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Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook

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Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook - Dr Sai Bhaskar Reddy coauthor

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Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook

  1. 1. Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats (GrACE) An Initiative by Council for Green Revolution EasternGhats EnvironmentOutlook
  2. 2. This publication can be used in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, with the acknowledgements to the GrACE. The authors would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this report as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats (GrACE) © 2019, Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats This book is published by “Council for Green Revolution”, Hyderabad, India. Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats 1448, Street No 17, Banjara Green Colony, Road No. 12, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 5000 034, Telangana, India. Working Campus : The Earth Centre,#8-189/4, Kongara Khurd, Raviryala, Rangareddy Dist., Telangana, India. Exit-13, ORR Mobile: 96769 57000 Email: contact@cgrindia.org, greenrevolutionap@gmail.com For bibliographic and reference purposes: GrACE (2019) Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook, Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats, Hyderabad, India. Photo Credits: GrACE Team, Dr. K. Thulsi Rao, Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, Mr. C. Umamaheswar Reddy, Mr. Ravi P Naidu, Mr. P. Kotaiah, Mr. Vikram Aditya, Mr. Chinmaya Bhujabal, Mr. Sibada Rath, Mr. Devidas Manghnani, SOAS, Wikimedia Commons Design: Ravi Naidu, Yugandhar and Team
  3. 3. GrACE - Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook 2 Situated between 110 03’N to 220 03’N and 770 2’E to 870 2’E, the Eastern Ghats run about 1700 km in a north-east to south-westerly direction on the eastern part of peninsular India between Bay of Bengal and Deccan plateau. The average width of these hills range from about 200 km in their northern part, whereas in their southern extension, it is about 100 km. The Eastern Ghats stretch across the five Indian State I.e., Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Unlike the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats form as groups of discontinuous hill ranges featured with escarpments, tors, plateaus, basins and gorges. The elevation of the hills reaches up to 1672 mts (at Deomali peak located in Koraput district, southern Odisha). Simlipal range in northern Odisha is considered as the northern limit of these hills, while the southern-most and western-most extent touches the Nilgiri hills at Tamil Nadu and Karnataka border. The confluence of Eastern Ghats with Western Ghat ranges is the Moyar river valley between the Sigur plateau and the Talamalai plateau (MoEF, 2011). The geographical extent of the Eastern Ghats is about 75,000 km2 with distribution in Odisha (25 %), Andhra Pradesh (40 %), Telangana (5%), Karnataka (5%) and Tamil Nadu (25 %). In Odisha they are spread over 19 districts, i.e., Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Balasore, Jaipur, Angul, Dhenkanal, Cuttack, Khurda, Nayagarh, Phulbani, Boudh, Kalahandi, Gajapati, Ganjam, Rayagada, Nawrangpur, Koraput, Malkanagiri and Kandhamal. In Andhra Pradesh they form parts of all its 13 districts; Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Cuddapah, Anantapur and Chittoor. In Tamil Nadu, they are spread in 15 districts; Vellore, Erode, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchirapalli, Puddukkaottai, Villupuram, Chengalpat, North Arcot, South Arcot, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Krishnagiri. Small parts of the middle Eastern Ghats extend in Telangana, i.e, Nalgonda, Nagar Kurnool (Part of erstwhile Mahabubnagar district), and Khammam districts. A small portion also lies in Chamarajanagar district of Karnataka where these hills meet with the Western Ghats. Plateaus of Bastar, Telangana, Karnataka and uplands of Tamil Nadu lie to the western part of these ranges and on their east lies the coastal plains. Its various hills are known locally by various names e.g., the Deomali hills, Gandhamardan, Mahendragiri (Odisha); Anantagiri, Nallamalai, Veligonda, Seshachalam (AP); Kolli hills, Javadi hills (TN), Bilgiri Rangana hills (Karnataka) etc. The ranges are dissected by easterly bound major rivers i.e., Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Penna and Cauvery. These mega streams that flow through the Ghats form large estuaries at their confluence with the Bay of Bengal. Many small and medium-sized streams originate from the Eastern Ghats catchment. Geographically, the Eastern Ghats are divided into three major regions: Northern, Central and South Eastern division. Territory & Characteristics An Out line of Eastern Ghats “Environment is where we all live; and development is what we all do in attempting to improve our lot within that abode. The two are inseparable” - Gro Harlem Brundtland.
  4. 4. GrACE - Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook 7 Hill Ranges Odisha Simlipal: The name of the hills owes to the abundance and blooms of semul (red silk cotton trees) in the area which covers about 2750 km2 . This wilderness is blessed with thick forest cover dominated by Sal trees. The average elevation of these ranges is 900 mts. The area is crowned with the peaks like Khairiburu (1178 mts), Meghasani (1158 mts). Many streams like Budhabalanga, Khairi, Salandi, Palpala originate and flow in this wilderness and they form many cascades and falls before entering the surrounding low lands. Barehipani (217 mts) and Joranda (181 mts) are the prominent waterfalls of Simlipal. Garhjat Hills: These ranges are a northward prolongation of the Eastern Ghats formed by a low lying hills. The northern ranges fall into Chotanagpur plateau while the southern part is an extension of the Eastern Ghats. These ranges spread over the district of Sundargarh, Sambalpur, Deogarh, Jharsuguda, Baragarh, Kendujhar in Odisha. The average height of the range is about 900 mts. Rivers like Brahmani, Mahanadi, Baitarani and Subarnarekha drain the area. The hills are covered with semi-evergreen and dry and moist deciduous forests. Malayagiri and Manakamacha are the important peaks of these ranges. Khondmal Hills: These hills cover entire Phulbani district. It is an inaccessible highland with narrow valleys. Daringabadi is a famous hill station which is in these hills at a height of 915 mts above sea level. Mahendragiri Range: The Mahendragiri-Singharaju hills, situated near Parlakhemundi in Gajapati district is located about 175 km from Berhampur in southern Odisha bordering Andhra Pradesh. This range is comprised of Devagiri hills in West Singaraja and Mahendragiri in the East, Udayagiri and Ramgiri hills in the North, Narayanpur and Gandahati hills in the South. The range is spread about 2,000 km2 and is dotted with over 25 small and big hills with the highest peaks being Mahendragiri (1,501 mts), Singaraju (1516 mts) and Devagiri (1392 mts). Mahendragiri hills are comprised of mainly granite and magnetite rocks. The annual rainfall here is about 1550 mm. Deomali Range: Deomalis forms the part of Koraput district of Southern Odisha. The range has the tallest peak of Eastern Ghats with an altitude of 1,672 mts situated at Doodhari village, Pottangi Panchayat, which is 35 km from Koraput. These hills are rich in biodiversity, mineral resources such as bauxite, limestone and gemstones. The hills also glisten with many springs and brooks, deep valleys. The hills are inhabited by tribes, such as Khondhs, Parajas, Bhumia, Malis and Bhotias. Gandhamardan: These hills lie between 20º 42’N to 21º 00’N and 82º 41’E to 83º 05’E in the northwest of Bolangir and southwest of Baragarh district, Odisha. The important peak here is Gandhamardan with an elevation of 990 mts. The hills are endowed with a treasure of medicinal plants and abundant bauxite reserves. It is an undulating terrain with elevations ranging from 320 to 1220 mts and is aligned in north-east and south-west direction. Annual rainfall ranges from 750 mm to 1600 mm. It is an important floristic centre of the Eastern Ghats hosting moist deciduous vegetation (Sahu et al., 2010). Niyamgiri: The Niyamgiri range is situated in the districts of Kalahandi and Rayagada in Odisha. It is richly endowed with the finest quality bauxite reserves of India. These hills have one of India’s most pristine forests in the interiors and is home to Dongria and Kondh tribes. Highest peak in the hills attain an altitude of 1509 mts. It is a sacred mountain for the tribals. Andhra Pradesh Anantagiri Ranges: Anantagiri was once a summer retreat for the Maharajas and is located near Araku Valley, making it a tourist attraction. There are huge waterfalls, ravines and gorges. The river Muchkanda, originates from these hills and flows along with several Deomali (1672 mts.) the higest peak in Eastern Ghats
  5. 5. Greens’ Alliance for Conservation of Eastern Ghats (GrACE) was founded on 5th June 2011 by Council for Green Revolution, Hyderabad based environmental organization. GrACE was envisaged to provide an ideal platform for the protection of the ecosystems and natural heritage of fragile Eastern Ghats hill ranges which are undergoing an unprecedented degradation. GrACE mission so far include two national conferences, three regional conventions, a conservation expedition and brought out this outlook publication. Published by: Council for Green Revolution 1448, Street No 17, Banjara Green Colony, Road No. 12, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 5000 034, Telangana, India. Email: contact@cgrindia.org, greenrevolutionap@gmail.com www.cgrindia.org
  • JessaSabalboro1

    Sep. 17, 2021

Eastern Ghats Environment Outlook - Dr Sai Bhaskar Reddy coauthor

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