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Ipcc cop 26 climate change and environment sai bhaskar

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Ipcc cop 26 climate change and environment sai bhaskar

  1. 1. Dr N Sai Bhaskar Reddy, Director, The Earth Center, CGR 1st October 2021 National Seminar on IPCC Report 2021
  2. 2. Council for Green Revolution CGR is committed to achieving sustainable development goals, environmental management, ecosystems restoration and leadership emergence for earth systems
  3. 3. COP 26 • UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow on 31 October – 12 November 2021 • Around the world storms, floods and wildfires are intensifying. Air pollution sadly affects the health of tens of millions of people and unpredictable weather causes untold damage to homes and livelihoods too. • But while the impacts of climate change are devastating, advances in tackling it are leading to cleaner air, creating good jobs, restoring nature and at the same time unleashing economic growth. • Despite the opportunities we are not acting fast enough. To grip this crisis, countries need to join forces urgently. • They also agreed to step up efforts to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to make finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. • By completing and implementing the Paris Agreement at Glasgow, we can show that the world is able to work together to tackle this crucial challenge. • And by uniting behind a green recovery from coronavirus, which creates sustainable jobs and addresses the urgent and linked challenges of public health, climate change, and biodiversity loss, we can safeguard the environment for future generations.
  4. 4. COP26 Targets 1. Secure global net zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 degrees within reach • Countries are being asked to come forward with ambitious 2030 emissions reductions targets that align with reaching net zero by the middle of the century. • To deliver on these stretching targets, countries will need to: • accelerate the phase-out of coal • curtail deforestation • speed up the switch to electric vehicles • encourage investment in renewables.
  5. 5. COP26 Targets 2. Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats The climate is already changing and it will continue to change even as we reduce emissions, with devastating effects. At COP26 we need to work together to enable and encourage countries affected by climate change to: • protect and restore ecosystems • build defences, warning systems and resilient infrastructure and agriculture to avoid loss of homes, livelihoods and even lives
  6. 6. COP26 Targets 3. Mobilise finance • To deliver on our first two goals, developed countries must make good on their promise to mobilise at least $100bn in climate finance per year by 2020. • International financial institutions must play their part and we need work towards unleashing the trillions in private and public sector finance required to secure global net zero.
  7. 7. COP26 Targets 4. Work together to deliver We can only rise to the challenges of the climate crisis by working together. At COP26 we must: • finalise the Paris Rulebook (the detailed rules that make the Paris Agreement operational) • accelerate action to tackle the climate crisis through collaboration between governments, businesses and civil society.
  8. 8. IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the sixth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical, and socio-economic information concerning climate change. This report evaluates the physical science of climate change – looking at the past, present, and future climate. It reveals how human-caused emissions are altering our planet and what that means for our collective future.
  9. 9. Highlights of Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) Weather and climate events – such as extreme heat, heavy rainfall, fire conditions, and droughts – are becoming more severe and frequent because of climate change. The report finds we are already edging closer to a 1.5 degrees Celsius warmer world, and every day emissions rise the prospects for averting the worst impacts of climate change become dimmer. Carbon dioxide has been and will continue to be the dominant cause of global warming under all greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. It says, if greenhouse gas emissions are halved by 2030 and net zero by 2050, global warming can be stopped. Also, IPCC report vindicates India’s position that historical cumulative emissions are the source of the climate crisis that the World faces today.
  10. 10. Major Concerns The report highlights that our climate is rapidly changing due to human influence and is already altering our planet in drastic ways – Arctic Sea ice is at its lowest level in more than 150 years; Sea levels are rising faster than at any time in at least the last 3,000 years; and Glaciers are declining at a rate unprecedented in at least 2,000 years.
  11. 11. The Current State of the Climate A.1 It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land. Widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and biosphere have occurred. A.2 The scale of recent changes across the climate system as a whole and the present state of many aspects of the climate system are unprecedented over many centuries to many thousands of years.
  12. 12. The Current State of the Climate A.3 Human-induced climate change is already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe. Evidence of observed changes in extremes such as heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and tropical cyclones, and, in particular, their attribution to human influence, has strengthened since the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). A.4 Improved knowledge of climate processes, paleoclimate evidence and the response of the climate system to increasing radiative forcing gives a best estimate of equilibrium climate sensitivity of 3°C, with a narrower range compared to AR5.
  13. 13. Possible Climate Futures B.1 Global surface temperature will continue to increase until at least the mid-century under all emissions scenarios considered. Global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C will be exceeded during the 21st century unless deep reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions occur in the coming decades. B.2 Many changes in the climate system become larger in direct relation to increasing global warming. They include increases in the frequency and intensity of hot extremes, marine heatwaves, and heavy precipitation, agricultural and ecological droughts in some regions, and proportion of intense tropical cyclones, as well as reductions in Arctic sea ice, snow cover and permafrost.
  14. 14. Possible Climate Futures B.3 Continued global warming is projected to further intensify the global water cycle, including its variability, global monsoon precipitation and the severity of wet and dry events. B.4 Under scenarios with increasing CO2 emissions, the ocean and land carbon sinks are projected to be less effective at slowing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. B.5 Many changes due to past and future greenhouse gas emissions are irreversible for centuries to millennia, especially changes in the ocean, ice sheets and global sea level.
  15. 15. Climate Information for Risk Assessment and Regional Adaptation C.1 Natural drivers and internal variability will modulate human-caused changes, especially at regional scales and in the near term, with little effect on centennial global warming. These modulations are important to consider in planning for the full range of possible changes. C.2 With further global warming, every region is projected to increasingly experience concurrent and multiple changes in climatic impact-drivers. Changes in several climatic impact-drivers would be more widespread at 2°C compared to 1.5°C global warming and even more widespread and/or pronounced for higher warming levels. C.3 Low-likelihood outcomes, such as ice sheet collapse, abrupt ocean circulation changes, some compound extreme events and warming substantially larger than the assessed very likely range of future warming cannot be ruled out and are part of risk assessment.
  16. 16. Limiting Future Climate Change D.1 From a physical science perspective, limiting human-induced global warming to a specific level requires limiting cumulative CO2 emissions, reaching at least net zero CO2 emissions, along with strong reductions in other greenhouse gas emissions. Strong, rapid and sustained reductions in CH4 emissions would also limit the warming effect resulting from declining aerosol pollution and would improve air quality. D.2 Scenarios with low or very low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (SSP1-1.9 and SSP1- 2.6) lead within years to discernible effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, and air quality, relative to high and very high GHG emissions scenarios (SSP3-7.0 or SSP5-8.5). Under these contrasting scenarios, discernible differences in trends of global surface temperature would begin to emerge from natural variability within around 20 years, and over longer time periods for many other climatic impact-drivers (high confidence).
  17. 17. Need of the hour It is essential that all countries – in particular the major economies – do their part during this critical decade of the 2020s to put the world on a trajectory to keep a 1.5 degrees Celsius limit on warming within reach. As countries prepare for the 26th UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow, this report is a stark reminder that we must let science drive us to action. This moment requires world leaders, the private sector, and individuals to act together with urgency and do everything it takes to protect our planet and our future in this decade and beyond.
  18. 18. UN SDGs The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
  19. 19. NAPCC – Match NATIONAL MISSIONS Way Forward: National Solar Mission: Development and use of solar energy for power generation National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: yield savings of 10,000 MW. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: energy efficiency for urban planning. National Water Mission: 20% improvement in water use efficiency: Water Grid
  20. 20. NAPCC – Match National Missions Way Forward: National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem National Mission for a “Green India”: afforestation of 6 million hectares of forest cover from 23% to 33% Haritha Haram National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: climate- resilient crops, weather insurance and agriculture : Mission Kakatiya National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change for a better understanding.
  21. 21. LESS VISUAL BUT WITH MAJOR IMPACT > Temperature increase > Less & erratic rain Agriculture and food security Crop yields, irrigation demands... Forest Composition, health and productivity... Water resources Water supply, water quality... Species and natural areas Biodiversity, modification of ecosystems... Human health Infectious diseases, human settlements... Consequences of climate change:
  23. 23. CLIMATE CHANGE VARIABILITY IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS Climate Variability and extremes The people vulnerable to droughts Increasing crop failures, dislocation, famine, poverty & social inequities.
  24. 24. RURAL CHALLENGES Climate change - variability - extremes Soil fertility Water managem ent Impact of hazardous pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers Burning of crop residue Alkalinity of soils
  25. 25. https://www.smashwords.c om/books/view/642405 Earth Conscious – Earth Leadership https://www.smashwords.c om/books/view/950727
  26. 26. CITY River Catchment of city Green Belt Ringroad Cascades Way Forward: Future cities – annular / circular / segregated water harvesting water bodies
  27. 27. Way Forward: Harvest water before it leaves the borders of houses, fields, villages, towns and cities https://www.smashwords.c om/books/view/1077428
  29. 29. Way Forward: Monitoring the flows
  30. 30. Water Level in Field water tube (Bowman) using ultrasonic sensor Way Forward:
  31. 31. Way Forward: Polyhouse, Green House and Precision Agriculture
  32. 32. Sustaining farmers Farm Laws - The Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act and The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act. Farm crisis today has ecological roots m/books/view/997274
  33. 33. Way Forward: Awareness to Children on Water Conservation & Monitoring Kondrapole, Miryalaguda, Nalgonda
  34. 34. Glow Level for Tube wells – Colour LEDs for different levels of water in the tube wells Way Forward:
  36. 36. Way Forward: BIOCHAR Biochar is another name for charcoal used for purposes other than combustion. Like all charcoal, biochar is created by the pyrolysis of biomass. Soil
  39. 39. Way Forward: Weather Based Crop Insurance
  40. 40. Biomass management • Agriculture or Crop residue • Invasive species • Weeds • Forest biomass (such as pine needles) https://www.smashwords.c om/books/view/878122 https://www.smashwords. com/books/view/953940
  42. 42. Advantages of Biochar Urban Gardens Less weight and insulation to the rooftops Economic savings through access to self grown food Utilization of urban organic waste for biochar compost. Aesthetics and green spaces on rooftops ar/urban-greenery-ways-and-means
  43. 43. Way Forward : Improved Stoves to communities https://www.smashwords. com/books/view/643892
  44. 44. School Children as Earth leaders for Environmental Monitoring To educate school children on the challenges of their own environment and develop them as Earth Leaders and agents of change to disseminate knowledge, create awareness, trainings given to the students and teachers for designing the sensor systems. The website/dashboard using IT capabilities was developed. https://www.smash ew/922525
  45. 45. Thank you