open spaces for cultural and social events, educational institutions, markets, etc. also impacts the living space. The security and basic amenities are the main factors of consideration for not moving away from the congested cities. There is always an overlap of old and new adaptation factors, creating resilience for coexistence. The remembrance of a space and events in once own life time impact the people, and they love to continue in similar space. There is a kind of energy that one gets, while returning to the same space, it is often seen that the old people prefer living in the space they are used to and they often live longer too. There are emotions too acting up on the life of the people. Considering all the above factors, each city can be considered a single organism, having its own identity and also there are various diverse spaces within it. It is like a human body single living things, but various parts of the human body function for the happiness of the whole. There is a need to understand multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of the cities, for making a sustainable living in the cities.

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MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS OF EVOLVING CITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE LIVING

  1. 1. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS OF EVOLVING CITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE LIVING - Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy CEO, Geoecology Energy Organisation (GEO) Keywords: Multifunctional, Multilayer, Cities, Sustainability, Evolution, life, livelihoods, living ABSTRACT Cities are growing at a rapid phase, due to exponential growth of populations all over the world. The world population might stabilize by 2070 after reaching the peak population levels of about 9 billion. Already the urban population, living mostly in cities has reached 50% of the world population. Cities in the last few centuries have evolved coping with changes in social, economic, cultural, aesthetics, utility, historical, political, natural and environmental factors. There is always an interface between the interests of old and new generations of people sharing the same space. The buildings have more life than the people living in them. Each building is at least able to provide space for at least two generations. The comfort levels of one generation and the next are different in same space. There are often changes brought with time in any building. Similarly the infrastructure is also changing at a rapid phase as the transportation means and systems are changing. The access to power, drinking water, and open spaces for cultural and social events, educational institutions, markets, etc. also impacts the living space. The security and basic amenities are the main factors of consideration for not moving away from the congested cities. There is always an overlap of old and new adaptation factors, creating resilience for coexistence. The remembrance of a space and events in once own life time impact the people, and they love to continue in similar space. There is a kind of energy that one gets, while returning to the same space, it is often seen that the old people prefer living in the space they are used to and they often live longer too. There are emotions too acting up on the life of the people. Considering all the above factors, each city can be considered a single organism, having its own identity and also there are various diverse spaces within it. It is like a human body single living things, but various parts of the human body function for the happiness of the whole. There is a need to understand multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of the cities, for making a sustainable living in the cities.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION For the first time in history, the majority of the people on our planet live in cities. In 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in cities. Each city is a living and ever evolving entity, supporting human beings and their livelihoods, these human beings are having experiential sensitivity and emotions in a given space and time. The multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of the cities are ever increasing and evolving. Multifunctional aspects serve a purpose, whereas multilayer encompasses the functional dimensions of a city. This paper explores the possibilities of understanding multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of the cities, for making a sustainable living in the ever evolving and dynamic cities. BACKGROUND The biggest growth of cities is taking place in the majority world: every week 1 million Africans and Asians settle in cities. Cities are growing at a rapid phase, due to exponential growth of populations all over the world. The world population might stabilize by 2070 after reaching the peak population levels of about 9 billion. When people talk about the needs of the majority world, they talk about basic needs in terms of logistics, hygiene, employment, housing. In this context there are concerns regarding the cities expansion and sustainability. In its 2007 report, the United Nations called on policy makers to start making the right decisions now to use the inevitable growth of cities for the benefit of residents, instead of prevent people from leaving rural livelihoods. The modern city is a place of ‘flows and nodules’. The main function of streets and road ways is to allow the swift passage of traffic bringing people and goods together so we can fulfil our new identity as consumers. The urban population is dependant and highly insecure as knowledge and wealth alone does not help to live. OBJECTIVES To understand the multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of evolving cities for a sustainable living. METHODOLOGY This paper is based on the secondary information collected from various sources and from the sharing of experiences by the the people living in cities.
  3. 3. EVOLUTION OF HUMANS FROM HUNTER TO URBANITE Human beings living on this earth historically have evolved diverse characteristics in space and time. The following are the characteristics of hunter (primitive), farmer and urban way of living. Historically from about 500 - 1500 AD during the MIDDLE AGES there was dominance of agrarian and feudal society. Towns acted a centers for religions, political and military purposes. Later the Industrial revolution has accelerated the urbanization. Former agrarian population relocated in industrial towns as laborers. Resulted in overcrowding, unsanitary and unhealthy living conditions. Currently, massive rural – urban shift is occurring in developing countries. Some of the features are average family size is reduced, drop in birth rate and shift to alternative life styles in smaller communities. THE EVOLUTION OF CITIES Many have an expectation of the feeling acquired within culturally significant historic or ancient cities, those with amazing architecture, vast cultural activities, diversity, art, beauty – and, those elements that make a city somewhere one wants to live or be enfolded, welcomed, because it reinforces our own sense of identity. Kevin Lynch describes this attribute as “a sense of place.” Sense of place can also be achieved culturally, where even a few physical elements along with recognition of history, events, stories and spirituality, can lead to the creation of ‘place.’ ‘Place’ can be described as a knowing, a familiarity or comfort, sometimes outright aversion to a space (a place of execution, battle, violence or death). A ‘sense of place’ is “congruent with local identity.”Lynch specifically describes how to achieve a sense of place regardless of the purpose of structures. Cities, often in their beginning, create little if
  4. 4. any fabric of feeling. Therefore, cities disappoint and countenance monotony, or a lack of feeling, even cohesiveness. Cities are not what we expect them to be due to many influences. Referring to towns and cities, from ancient to modern, along with technologies to document their development. Various influences are also reviewed, such as: historic rulers, architects and landscape architects, society elites, rebellions and wars, and even population and immigration. Historically, cities develop in the landscape because of location. For instance, if import and export of goods is required, cities may tend to locate where adequate coastal dockage can occur; and, they are created for that purpose and sub-purposes such as fishing, boat building and travel. Where fertile ground is necessary, farm towns are formed to serve the needs of that community, and so on. These are also the place where people move for employment, which impacts and changes conditions in the cities left behind. City size is also an influence on what is perceived to be a perfect city – town, urban city or metropolis. Organizationally, cities are commonly founded around commerce and then government. All of this direct need for a specific activity is supported by naturally found ecologies and the activity creates the actual necessities of a community first and foremost. Secondary, or even tertiary needs, include the establishment of cultural activities and social remediation or issues for a city. Culturally, religion is the principal feature of new cities. Health benefits, including open space, living conditions and protection from disease as well as building practices is often an after-thought, as action in this regard occurs only after disasters where cities burn to the ground or the populace is struck by, often rampaging, preventable illness such as Cholera. This isn’t to say other issues do not affect the physical norm of a city – for instance, some cities were created by the Spanish based upon a conformity or norm of what the central city would encompass. The Spanish offered cities a courtyard theme where a central green occurred, surrounded by a government structure, town hall, and a church laid on a grid system with some use and form regulations. Cities also change due to the influence of wealthy patrons and governments. Immigration has a vast influence on cities as population growth can out pace the city’s ability to handle the quantity of people. Explosions in population create chaos and uncontrolled growth, even more. In the latter part of the 19th century, the industrial revolution had one of the largest physical and social impacts on cities to date due to new urban technologies. One of the biggest of these is lightweight structural steel, allowing the vertical scale of structures to be extended. The elevator also allowed the vertical development of buildings to be practically built and used. Other inventions created major changes in interactions, such as the telephone, railroad, electric lights and cable cars, allowing development to spread away from the city center. The way business was conducted was drastically
  5. 5. changed and expansion was able to occur more easily. Building technologies today allow for buildings which have projected life spans of 20 to 40 years use and are easily bulldozed. And, our cities are still searching for ‘a sense of place.’ No one seems to know what it is that they want and practice destructive methods and built lifestyles in the interim. DISTINCTION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYERS OF A CITY MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS OF A CITY An effort has been made to distinguish the multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of cities. The list captures some of the aspects and it may not be complete. Each city is unique and the intensity and number of the dimensions and intensity varies in time and space. The classification is debatable and further refined. See the representative model incorporating multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of a city: MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTILAYER
  6. 6. MULTIFUNTIONAL DIMENSIONS
  7. 7. MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS MULTIFUNTIONAL / MULTILAYER DIMENSIONS CASE STUDY 1 Culture of Hyderabad The historic factors, among others, contributed to Hyderabad developing into a multi cultural society that is peculiar and unique. Not only does it have an amalgamation of different cultures, Hyderabad boasts of a rich cultural heritage too. Being ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty, it came to be known as the "city of Nizams". As this dynasty crumpled, the Mughals took over and brought about sea change in the cultural outlook of the people. Today Hyderabad flourishes in its rich cultural history. The contemporary world sees this city as a blend of unique cultures with a touch of modern lifestyle. In general, Hyderabadi people are regarded as very friendly and hospitable. As a matter of fact, generosity is the other name of the Hyderabadis. They take immense pleasure and pride in conversing in their local, characteristic and vibrant Hyderabadi language, a mix of Urdu, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, and some words from Persian, Turkish, and Arabic. The end result is that the dialect sounds different from the usual Urdu spoken in India and Pakistan and is unique only to Hyderabad. The Hyderabadi Urdu is more like city's vernacular of Hindi language. It thrives in a world of its own. It is a blend of tradition and modernity. Despite a predominantly Muslim population, Hyderabad is a city where there is an exemplary amalgamation of Hindu and Muslim cultures. Present day Hyderabad is a healthy mixture of diverse religions, castes, and creeds, which has a noticeable history of communal harmony, a claim that not many cities can boast of. CITY AS AN ORGANISM A city should be considered an ever changing organism instead of something static. Charles Darwin’s famous quote “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change” contains an important principle that also applies to cities.
  8. 8. In the last few years it has been argued by many city planners that city problems have assumed such proportions and complexity that these can only be tackled if the territories involved and problems entailed are made larger still and can therefore be attacked more -‘broadly'. The argument, though valid in the context of the rapid progress in the field of transport and communications and the resulting mobility of goods, people and thoughts; the modalities adopted for its elaboration raise doubts about its validity. The modem city is a complex organism. "It is a great human enterprise serving the material and spiritual needs of man. It is a segment of land on which the people have selected their places to live and to work, to learn and to trade, to play and to pray. it is a mosaic of homes and shops, factories and offices, schools and libraries, theaters and hospitals, parks and playgrounds, meeting places and government centers, fire stations and post offices. These are woven together by a net-work of streets and transportation routes, water, sanitation and communication channels". To facilitate and manage the growth of all these properly' as the city develops is the function of a Development Plan. The city is a sensitive organism. A change in one part affects other parts of this structure. For example, new homes mean more traffic on the streets, more customers that encourage new shopping, more children in the school, more water for the people, more revenue in taxes. Yet, growth does not always mean strength and prosperity for the community. It depends upon the standards a community prescribes to maintain and manage the balance of urban lands and resources. CITIES AND INNOVATIONS It was found that city growth driven by wealth creation increases at a rate that is faster than exponential. The only way to avoid collapse as a population outstrips the finite resources available to it is through constant cycles of innovation, which re-engineer the initial conditions of growth. But the greater the absolute population, the smaller the relative return on each such investment, so innovation must come ever faster. Thus, the bigger the city, the faster life is; but the rate at which life gets faster must itself accelerate to maintain the city as a growing concern so much so that to maintain growth, major innovations must now occur on time-scales that are significantly shorter than a human lifespan. Humanity has just crossed a major landmark in its history with the majority of people now living in cities. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also its main source of crime, pollution, and disease.
  9. 9. CONCLUSION Already the urban population, living mostly in cities has reached greater than 50% of the world population. The inexorable trend toward urbanization worldwide presents an urgent challenge for developing a predictive, quantitative theory of urban organization and sustainable development. The processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times. Cities in the last few centuries have evolved coping with changes in social, economic, cultural, aesthetics, utility, historical, political, natural and environmental factors. Coping in the long run have become adaptation strategies, leading to sustainability of the cities. There is always an interface between the interests of old and new generations of people sharing the same space. The old buildings have more life and each building is at least able to provide space for at least two generations to live, as compared to new buildings, which last just 20 to 40 years. The comfort levels of one generation and the next are different in same space. There are often changes brought with time in any building. Similarly the infrastructure is also changing at a rapid phase as the transportation means and systems are changing. The access to power, drinking water, and open spaces for cultural and social events, educational institutions, markets, etc. are also impacting the living space. The security and basic amenities are the main factors of consideration of people for not moving away from the congested cities. There is always an overlap of old and new adaptation factors, creating resilience for coexistence. The remembrance of a space and events occurring in a city in once own life time impact the people, and they love to continue in similar space. There is a kind of energy that one gets, while returning to the same space, it is often seen that the old people prefer living in the space they are used to and they often live longer too. There are emotions too acting up on the life of the people. Considering all the above factors, each city can be considered a single organism, having its own identity and highly adaptive. There are various diverse spaces within a city for everyone to make a living. It is like a human body as a single living thing, but various parts of the human body function and perform for the happiness of the whole. There is a need to understand these multifunctional and multilayer dimensions of the cities, for making a sustainable living within the cities. REFERENCES : 1. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-504354/White-Britons-minority-dozen-towns-30- years.html
  10. 10. 2. http://www.inspiringcities.org/index.php?id=18225&type=article 3. http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2008/06/is-the-human-ci.html 4. United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision (2007). 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_A._Lynch 6. Delhi 6 - http://dilli6.in/ Movie 7. http://www.brookings.edu/favicon.ico 8. http://www.pnas.org/content/104/17/7301.full 9. http://urbanshifts.wordpress.com/xmlrpc.php 10. https://popupcity.net Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy is a Geographer, Geologist and Environmentalist, presently working on climate change, environment and development aspects. He is the founder and Chief Executive Officer of Geoecology Energy Organisation [GEO] http://e-geo.org

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