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Pearson's Comprehensive
Medical Assisting
Administrative and Clinical Competencies
CHAPTER
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
THIRD EDITION
Infection Control
Lesson 1:
Introduction to Infection
Control
34
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Infection ControlInfection Control
• Infection control
 Process of reducing exposure to
pathogens to prevent the spread of
disease
• Pathogens
 Disease-producing organisms
• In healthy individuals, immune system
provides some measure of resistance to
pathogens
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Infection ControlInfection Control
• People suffering from a disease are
likely to have compromised immune
system, making them more susceptible
to new infections
• Controlling pathogens especially
important in a medical office
• Asepsis
 State of being free from germs,
infection, and any form of microbial life
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Microorganisms
 Organisms so small they can be seen
only with aid of a microscope
• Also called microbes
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Not all microorganisms cause disease
• Pathogens do cause disease
• Types of pathogens
 Bacteria
 Fungi
 Protozoa
 Viruses
 Rickettsiae
 Parasitic worms
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Many microorganisms are not harmful
and grow and thrive in the human
body; may have helpful functions
within body
• Normal flora: microorganisms normally
found on skin and in urinary,
gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Critical Thinking QuestionCritical Thinking Question
1. What temperature is ideal for disease-
producing pathogens?
2. Why is an aseptic environment important?
3. During which stage does a person stop being
contagious?
4. How is phagocytosis involved in the
inflammatory process?
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• How Microorganisms Grow
 Microorganisms exist everywhere in nature
 To grow, they require food, moisture,
darkness, suitable temperature
 Aerobic (require oxygen to live)
 Anaerobic (do not require oxygen to live)
 Microorganisms capable of producing disease:
• Grow best at body temperature of 98.6°F/37°C
• Destroy and use human tissue as food
• Excrete waste toxins absorbed by and may
poison the body
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms
 Growing concern in health care
 Referred to as "super-bugs"
 Do not respond to traditional medications
and treatments
 Developed resistance to antimicrobial drugs
 Increased length of hospital stays,
increased cost of treatments, and death
associated with these organisms
 Eg. MRSA, VRSA, VRE
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus (MRSA)
 Organism highly resistant to antibiotics
 S. aureus causative agent in boils, acne,
some forms of septicemia, and
pneumonia
 Infection may occur from cuts, sores,
and through catheters or breathing
tubes
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus (MRSA)
 Symptoms
• Pus formation, fever, swelling,
tenderness around area of infection
 Individuals with weakened immune
systems are more susceptible
 Serious staph infections may lead to
endocarditis, cellulitis, pneumonia, toxic
shock syndrome
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus (MRSA)
 Diagnosis by culture from infected
individual
 If organism grows in presence of
methicillin, it is classified as MRSA
 Best ways to avoid contracting or
spreading MRSA infection is through use of
good hygiene practices, using antiseptic
cream, and covering any skin breaks
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
(VRE)
 Enterococci are bacteria present in
human intestines, female genital tract,
and the environment
 Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are
strain of these bacteria that has
developed a resistance to vancomycin
and no longer responds to this drug
 Spread by direct contact
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
FIGURE 34-2 Chain of infection.
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
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Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Chain of InfectionChain of Infection
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
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Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Reservoir Host
 Organism (animal or human) harbors and
nourishes a pathogen
 Gives pathogen a "home" for long time
without suffering any ill effects from it
 Almost anything can serve as a reservoir in
the chain of infection
 Humans, animals, insects, and vectors like
rodents, water, food, supplies, and
equipment
 May become infected by the pathogen
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Reservoir Host
 Provides nourishment and sustenance for
pathogen, allowing it to grow
 Generally not aware it is harboring pathogen
 To break the chain at the reservoir level the
medical assistant should adhere to strict infection
control practices:
• Disinfect contaminated work areas, equipment,
and supplies
• Wear gloves and PPE if there is a potential for
splash while working with body fluids
• Regularly perform medical aseptic handwashing
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Means of Exit
 For pathogen to spread to another
animal or person, there must be a portal
of exit from reservoir host. This means
pathogen leaves the infected individual
 Through fluids or drainage from
Respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary,
and reproductive tracts of the body
 Open wound excellent portal of exit
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Means of Transmission
 Must be a means of transmission for
pathogen to spread to another person
 Direct contact, either with infected
person or with discharge or excreta of
infected person
 Indirect contact: inhaling infected air
droplets from cough or sneeze, touching
contaminated object, contaminated
food, or insects
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Means of Entrance
 Portal of entry into new host required
 Means by which a pathogen enters the
body
 Using Respiratory, urinary, and
reproductive tracts, skin and mucous
membranes, or blood
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Susceptible Host
 Must be available and capable of being
infected by the pathogen
 Someone who is unable to fight off
infection
• Poor health
• Poor hygiene
• Poor nutrition
• Increased stress levels
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection
• Susceptible Host
 When susceptible host becomes
infected, that person becomes new
reservoir host, chain of infection begins
again
 Fortunately, if chain is broken, infection
does not occur
 Medical asepsis through proper hand
hygiene is most important method for
decreasing spread of infections
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Stages of the Infection ProcessStages of the Infection Process
• Invasion
 Pathogen enters body through portal of entry: respiratory,
digestive, reproductive, urinary tracts, and skin
• Multiplication
 Reproduction of pathogens
• Incubation Period
 May vary from several days to months or years during which
time disease is developing but no symptoms appear
• Prodromal Period
 First, mild signs and symptoms appear; highly contagious
period
• Acute Period
 Signs and symptoms evident and most severe
• Recovery Period
 Signs and symptoms begin to subside
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Acute Infections
 Many of common illnesses that affect human
body are acute infections; common cold and
influenza
 Body usually able to rid itself of the virus and
recover within three to five weeks of onset
• Chronic Infections
 More serious than acute infections
 Effects of disease causing pathogen can last for
a very long time
 Some chronic infections lifelong; HIV and
hepatitis B
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
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Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Latent Infections
 Characterized by periods of remission
and relapse
 Remission
• Disease treated and there are no longer
any signs or symptoms present
 Relapse
• Same infection reoccurs
 Herpes simplex virus types I & II and
varicella-zoster virus
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
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Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Opportunistic Infections
 Occur when host's immune system
impaired by another disease-causing
pathogen Eg. HIV
 Immune system weakened and more
susceptible to other infections
 Patients with severely compromised
immune systems more likely to suffer
from other (opportunistic) infections
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Nosocomial Infections
 Infections acquired while in medical
facility, generally hospital setting
 Also called hospital-acquired infections
 Pathogens introduced into body because
of poor aseptic technique in the facility
• Bloodstream infections (improper venipuncture or
IV line procedures)
• Urinary tract infections (improper catheter
procedures)
• Surgical site infections (improper wound care)
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens
• Inflammatory Response to Infection
 Four cardinal signs
• Redness
• Heat
• Swelling- Dilation of blood vessels to allow
increased blood flow. Production of watery
fluids and materials (exudates such as pus).
Neutrophils and monocytes are types of
leukocytes (white blood cells) that perform
phagocytosis. Invasion of neutrophils and
monocytes into the injured tissues
• Pain
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection
Control SystemControl System
• Prevention and Protection
 Largest natural barrier to infection: intact
skin
 Acidity of the skin inhibits bacterial action
 Mucous membranes lining body's orifices
and its respiratory, digestive, reproductive,
urinary tracts assist in repelling
microorganisms
 Gastrointestinal tract contains hydrochloric
acid (HCl); bactericidal action
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection
Control SystemControl System
• The Lymphatic System and the Blood
 Produce antibodies to identify and
neutralize or destroy disease-causing
pathogens that enter the body
 Leukocytes (white blood cells) actively
fight pathogenic microorganisms
through phagocytosis, the process of
engulfing, digesting, and destroying
pathogens
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
FIGURE 34-3 The process of phagocytosis: a phagocyte engulfing bacteria or other foreign material.
Designua/Shutterstock
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection
Control SystemControl System
• Immunity
 Resistance to disease
 When enough antibodies produced to
provide protection for weeks, months,
or years
• Innate Immunity
 Also known as natural immunity
 Body's first line of defense against
pathogens including skin, mucous
membranes, and tears
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection
Control SystemControl System
• Acquired Active Immunity
 Person immune to a disease because he
or she has been previously exposed and
has developed appropriate antibodies
• Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
 Induced through a vaccine
• Passive Immunity
 Temporary form of immunity such as
antibodies passed from a mother to an
infant through breast milk
Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting:
Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e
Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly
Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Beaman ch34 lecture_infection_control

  • 1. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting Administrative and Clinical Competencies CHAPTER Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved THIRD EDITION Infection Control Lesson 1: Introduction to Infection Control 34
  • 2. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Infection ControlInfection Control • Infection control  Process of reducing exposure to pathogens to prevent the spread of disease • Pathogens  Disease-producing organisms • In healthy individuals, immune system provides some measure of resistance to pathogens
  • 3. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Infection ControlInfection Control • People suffering from a disease are likely to have compromised immune system, making them more susceptible to new infections • Controlling pathogens especially important in a medical office • Asepsis  State of being free from germs, infection, and any form of microbial life
  • 4. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Microorganisms  Organisms so small they can be seen only with aid of a microscope • Also called microbes
  • 5. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Not all microorganisms cause disease • Pathogens do cause disease • Types of pathogens  Bacteria  Fungi  Protozoa  Viruses  Rickettsiae  Parasitic worms
  • 6. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Many microorganisms are not harmful and grow and thrive in the human body; may have helpful functions within body • Normal flora: microorganisms normally found on skin and in urinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts
  • 7. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Critical Thinking QuestionCritical Thinking Question 1. What temperature is ideal for disease- producing pathogens? 2. Why is an aseptic environment important? 3. During which stage does a person stop being contagious? 4. How is phagocytosis involved in the inflammatory process?
  • 8. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • How Microorganisms Grow  Microorganisms exist everywhere in nature  To grow, they require food, moisture, darkness, suitable temperature  Aerobic (require oxygen to live)  Anaerobic (do not require oxygen to live)  Microorganisms capable of producing disease: • Grow best at body temperature of 98.6°F/37°C • Destroy and use human tissue as food • Excrete waste toxins absorbed by and may poison the body
  • 9. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms  Growing concern in health care  Referred to as "super-bugs"  Do not respond to traditional medications and treatments  Developed resistance to antimicrobial drugs  Increased length of hospital stays, increased cost of treatments, and death associated with these organisms  Eg. MRSA, VRSA, VRE
  • 10. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)  Organism highly resistant to antibiotics  S. aureus causative agent in boils, acne, some forms of septicemia, and pneumonia  Infection may occur from cuts, sores, and through catheters or breathing tubes
  • 11. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)  Symptoms • Pus formation, fever, swelling, tenderness around area of infection  Individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible  Serious staph infections may lead to endocarditis, cellulitis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome
  • 12. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)  Diagnosis by culture from infected individual  If organism grows in presence of methicillin, it is classified as MRSA  Best ways to avoid contracting or spreading MRSA infection is through use of good hygiene practices, using antiseptic cream, and covering any skin breaks
  • 13. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)  Enterococci are bacteria present in human intestines, female genital tract, and the environment  Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are strain of these bacteria that has developed a resistance to vancomycin and no longer responds to this drug  Spread by direct contact
  • 14. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved FIGURE 34-2 Chain of infection.
  • 15. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chain of InfectionChain of Infection
  • 16. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Reservoir Host  Organism (animal or human) harbors and nourishes a pathogen  Gives pathogen a "home" for long time without suffering any ill effects from it  Almost anything can serve as a reservoir in the chain of infection  Humans, animals, insects, and vectors like rodents, water, food, supplies, and equipment  May become infected by the pathogen
  • 17. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Reservoir Host  Provides nourishment and sustenance for pathogen, allowing it to grow  Generally not aware it is harboring pathogen  To break the chain at the reservoir level the medical assistant should adhere to strict infection control practices: • Disinfect contaminated work areas, equipment, and supplies • Wear gloves and PPE if there is a potential for splash while working with body fluids • Regularly perform medical aseptic handwashing
  • 18. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Means of Exit  For pathogen to spread to another animal or person, there must be a portal of exit from reservoir host. This means pathogen leaves the infected individual  Through fluids or drainage from Respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive tracts of the body  Open wound excellent portal of exit
  • 19. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Means of Transmission  Must be a means of transmission for pathogen to spread to another person  Direct contact, either with infected person or with discharge or excreta of infected person  Indirect contact: inhaling infected air droplets from cough or sneeze, touching contaminated object, contaminated food, or insects
  • 20. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Means of Entrance  Portal of entry into new host required  Means by which a pathogen enters the body  Using Respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts, skin and mucous membranes, or blood
  • 21. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Susceptible Host  Must be available and capable of being infected by the pathogen  Someone who is unable to fight off infection • Poor health • Poor hygiene • Poor nutrition • Increased stress levels
  • 22. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Chain of InfectionThe Chain of Infection • Susceptible Host  When susceptible host becomes infected, that person becomes new reservoir host, chain of infection begins again  Fortunately, if chain is broken, infection does not occur  Medical asepsis through proper hand hygiene is most important method for decreasing spread of infections
  • 23. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stages of the Infection ProcessStages of the Infection Process • Invasion  Pathogen enters body through portal of entry: respiratory, digestive, reproductive, urinary tracts, and skin • Multiplication  Reproduction of pathogens • Incubation Period  May vary from several days to months or years during which time disease is developing but no symptoms appear • Prodromal Period  First, mild signs and symptoms appear; highly contagious period • Acute Period  Signs and symptoms evident and most severe • Recovery Period  Signs and symptoms begin to subside
  • 24. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Acute Infections  Many of common illnesses that affect human body are acute infections; common cold and influenza  Body usually able to rid itself of the virus and recover within three to five weeks of onset • Chronic Infections  More serious than acute infections  Effects of disease causing pathogen can last for a very long time  Some chronic infections lifelong; HIV and hepatitis B
  • 25. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Latent Infections  Characterized by periods of remission and relapse  Remission • Disease treated and there are no longer any signs or symptoms present  Relapse • Same infection reoccurs  Herpes simplex virus types I & II and varicella-zoster virus
  • 26. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Opportunistic Infections  Occur when host's immune system impaired by another disease-causing pathogen Eg. HIV  Immune system weakened and more susceptible to other infections  Patients with severely compromised immune systems more likely to suffer from other (opportunistic) infections
  • 27. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Nosocomial Infections  Infections acquired while in medical facility, generally hospital setting  Also called hospital-acquired infections  Pathogens introduced into body because of poor aseptic technique in the facility • Bloodstream infections (improper venipuncture or IV line procedures) • Urinary tract infections (improper catheter procedures) • Surgical site infections (improper wound care)
  • 28. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Microorganisms and PathogensMicroorganisms and Pathogens • Inflammatory Response to Infection  Four cardinal signs • Redness • Heat • Swelling- Dilation of blood vessels to allow increased blood flow. Production of watery fluids and materials (exudates such as pus). Neutrophils and monocytes are types of leukocytes (white blood cells) that perform phagocytosis. Invasion of neutrophils and monocytes into the injured tissues • Pain
  • 29. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection Control SystemControl System • Prevention and Protection  Largest natural barrier to infection: intact skin  Acidity of the skin inhibits bacterial action  Mucous membranes lining body's orifices and its respiratory, digestive, reproductive, urinary tracts assist in repelling microorganisms  Gastrointestinal tract contains hydrochloric acid (HCl); bactericidal action
  • 30. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection Control SystemControl System • The Lymphatic System and the Blood  Produce antibodies to identify and neutralize or destroy disease-causing pathogens that enter the body  Leukocytes (white blood cells) actively fight pathogenic microorganisms through phagocytosis, the process of engulfing, digesting, and destroying pathogens
  • 31. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved FIGURE 34-3 The process of phagocytosis: a phagocyte engulfing bacteria or other foreign material. Designua/Shutterstock
  • 32. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection Control SystemControl System • Immunity  Resistance to disease  When enough antibodies produced to provide protection for weeks, months, or years • Innate Immunity  Also known as natural immunity  Body's first line of defense against pathogens including skin, mucous membranes, and tears
  • 33. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Body's InfectionThe Body's Infection Control SystemControl System • Acquired Active Immunity  Person immune to a disease because he or she has been previously exposed and has developed appropriate antibodies • Artificially Acquired Active Immunity  Induced through a vaccine • Passive Immunity  Temporary form of immunity such as antibodies passed from a mother to an infant through breast milk
  • 34. Pearson's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 3/e Beaman | Routh | Papazian-Boyce | Sesser | Mills | Maly Copyright © 2015, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Questions?