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Motherboard, It's Functions and It's Components


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A Short Detail of Motherboard, it's Functions and it's Components.

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Motherboard, It's Functions and It's Components

  2. 2. WHAT IS MOTHERBOARD? • A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, planar board or logic board, or a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard contains significant sub-systems such as the processor and other components. Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF MOTHERBOARD • Motherboard provides the electrical connection between various components of the system. It controls the transfer of data and information within the system. • It provides an interface upon which other components of system such as CPU, RAM, ROM, Chipset and expansion slots can reside. • It provides the CPU interface with other peripheral support chips. • It provides interface for various cards(Graphic Cards, NIC) to various expansion slots such as ISA and PCI. • It provides on-board IDE or SCSI interface for HDD, CD-ROM etc. • It provides PS/2 interface for connecting keyboard and mouse.
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF MOTHERBOARD • Chipset • North Bridge • South Bridge • Super I/O Chip • ROM • CMOS Setup • Expansion Slot • ISA • PCI • AGP • Memory Slot • SIMM • DIMM • I/O Connector • Other Connector
  5. 5. CHIPSET • A Chipset interacts with almost all hardware components of the system. It also finds the system bus speed and handle the address function for the CPU. Some of the important chipset on Motherboard are: • North Bridge • South Bridge • Super I/O Chip
  6. 6. ROM-BIOS • The ROM chip is another key component of motherboard. It contains the BIOS in it. BIOS is a collection of very small programs permanently stored on it. These programs are executed when the computer starts. BIOS can also be stored on EPROM, PROM or FEPROM.
  7. 7. CMOS-SETUP • It is a Complementary Metal Oxide which stores parameters for setting up various devices connected to the Computer. It includes real-time clock setting, FDD setting, boot sequence setting, security setting, power management setting, HDD detection and configuration.
  8. 8. EXPANSION SLOTS • There are general three kinds of expansion slots found on motherboard. 1. ISA: The Oldest Expansion Slot 2. PCI: High Speed Expansion Slot 3. AGP: Very High Speed Expansion Slot • All Motherboards contain only one AGP slot.
  9. 9. MEMORY SLOT • The Motherboard contain various memory slots to connect system main memory. • Two types of memory are available now days: • SIMM: Singe inline Memory module • DIMM: Dual inline Memory Module. • The Motherboard contain 2-4 DIMM or SIMM slot. Some Motherboards contain only SIMM or Only DIMM slot. Most Motherboard contain both SIMM and DIMM.
  10. 10. OTHER CONNECTORS • Various I/O connectors found on Motherboard are Keyboard Connector, Mouse Connector, Serial Port, Parallel Port, USB, COM Port, Display Connector etc. All Motherboard contains Keyboard, Mouse, Serial and Parallel port.
  11. 11. The Motherboard also contains some of other components like: • Audio Coded Chip • Memory Controller Hub Chip • AT & ATX Power Connector • Processor Holder • Controller Chip • Speaker Connector • IDE Connector OTHER CONNECTORS