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  1. 1. Fitness: Ability to carry out dailyFitness: Ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertnesstasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatiguewithout undue fatigue
  2. 2. What Is FitnessWhat Is Fitness • Being fit is central to our health and toBeing fit is central to our health and to our sense of well-being. Health andour sense of well-being. Health and fitness mean more than just thefitness mean more than just the absence of illness. If we are healthyabsence of illness. If we are healthy and fit then the physical, mental,and fit then the physical, mental, cultural and social aspects of our livescultural and social aspects of our lives are working together.are working together.
  3. 3. Health-Related FitnessHealth-Related Fitness • The health and fitness levels neededThe health and fitness levels needed to carry out daily activities with littleto carry out daily activities with little fatigue and still have energy forfatigue and still have energy for emergencies.emergencies. • To have enough fitness for goodTo have enough fitness for good health we need: Aerobic Capacity,health we need: Aerobic Capacity, Muscular Strength, Flexibility andMuscular Strength, Flexibility and Body CompositionBody Composition
  4. 4. Sport-Related FitnessSport-Related Fitness • This is the level of physical fitness neededThis is the level of physical fitness needed to take on the demands of regular sportingto take on the demands of regular sporting activity.activity. • Although we may be fit from a health pointAlthough we may be fit from a health point of view, we may not have the fitnessof view, we may not have the fitness required to play a sport. There are manyrequired to play a sport. There are many types of sports and each has its owntypes of sports and each has its own unique demands on the body.unique demands on the body.
  5. 5. Why Do We Need FitnessWhy Do We Need Fitness • Why do we want Fitness? Less fatigue Less boredom More opportunity for meeting and making friends Stronger muscles and bones Bigger heart and lungs Improved posture and appearance Greater resistance to illness and disease Improved sleep Improved self image
  6. 6. Benefits Of ExerciseBenefits Of Exercise
  7. 7. General HealthGeneral Health • Improved health and well-beingImproved health and well-being • Reduced Mental and Emotional Stress (sleepReduced Mental and Emotional Stress (sleep more soundly and cope with daily pressures)more soundly and cope with daily pressures) • Essential in the control of excess body weightEssential in the control of excess body weight • Helpful in the prevention of heart disease andHelpful in the prevention of heart disease and the body’s resistance to infection is higherthe body’s resistance to infection is higher • Improved body appearanceImproved body appearance • Increased muscle tone and strengthIncreased muscle tone and strength
  8. 8. Work PerformanceWork Performance • Allows you to get more work done withoutAllows you to get more work done without becoming fatiguedbecoming fatigued • Fitness increased helps us concentrateFitness increased helps us concentrate better, think more quickly and clearlybetter, think more quickly and clearly
  9. 9. Sporting AbilitySporting Ability • With an increased level of fitness you canWith an increased level of fitness you can participate more, therefore you canparticipate more, therefore you can participate more intensively and achieveparticipate more intensively and achieve greater success.greater success.
  10. 10. Use of Leisure TimeUse of Leisure Time • More sociable lifestyleMore sociable lifestyle • As well as being able to do a days workAs well as being able to do a days work you will have the physical energy foryou will have the physical energy for participation in leisure activities.participation in leisure activities.
  11. 11. Functioning of Your BodyFunctioning of Your Body • Makes the muscles of your heart larger andMakes the muscles of your heart larger and stronger, so that it can pump more blood withstronger, so that it can pump more blood with stroke, which means that it slows down yourstroke, which means that it slows down your heart rate.heart rate. • Improves efficiency of lungs suppling oxygen toImproves efficiency of lungs suppling oxygen to the blood and removing carbon dioxide from itthe blood and removing carbon dioxide from it • Strengthens the fibres of the working musclesStrengthens the fibres of the working muscles allowing them to function more efficiently.allowing them to function more efficiently.
  12. 12. Risks Of ExerciseRisks Of Exercise • If you are over weight you run a risk ofIf you are over weight you run a risk of increased stress on bones and joints.increased stress on bones and joints. • Possible increased stress on heart couldPossible increased stress on heart could lead to a heart attack.lead to a heart attack. • Starting your program at too great anStarting your program at too great an intensity could cause an injury, if you pushintensity could cause an injury, if you push beyond your ability.beyond your ability. • You may stop exercise before the benefitsYou may stop exercise before the benefits have been reached.have been reached.
  13. 13. How Do You Improve YourHow Do You Improve Your Fitness?Fitness? • The human body is an amazing piece of machinery, oneThe human body is an amazing piece of machinery, one that adapts to the stress we put it under. As long as wethat adapts to the stress we put it under. As long as we don’t overly stress our body, it will adapt and strengthendon’t overly stress our body, it will adapt and strengthen itself too cope. If you run everyday your legs will getitself too cope. If you run everyday your legs will get stronger and your cardio respiratory system will becomestronger and your cardio respiratory system will become more efficient.more efficient. • Sport scientists have discovered the best way to trainSport scientists have discovered the best way to train and increase our fitness levels in each fitnessand increase our fitness levels in each fitness component. Essentially, we do the exercise that mostcomponent. Essentially, we do the exercise that most mimics the action and fitness components we want tomimics the action and fitness components we want to train and improve. To increase swimming we swim, totrain and improve. To increase swimming we swim, to increase strength we lift weights.increase strength we lift weights.
  14. 14. Fitness componentsFitness components • Health related components Aerobic capacity Muscular strength Flexibility Body Composition Sport related components Agility Balance Coordination Speed Muscular Power Muscular endurance Maximum Strength Reaction Time
  15. 15. Health Related Fitness • Health related fitness components are related to your health. • An increase in these components will increase your health.
  16. 16. Sport Related Fitness • Sport related fitness components are specific to your chosen sport. • An increase in these components will increase your sporting ability.
  17. 17. Health Related FitnessHealth Related Fitness ComponentsComponents
  18. 18. Aerobic Capacity (Stamina orAerobic Capacity (Stamina or Cardio-respiratory Endurance)Cardio-respiratory Endurance) • Is the ability for heart and lungs to supplyIs the ability for heart and lungs to supply oxygen through the blood to the muscles.oxygen through the blood to the muscles. This allows us to work for relatively longThis allows us to work for relatively long periods without becoming overtiredperiods without becoming overtired
  19. 19. Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength • Is the ability for our muscles to exert aIs the ability for our muscles to exert a force. This involves maximum strength,force. This involves maximum strength, muscular power and muscular endurance.muscular power and muscular endurance. It helps to protect joints from injury.It helps to protect joints from injury.
  20. 20. FlexibilityFlexibility • Is the ability to move our joints throughIs the ability to move our joints through their full range of movement.their full range of movement.
  21. 21. Body CompositionBody Composition • Is the capacity to carry the right amount ofIs the capacity to carry the right amount of fat and muscle.fat and muscle.
  22. 22. Sport-Related Components ofSport-Related Components of FitnessFitness If you want to develop a high level ofIf you want to develop a high level of fitness to play competitive sport youfitness to play competitive sport you need to develop you sport-relatedneed to develop you sport-related components of fitness!components of fitness!
  23. 23. Muscular PowerMuscular Power • This is the ability to use strength quickly toThis is the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort, for example,produce an explosive effort, for example, when jumping or throwing a shot put.when jumping or throwing a shot put.
  24. 24. Maximum StrengthMaximum Strength • Is ability to apply maximum force to anIs ability to apply maximum force to an immovable object.immovable object.
  25. 25. Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance • Is the ability to work the muscles very hardIs the ability to work the muscles very hard for a period of time.for a period of time.
  26. 26. Speed (Anaerobic Capacity)Speed (Anaerobic Capacity) • This is the ability to get your body movingThis is the ability to get your body moving quickly. Speed activities are short eventquickly. Speed activities are short event requiring rapid movement, such as 100mrequiring rapid movement, such as 100m or 100m track events or 50m swimming.or 100m track events or 50m swimming.
  27. 27. AgilityAgility • This is the ability to accelerate quickly,This is the ability to accelerate quickly, dodge weave and turn. Agility is essentialdodge weave and turn. Agility is essential in most team sports for actions such asin most team sports for actions such as avoiding opposition and falling over andavoiding opposition and falling over and recovering quickly.recovering quickly.
  28. 28. BalanceBalance • Balance is the ability to stay upright and inBalance is the ability to stay upright and in control of your body position when you arecontrol of your body position when you are moving or stationary. Most sportingmoving or stationary. Most sporting activities require balance.activities require balance.
  29. 29. CoordinationCoordination • Coordination is the ability to time yourCoordination is the ability to time your movements so you can perform themmovements so you can perform them smoothly and accurately. All activitiessmoothly and accurately. All activities require some sort of coordination.require some sort of coordination.
  30. 30. Reaction TimeReaction Time • Is the ability to respond to a stimulusIs the ability to respond to a stimulus quickly.quickly.
  31. 31. Testing the Fitness ComponentsTesting the Fitness Components TestTest Fitness ComponentFitness Component Speed sit-up (60sec)Speed sit-up (60sec) Muscular Strength, Muscular EnduranceMuscular Strength, Muscular Endurance Sit-and-ReachSit-and-Reach FlexibilityFlexibility 50m Sprint50m Sprint SpeedSpeed Standing Long JumpStanding Long Jump Muscular Power, Maximum StrengthMuscular Power, Maximum Strength Push-UpsPush-Ups Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance 1.6 km Run or Kasch-Boyer Step1.6 km Run or Kasch-Boyer Step TestTest Aerobic CapacityAerobic Capacity Stork StandStork Stand BalanceBalance Shuttle runShuttle run AgilityAgility Alternate Wall TossAlternate Wall Toss CoordinationCoordination Grip StrengthGrip Strength Maximum StrengthMaximum Strength Body Mass Index (BMI)Body Mass Index (BMI) Body CompositionBody Composition Beep testBeep test Aerobic Capacity, Muscular EnduranceAerobic Capacity, Muscular Endurance
  32. 32. Training PrinciplesTraining Principles • To be successful at sport we need ourTo be successful at sport we need our energy systems and sporting skills to be atenergy systems and sporting skills to be at their highest levels. We can reach thesetheir highest levels. We can reach these levels by training. Training is a regularlevels by training. Training is a regular programme of exercise to improveprogramme of exercise to improve performance.performance.
  33. 33. SpecificitySpecificity • Every type of exercise has a particular effect onEvery type of exercise has a particular effect on the body. The type of training that we choosethe body. The type of training that we choose must be right for the type of improvement wemust be right for the type of improvement we want to see. We must use a training programmewant to see. We must use a training programme that put stress on the muscles or body systemthat put stress on the muscles or body system that we want to develop.that we want to develop. • If we want to improve the strength of our arms,If we want to improve the strength of our arms, then running won’t help: we must use strengththen running won’t help: we must use strength training exercises that work our arms.training exercises that work our arms.
  34. 34. Principles of TrainingPrinciples of Training (S.P.O.R.T.)(S.P.O.R.T.) • To improve our fitness and avoid injury weTo improve our fitness and avoid injury we should follow the SPORT principles:should follow the SPORT principles: • Specificity – train for your own particularSpecificity – train for your own particular sportsport • Progression – increase training graduallyProgression – increase training gradually • Overload – work harder than normalOverload – work harder than normal • Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stopReversibility – we lose fitness if we stop trainingtraining • Tedium – make training interestingTedium – make training interesting
  35. 35. ProgressionProgression • The body takes time to adapt to more or harderThe body takes time to adapt to more or harder exercise. We must build up the stress on ourexercise. We must build up the stress on our bodies in a gradual, or progressive, way – bybodies in a gradual, or progressive, way – by lifting heavier weights or running farther. If welifting heavier weights or running farther. If we build up the stress to quickly we risk injury orbuild up the stress to quickly we risk injury or find the challenge too great and give up. If wefind the challenge too great and give up. If we build up the stress too slowly we may becomebuild up the stress too slowly we may become disinterested or bored and give up.disinterested or bored and give up. • The body needs time to adapt and recover toThe body needs time to adapt and recover to training. Our bones, tendons and ligaments maytraining. Our bones, tendons and ligaments may take longer to change than our muscles or othertake longer to change than our muscles or other body systems.body systems.
  36. 36. OverloadOverload • To improve the fitness of our body systems we need toTo improve the fitness of our body systems we need to work them harder than normal. The body will then adaptwork them harder than normal. The body will then adapt to the extra stress and we will become fitter.to the extra stress and we will become fitter. • We can overload our bodies by training more often, byWe can overload our bodies by training more often, by working harder or by spending more time on an exercise.working harder or by spending more time on an exercise. • Eg. To improve our aerobic fitness by running, we couldEg. To improve our aerobic fitness by running, we could run more times a week, complete the run in a shorterrun more times a week, complete the run in a shorter time or increase the distance that we run. Each of thesetime or increase the distance that we run. Each of these methods will overload the aerobic system. The aerobicmethods will overload the aerobic system. The aerobic system will gradually adapt to cope with the overloadsystem will gradually adapt to cope with the overload and we will become fitter.and we will become fitter.
  37. 37. ReversibilityReversibility • Our bodies adapt to stress of exercise byOur bodies adapt to stress of exercise by becoming fitter. In the same way, we quicklybecoming fitter. In the same way, we quickly adapt to less exercise by losing fitness. If ouradapt to less exercise by losing fitness. If our muscles are not used then they atrophy – wastemuscles are not used then they atrophy – waste away.away. • We can not store fitness for future use. It onlyWe can not store fitness for future use. It only takes 3 – 4 weeks for our bodies to get out oftakes 3 – 4 weeks for our bodies to get out of condition.condition. • We lose our aerobic fitness more easily than ourWe lose our aerobic fitness more easily than our anaerobic fitness. If we follow a strength traininganaerobic fitness. If we follow a strength training programme for 4 weeks we will lose our gains inprogramme for 4 weeks we will lose our gains in strength after about 12 weeks of inactivity.strength after about 12 weeks of inactivity.
  38. 38. TediumTedium • Our training programme must be varied to avoidOur training programme must be varied to avoid tedium – boredom. By using a variety of differenttedium – boredom. By using a variety of different training methods we will keep our enthusiasmtraining methods we will keep our enthusiasm and motivation.and motivation. • We can follow a long work out with a short one,We can follow a long work out with a short one, a hard session with a relaxed one or a higha hard session with a relaxed one or a high intensity session with a low one.intensity session with a low one. • We may be able to change were we train andWe may be able to change were we train and when we train.when we train. • We can avoid overuse injuries by varying theWe can avoid overuse injuries by varying the way we train. Eg. shin splints can be avoided byway we train. Eg. shin splints can be avoided by training on grass instead to hard road.training on grass instead to hard road.
  39. 39. FITT Training PrincipleFITT Training Principle
  40. 40. Frequency: how often we trainFrequency: how often we train • We should train at least three to four timesWe should train at least three to four times a week to improve our fitness.a week to improve our fitness. • The body needs time to recover from eachThe body needs time to recover from each training sessiontraining session • We should spread these sessions out overWe should spread these sessions out over the weekthe week
  41. 41. Intensity: how hard we trainIntensity: how hard we train • We will only get fitter if we work our bodyWe will only get fitter if we work our body systems hard enough to make themsystems hard enough to make them adapt.adapt. • We must start at the right intensity,We must start at the right intensity, depending on our current fitness.depending on our current fitness. • We must understand and use our trainingWe must understand and use our training thresholds - for aerobic workouts 70–85thresholds - for aerobic workouts 70–85 per cent of maximum heart rate isper cent of maximum heart rate is recommended.recommended.
  42. 42. Time: how long we trainTime: how long we train • To improve aerobic fitness our trainingTo improve aerobic fitness our training sessions should last longer and oursessions should last longer and our working heart rate level should rise.working heart rate level should rise. • Each session must last at least 20 minutesEach session must last at least 20 minutes to see any benefit.to see any benefit.
  43. 43. Type: what kind of training we doType: what kind of training we do • We should analyse our particular sport toWe should analyse our particular sport to know the fitness and skills we need.know the fitness and skills we need. • The training programme should includeThe training programme should include types of activity to develop these skills andtypes of activity to develop these skills and fitness.fitness.
  44. 44. Training MethodsTraining Methods • There are many different training methods.There are many different training methods. They are all based on the different waysThey are all based on the different ways our body adapts to regular exercise andour body adapts to regular exercise and include: continuous training, fartlekinclude: continuous training, fartlek training, interval training, circuit training,training, interval training, circuit training, weight training, plyometric training, andweight training, plyometric training, and flexibility training.flexibility training.
  45. 45. Continuous TrainingContinuous Training • Used to improve aerobic capacity and muscularUsed to improve aerobic capacity and muscular enduranceendurance • Running, swimming, cycling, rowing, doing anyRunning, swimming, cycling, rowing, doing any whole-boy activitywhole-boy activity • Working at the same pace for between 30Working at the same pace for between 30 minutes and two hoursminutes and two hours • Being moderately active, working in the aerobicBeing moderately active, working in the aerobic training zone of 60-80% of MHR (Maximumtraining zone of 60-80% of MHR (Maximum Heart Rate)Heart Rate) • Must follow the FITT formulaMust follow the FITT formula
  46. 46. Why use continuous training?Why use continuous training? • To improve aerobic capacityTo improve aerobic capacity • To help improve health-related fitnessTo help improve health-related fitness • To reduce amounts of body fatTo reduce amounts of body fat • To maintain fitness in the off sessionTo maintain fitness in the off session
  47. 47. Fartlek TrainingFartlek Training • The name comes from the Swedish forThe name comes from the Swedish for ‘speed play’: it involves many changes of‘speed play’: it involves many changes of speedspeed • Walking, running, cycling or skiing atWalking, running, cycling or skiing at different speeds and intensitiesdifferent speeds and intensities • Working for a minimum of 30 minutesWorking for a minimum of 30 minutes • Varying the type of country over which weVarying the type of country over which we traveltravel
  48. 48. Why use Fartlek TrainingWhy use Fartlek Training • To improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness,To improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness, depending on how we traindepending on how we train • To help games players who need bothTo help games players who need both aerobic and anaerobic fitnessaerobic and anaerobic fitness • To enjoy moving quickly but within ourTo enjoy moving quickly but within our own abilityown ability

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