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STEAM POWER PLANT

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INTRODUCTION
THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OF STEAM FLOW
RANKINE CYCLE (IDEAL , ACTUAL ,REHEAT)
LAYOUT OF STEAM POWER PLANT
MAJOR COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
ALTERNATOR
EXCITATION SYSTEM
GOVERNING SYSTEM

Published in: Engineering
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STEAM POWER PLANT

  1. 1. Page 1 Steam power plant GroUp 1
  2. 2. Page 2 contentS  INTRODUCTION  THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OF STEAM FLOW  RANKINE CYCLE (IDEAL , ACTUAL ,REHEAT)  LAYOUT OF STEAM POWER PLANT  MAJOR COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS  ALTERNATOR  EXCITATION SYSTEM  GOVERNING SYSTEM  ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
  3. 3. Page 3 introdUction  Use of steam power started when it was first used in locomotive invented by James watt.  Steam power is used to rotate the prime mover of electric generator and it is known as steam power plant.  In this process heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and then to electrical energy through turbine generator system heat energy may be obtained by proper combustion of commercial fuel such as coal ,gas ,oil etc..
  4. 4. Page 4  steam power plants are also called thermal power plants. Prime movers of steam plant may be operated either in non-condensing or condensing mode  In non-condensing operation the steam is exhausted from the prime movers and is discharged at atmospheric pressure or greater than that  Whereas in condensing the steam is exhausted into a condenser in which pressure is less and steam is converted to water
  5. 5. Page 5 thermodynamic cycle of Steam flow  From laws of thermodynamics when heat is transferred to water its enthalpy and physical state change as heating takes place its temperature rises and density decreases the vapour formed in this process is called steam which is gaseous state but does not entirely follow the laws of perfect gas  The Carnot cycle cannot be applied to steam turbine as compression phase does not exist hence a steam power plant works on rankine cycle
  6. 6. Page 6 rankine cycle The impracticalities associated with Carnot cycle can be eliminated by superheating the steam in the boiler and condensing it completely in the condenser. This cycle results as the Rankine cycle, which is the ideal cycle for vapour power plants
  7. 7. Page 7 The Rankine cycle consists of the following four processes: 1-2 : Isentropic compression in pump (compressors) 2-3 : Constant pressure heat addition in boiler 3-4 : Isentropic expansion in turbine  4-1 : Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser
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  10. 10. Page 10 rankine cycle: actUal cycle  The cycles encountered in actual devices are difficult to analyze because of the presence of complicating effects, such as friction and the absence of sufficient time for establishment of the equilibrium conditions during the cycle.  The actual vapour power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle, as a result of irreversibility's in various components. Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings are the two common sources of irreversibility's.
  11. 11. Page 11 • Fluid friction causes pressure drop in the boiler, the condenser and the piping between various components. Also the pressure at the turbine inlet is somewhat lower than that at the boiler exit due to the pressure drop in the connecting pipes. To compensate for these pressure drops, the water must be pumped to a sufficiently higher pressure than the ideal cycle. This requires a large pump and larger work input to the pump,
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  13. 13. Page 13 Reheat Rankine CyCle The efficiency of the Rankine cycle can increase by expanding the steam in the turbine in two stages, and reheating it in between. Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines, and it is commonly used in modern steam power plants.
  14. 14. Page 14  The ideal reheat Rankine cycle differs from the simple ideal Rankine cycle in that the expansion process take place in two stages.  In first stage (the high-pressure turbine), steam is expanded isentropically to an intermediate pressure and sent back to the boiler where it is reheated at constant pressure, usually to the inlet temperature of the first turbine stage.  Steam then expands isentropically in the second stage (low-pressure turbine) to the condenser pressure.
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  16. 16. Page 16 layout of steam poweR plant
  17. 17. Page 17 The different types of systems and components used in steam power plant are as follows: 1.Coal handling system 2. High pressure boiler 3. Air preheater, economizer, super heater ,feed heaters. 4. Pumping system 5. Feed water purification plant 6. Condensers and cooling towers 7. Draught system 8. Prime mover 9. Alternator 10. Ash and dust handling system
  18. 18. Page 18 The flow circuit of a thermal power plant consists of the following four main circuits: (a)Feed water and steam flow circuit. (b) Coal and ash circuit. (c)Air and gas circuit. (d) Cooling water circuit.
  19. 19. Page 19 Boiler Boiler has the function to convert water into steam. The process of change of water to vapour done by heating the water in the pipes with heat from burning fuel. Combustion processes carried out continuously in the combustion chamber with fuel and air flow from the outside majoR Components and theiR funCtions
  20. 20. Page 20 . Steam production quantities dependent on the surface area of heat transfer, flow rate, and the heat of combustion is given. Boiler construction consisting of water-filled pipes called a water tube boiler
  21. 21. Page 21 Boiler feed pump function is to feed the water to be steamed in the boiler of thermal power plant. Condensate water to be coming out from condenser and make up water coming from water treatment plant ad together forming total feed water. Coal mills  In modern power plant pulverized coal is used. Once pulverized, coal mills are employed for crushing the coal into a powder form. This increases the efficiency of boiler hence the plant.
  22. 22. Page 22 Economizer  The economizer is a feed water heater, deriving heat from the flue gases. The justifiable cost of the economizer depends on the total gain in efficiency. In turn this depends on the flue gas temperature leaving the boiler and the feed water inlet temperature.
  23. 23. Page 23 Steam Turbine Steam turbine working to change the heat energy contained in the steam into rotary motion. Steam with high pressure and temperature were directed to push turbine blades mounted on the shaft, so the shaft rotates.  Due to perform work on the turbine, the pressure and temperature of steam coming into the turbine down to saturated vapour. This steam then flows to the condenser, while the rotary power is used to turn a generator. Today almost all of the steam turbine is a type of condensing turbine
  24. 24. Page 24 Air Pre-heater  The flue gases coming out of the economizer is used to preheat the air before supplying it to the combustion chamber. An increase in air temperature of 20 degrees can be achieved by this method.  The pre heated air is used for combustion and also to dry the crushed coal before pulverizing.
  25. 25. Page 25 Soot Blowers  The fuel used in thermal power plants causes soot and this is deposited on the boiler tubes, economizer tubes, air pre heaters, etc. This drastically reduces the amount of heat transfer of the heat exchangers.  Soot blowers control the formation of soot and reduce its corrosive effects.  The types of soot blowers are fixed type, which may be further classified into lane type and mass type depending upon the type of spray and nozzle used. The other type of soot blower is the retractable soot blower.
  26. 26. Page 26 Condenser The use of a condenser in a power plant is to improve the efficiency of the power plant by decreasing the exhaust pressure of the steam below atmosphere. Another advantage of the condenser is that the steam condensed may be recovered to provide a source of good pure feed water to the boiler and reduce the water softening capacity to a considerable extent. A condenser is one of the essential components of a power plant.
  27. 27. Page 27 Cooling Tower The importance of the cooling tower is felt when the cooling water from the condenser has to be cooled. The cooling water after condensing the steam becomes hot and it has to be cooled as it belongs to a closed system. The Cooling towers do the job of decreasing the temperature of the cooling water after condensing the steam in the condenser. The type of cooling tower used in the Columbia Power Plant was an Inline Induced Draft Cross Flow Tower.
  28. 28. Page 28 This tower provides a horizontal air flow as the water falls down the tower in the form of small droplets. The fan centered at the top of units draws air through two cells that are paired to a suction chamber partitioned beneath the fan. The outstanding feature of this tower is lower air static pressure loss as there is less resistance to air flow.  The evaporation and effective cooling of air is greater when the air outside is warmer and dryer than when it is cold and already saturated.
  29. 29. Page 29 Superheater The superheater consists of a superheater header and superheater elements. Steam from the main steam pipe arrives at the saturated steam chamber of the superheater header and is fed into the superheater elements. Superheated steam arrives back at the superheated steam chamber of the superheater header and is fed into the steam pipe to the cylinders.  Superheated steam is more expansive.
  30. 30. Page 30 Reheater The reheater functions similar to the superheater in that it serves to elevate the steam temperature. Primary steam is supplied to the high pressure turbine. After passing through the high pressure turbine, the steam is returned to the steam generator for reheating (in a reheater) after which it is sent to the low pressure turbine. A second reheat cycle may also be provided.
  31. 31. Page 31 Draught system  to overcome the resistance offered by the pipelines, air ducts, fuel beds, dampers, chimney, etc. for the flow of air, flue gases draught system is required in thermal power plant.  Normally FD (forced draft) fan, ID (induced draft) fan and chimney facilitate this function.  FD fan provides air from atmosphere to the boiler with the positive pressure, where as ID fan along with chimney sucks an air and waste gas from boiler to the atmosphere.
  32. 32. Page 32 Turbo-Alternator: In thermal power plant, turbo alternator is usually coupled unit of steam turbine and electrical generator.  Steam turbine rotates with the help of superheated steam expanded from high pressure and high temperature.  As the turbine rotates, alternator also rotates gives rise to generation of electricity.generator is the main unit of any power plant. In this unit the generation of electricity is done. It is mechanically coupled with the turbine, so that when turbine rotates, it also rotates. The speed of the generator is given by,
  33. 33. Page 33  Alternator cooling system: In thermal power plant, large amount of heat is generated in the windings due to copper and Eddy current losses. This heat should be removed continuously so as to keep the insulating material from damaging. There are two methods of cooling systems, open-circuit and closed-circuit method. For low capacity generators open-circuit cooling system is employed in which atmospheric air is passed through one side and sucks out from the another side
  34. 34. Page 34  For medium capacity generators closed circuit cooling system is employed in which same air passed again and again after cooling it.  In case of high capacity generators same closed circuit cooling system is employed only with difference of air is replaced with oxygen. Finally the overall efficiency of the thermal power plant is given by,
  35. 35. Page 35 protection of turbo alternators  Being one of the expensive part in the power plant alternator must be protected from the faults which may be either in stator or rotor and other abnormal conditions  Some of the protections provided are as follows  Faults in the windings protection  Over load protection  Over heating of windings or bearings  Over speed protection
  36. 36. Page 36  Loss of Excitation protection  Motoring operation protection  Inadvertent energisation  single phase or unbalanced current protection,  out of step operation protection  sub-synchronous oscillations protection  earth fault protection
  37. 37. Page 37 Excitation systEm  Alternator control both power and voltage with two different control loops. The control of input are called M-W frequency control loop . It is also known as load frequency control or automatic load frequency control or automatic generation control second control loop is MVAR control loop or excitation control loop  Excitation system control the terminal voltage of generator and reactive power generation, it also responds to system disturbances
  38. 38. Page 38  For satisfactory operation of the system it must fulfil following requirements  Meeting specified response criteria , providing limiting and protective functions ,flexible operation , reliability and availability  The excitation system can be categorized based on the supply given such as dc excitation , ac excitation and static excitation  Ac excitation is more commonly used now
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  42. 42. Page 42 GovErninG systEm  Governing is the procedure of monitoring and controlling the flow rate of steam into the turbine with the objective of maintaining its speed of rotation as constant.  The flow rate of steam is monitored and controlled by interposing valves between the boiler and the turbine.   Depending upon the particular method adopted for control of steam flow rate, different types of governing methods are being practiced
  43. 43. Page 43 Some of the governing methods are Nozzle governing By pass governing Combination governing Flyball speed governing The main parts of governing system are speed governor, amplifier , speed changer and linkage mechanism
  44. 44. Page 44 Flyball governing
  45. 45. Page 45 advantaGEs The fuel used is quite cheap. Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal.  The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road. It require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants.
  46. 46. Page 46 disadvantaGEs It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. It is costlier in running cost as compared to Hydro electric plants. Transportation of fuel is one of the major difficulties for the plants located away from coal fields. Life of the plant is hardly 3 to 4 decades compared with hydro-plant (1 to 2 centuries).
  47. 47. Page 47 thank youPrEsEntEd by alEEna Paul -01 ashvi surEsh - 05 bibin thomas -08 basil P alias-07 GrEGin soju -14 lishana fathima sharaf -21 nEEnu PrathaPan -28 PrathEEka PrathaP-30 rEvathy GoPinath -33

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