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Grade 11 Earth & Life Science (Earth System & Subsystems)

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To all SHS Grade 11 Science Teachers- for your teaching resources

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Grade 11 Earth & Life Science (Earth System & Subsystems)

  1. 1. Earth as a SYSTEM
  2. 2. SYSTEM - A set of interconnected components that are interacting to form a unified whole.
  3. 3. EXAMPLE of a system- ECOSYSTEM. (Organisms are interrelated and interacting)
  4. 4. The Earth system is essentially a CLOSED SYSTEM. A closed system is a system in which there is only an exchange of heat or energy and no exchange of matter. The Earth receives energy from the sun and returns some of this energy to space.
  5. 5. Components or subsystems of the Earth system
  6. 6. THE EARTH SUBSYSTEMS Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere Atmosphere
  7. 7. Major Themes SCALE ENERGY CYCLE
  8. 8. Scale Processes in the Earth system act on length scales of microns to thousands of kilometers, and on time scales of milliseconds to millions of years. Major Themes
  9. 9. Energy The Earth system is powered by one external source: the Sun and two internal ones: - radioactive decay - gravitational energy (heat still being lost from planetary formation). Major Themes
  10. 10. Cycles Material in the Earth system is continually recycled in numerous overlapping cycles. Major Themes
  11. 11. The Carbon Cycle
  12. 12. The Rock Cycle
  13. 13. The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
  14. 14. Includes all life forms on Earth Biosphere It covers all ecosystems—from the soil to the rainforest, from mangroves to coral reefs, and from the plankton-rich ocean surface to the deep sea.
  15. 15. Photosynthesis The Carbon Cycle
  16. 16. James Lovelock used the "Daisy World Model" to illustrate how the biosphere is capable of regulating its environment. The Albedo Effect …
  17. 17. Dynamic mass of water that is continuously on the move Hydrosphere
  18. 18. Precipitation, Evaporation, Runoff, Infiltration, etc... The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle 1. About 70% of the Earth is covered with liquid water (hydrosphere) and much of it is in the form of ocean water. 2. Only 3% of Earth's water is fresh: two-thirds are in the form of ice, and the remaining one-third is present in streams, lakes, and groundwater.
  19. 19. Condensation, Precipitation, Evaporation, Transpiration, Infiltration, Surface Runoff.
  20. 20. The atmosphere is the thin gaseous layer that envelopes the lithosphere. Atmosphere The present atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen (N), 21% oxygen (O2), 0.9% argon, and trace amount of other gases.
  21. 21. One of the most important processes by which the heat on the Earth's surface is redistributed is through atmospheric circulation.
  22. 22. The Solid Earth extends from the surface to the center Geosphere
  23. 23. Connect to Earth Create a concept map which explains how the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are interconnected. Use arrows and simple illustrations.
  24. 24. Geosphere Atmosphere BiosphereHydrosphere 4.6 Billion Years of Interaction
  25. 25. The lithosphere includes the crust and the upper part of the mantle. LITHOSPHERE
  26. 26. Layers of the Earth CRUST (continental & oceanic) MANTLE (upper & lower) CORE (outer & inner)
  27. 27. Which layer is it?
  28. 28. CRUST - It’s the light and very thin outer skin of the Earth. - The outermost layer where energy and mineral resources are derived.
  29. 29. Different elements that compose the Earth’s CRUST  Oxygen 46.60  Silicon 27.72  Aluminum 8.13  Iron 5.00  Calcium 3.63  Sodium 2.83  Potassium 2.59  Magnesium 2.09  Titanium 0.40  Hydrogen 0.14
  30. 30. MANTLE - Less dense layer - Made up of silicate rocks, mostly made of the elements silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium.
  31. 31. CORE - Denser layer - the Earth’s magnetic field - strengthens the idea that the Earth’s outer core is molten/liquid.
  32. 32. Historical Development of the concept of EARTH SYSTEM
  33. 33. Sources: 1. Ms. Laguda ppt. (Regional SHS Mass Training of Grade 11 Teachers) 2.TG Earth & Life Science

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