Chapter 4 terminology


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  • Combining form usually a vowel – most common is “o”
  • Ana – Greek for up or through Tomy – incision or cutting up
  • Eye is also OP- opthamalic, optomotrist, opthamalogist
  • Sometimes the combining vowels are io like card io myo pathy (heart –muscle – disease)
  • Osteo – bones Arthr- joints Itis- inflammation
  • Homogeneous-uniform in composition. Ex are homogenous suspensions gen – kind, species
  • A way to remember A-for arteries sends the blood Away from the heart. Veins blood back to the heart. Vericos veins occur because vein is not strong enough to carry blood and it collapses. ERYTHR – means red LEUK – means white your heart is divided into four chambers: the left atrium and left ventricle , as well as the right atrium and right ventricle . The left side is receiving "good," oxygen-rich blood from your lungs , sending it through the left atrium down into the left ventricle, where the heart's contraction forces it through a valve into the aorta. The left side of the heart would be OK if it took its oxygen right there in the chambers, but the right side would be out of luck. The right atrium handles "bad," oxygen-poor blood from all over the body and ships it down into the right ventricle. From there, the heart's contraction forces this bad blood out into the pulmonary artery , which forwards it to the lungs. This blood gains oxygen again, but it still returns to the side of the heart dealing in good blood -- the left side. The right side never sees oxygenated blood pass through it, so it needs its own supply. Platelets are also apart of the blood that help to maintain hemostasis- causing bleeding process to stop. if too high bleeding can occur; if too low, clotting can occur NOT HOMEOSTASIS- which is same- standing still – constant state- equillibrium state
  • When blood is forced out of the heart, the increased pressure is called systolic pressure (top #) the relaxation phase is the diastolic pressure (bottom #) BP is basically a measurement of the pressure that the blood goes into the blood vessels. Too high obviously causes damage to vessels or in combo with high cholesterol you can have plaque build up which puts a person at risk for heart attack or stroke b/c of clogged artery Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and the Treatment of High Blood Pressure, known as JNC 7. Less than 120/80 is normal 120-139/80-89 is considered prehypertension 140-159/90-99 us stage 1 Greater=160/greater =100 is stage 2
  • Angioedma Cardiomyopathy – disease of the heart muscle
  • Card- heart phleb- vein My- muscle itis- inflammation Tachy- fast thromb- clot
  • The thyroid, a small gland found in the neck near the voice box, produce hormones that help regulate the body's functions. The thyroid itself is actually regulated by a hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) released by the pituitary gland in the brain. After being stimulated by TSH released by the pituitary, the thyroid produces hormones that regulate metabolism, the process by which the body turns food into energy. Thyroid hormones affect the heart, brain, and digestive system. When thyroid disease occurs, the delicate hormonal balance usually established by the pituitary and thyroid glands becomes disrupted.
  • Parathyroid glands – there are four small glands located on the thyroid Thymus – used within the immune system- I believe it produces t-cells Insulin is important for bringing sugar into the cells to help with functioning. Low lnsulin leads to high sugar in blood , Epi catecholiamine used in the “fight or flight” response
  • Alimentary tract contains organs such as lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, and anus, in addition to the GI tract Ducts carry bile from the liver ( hepatic duct ) and the gallbladder ( cystic duct ) to the duodenum.
  • System that goes from the mouth to the anus-alimentary al –pertaining to (of or relating to nurishment) In an adult male human, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is 5 metres (20 ft) long in a live subject, or up to 9 metres (30 ft) without the effect of muscle tone , and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. Some additional gastrointestinal terminology Gastritis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, colonoscopy, scopy-examination
  • From Latin integumentum, from integere 'to cover'; from in- + tegere 'to cover Skin: 1 st line of defense, acts as a barrier against disease and physical hazards Controls body temperature by releasing heat through sweat or constricting blood vessels to act as insulation Hair and nails are made of keratin
  • Mastitis, (inflammation of the mammary glands Onych-mycosis- fungal infection of the nails Dermatitis- inflammation of the skin Subcutaneous- just beneath the skin transdermal –through the skin (transdermal patches for pain or nausea)
  • Mastitis, (inflammation of the mammary glands Onych-mycosis- fungal infection of the nails Dermatitis- inflammation of the skin Subcutaneous- just beneath the skin
  • The thymus produces T-cells
  • Leukemia- cancer of the white blood cells Hemophillia- disease in which the blood does not clot normally so pt bleeds a lot Hematoma- fancy word for bruise- a collection of blood, often clotted
  • Muscles give shape and movement to the skeleton
  • Fibromyalgia = chronic pain in the muscles Myoplasty = plastic surgery of muscle tissue Tendonitis = inflammation of a tendon
  • OK to read this Nervous system is the body’s system of communication Brain and spinal cord are the primary parts of this system
  • Born with more bones as a baby- babies have more cartilage and then grows to bone. (soft spot of skull) Babies have 305 vs 206 Bones are held together at joints by connective tissue called ligaments and cartilage Joint range from rigid to those allowing full motion (e.g., the ball and socket joints of the hips and shoulders).
  • Red is the axial AND blue is the appendicular Arthritis- inflammation of the joints arthralgia- joint pain Osteoarthritis- more specific type of chronic arthritis involving bones (you can get as you age- more bilateral Not unilateral)
  • Anatomy: vagina to cervix (opening into) uterus, fallopian tubes on each side as well as ovaries. All eggs stored in ovaries. Each month one egg is released and travels through fallopian tubes and into uterus in preparation for fertilization/ implantation (pregnancy) If the egg is not fertilized and implanted, the linings sloths off hence menstrual cycle. Birth controls- work by different mechanisms- 1. prevention of ovulation 2. Creates harsh environment so that egg can not implant and sperm will not survive 3. Emergency contraception – because it is time sensitive (must be taken within the first 72 hours after intercourse) it does NOT work primarily in preventing ovulation rather it causes the lining of the uterus to sloth off thus preventing ANY implantation
  • Dys – painful or difficult
  • Vasectomy- removal of segment of vas deferens (for means of sterilization) Aspermia- inability to secrete sperm Prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate DRE- digital rectal exam – recommended age 50 by American Cancer Society, but American Urological Society says 40 Most common cancer in American men- PSA still (prostate specific antigen blood test still used for diagnostic tool)
  • As air enters through the nose, it is warmed, moistened, and filtered. Inside the lungs, the bronchial tubes branch out and lead to the alveolar sacs that are the site of gas exchange within the lungs. tracheostomy (TRA-ke-OS-to-me) is a surgically made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your trachea (TRA-ke-ah), or windpipe. The hole is made to help you breathe.
  • There are several million nephrons in the kidneys. Waste materials from the blood may also be filtered into the tubule or may be secreted into the tubule at sites other than the glomerulus. Every day, a person’s kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.
  • occurs in the area between the tympanic membrane and the inner ear , including a duct known as the eustachian tube . surgical procedure that places a small ventilation tube in the eardrum to improve air flow and prevent fluid backup in the middle ear. The most commonly used tubes stay in place for six to nine months and require follow-up visits until they fall out. Most tubes stay in place for 3 to 18 months, average is 9 months,
  • Someone with 20/20 visual acuity does not have “perfect” vision, since it is quite possible to see better than 20/20.  The less the bottom number in the visual acuity ratio, the better the acuity; and the greater the bottom number, the worse the acuity
  • Go over all abbreviations and give quizzes to students to keep reinforcing the importance of knowing all of them.
  • Chapter 4 terminology

    1. 1. The Pharmacy Technician 4E Chapter 4 Medical Terminology
    2. 2. Topic Outline <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Organ system terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal System </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary System </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph and Blood Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular System </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>Female and Male Reproductive System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary System </li></ul><ul><li>Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Abbreviations </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basic Elements of a Medical Word <ul><li>Medical science terminology is made up of a small number of ROOT words (mostly Greek and Latin words). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word Root </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combining Form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suffix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These four parts of a word are known as ELEMENTS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Peri – o - dont – ic ( Periodontic: around the teeth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Root Prefix Suffix </li></ul><ul><li>CV </li></ul>
    4. 4. Root Word <ul><li>Main part or foundation of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what part of the body a term is related to </li></ul><ul><li>All words have at least one root word. </li></ul><ul><li>A root word may be used alone or be combined with other elements to form a complete word. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Gastr (word root) + itis (suffix) = GASTRITIS (complete word) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Most root words originate from either Greek or Latin words. </li></ul><ul><li>Words developed from the Greek language are often used to refer to diagnosis and surgery . </li></ul><ul><li>Words from the Latin language generally refer to the anatomy of the body. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Root - Part of Body <ul><li>Card - heart </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst - bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Gastr - stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Hemat - blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hepat - liver </li></ul><ul><li>My - muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Pector – chest </li></ul><ul><li>Neur - nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Pneum - lung </li></ul><ul><li>Ocul - eye </li></ul><ul><li>Derma - skin </li></ul><ul><li>Ven - vein </li></ul><ul><li>Mast - breast </li></ul><ul><li>Oste - bone </li></ul><ul><li>Nephr - kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Ot - ear </li></ul>
    7. 7. Combining Forms <ul><li>Correct pronunciation of medical words is very important. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to make the pronunciation of root words easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of a root word and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>“ O” is the most common combining vowels </li></ul><ul><li>IE : gastr / o = pronounced as GASTRO </li></ul>Word root Combining vowel
    8. 8. Combining Words <ul><li>When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. osteoarthritis oste/ o / arthr/ itis </li></ul>Word root Combining vowel Word root suffix Slashes separate elements
    9. 9. Suffixes <ul><li>A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding a suffix to the end of a word root clarifies the meaning </li></ul>
    10. 10. Meanings of certain suffixes <ul><li>-al = pertaining to = dent/al (pertaining to teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>-er = one who = speak/er (one who speaks) </li></ul><ul><li>-able = capable of being = playable (capable of being played) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Prefixes <ul><li>A syllable or syllables placed BEFORE a word or root word to alter its meaning or create a new word </li></ul><ul><li>Some prefixes: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper- (excessive) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- (before) </li></ul><ul><li>Post- (after) </li></ul><ul><li>Homo- (same) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo- (under) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hypoinsulinemia <ul><li>Hypo / insulin / emia </li></ul>Prefix Word root suffix LOW INSULIN BLOOD Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel.
    13. 13. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>The Cardiovascular System distributes blood throughout the body using blood vessels called arteries, capillaries, and veins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood transports nutrients to the body’s cells and carries waste products away from them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from the lungs to the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes (white blood cells) fight bacterial infections by producing antibodies. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Cardiovascular System Cont. <ul><li>The heart pumps blood through the cardiovascular system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressures are reported as systole/diastole, i.e., 120/80. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure is reported (in mm Hg) and includes two number sequence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic phase is the increased pressure when blood is forced out of the heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The diastolic phase, or relaxation phase, is the second number reported in blood pressure monitoring. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>angi = vessel </li></ul><ul><li>aort = aorta </li></ul><ul><li>card = heart </li></ul><ul><li>oxy = oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>pector = chest </li></ul><ul><li>phleb = vein </li></ul><ul><li>stenosis = narrowing </li></ul><ul><li>thromb = clot </li></ul><ul><li>vas(cu) = blood vessel </li></ul><ul><li>ven = vein </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Cardiomyopathy = disease of the heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial = concerning heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia = abnormal rapid heart action </li></ul><ul><li>Phlebitis = inflammation of a vein </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombosis = blood clot </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension = high blood pressure </li></ul>
    17. 17. Common Cardiovascular Conditions and Drug Therapy Atrial Fibrillation - Coumadin® (warfarin) Hypertension or Congestive heart failure- Lopressor® (metoprolol), Vasotec® (enalapril) Coronary artery disease - Plavix® (clopidrogrel)
    18. 18. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Consists of the glands that secrete hormones, chemicals that assist in regulating body functions </li></ul><ul><li>Primary organs includes the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, and the gonads (ovaries and testes) </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland = produces multiple hormones and is located at the base of the brain. It controls the </li></ul><ul><li>body’s growth and the activity of the other </li></ul><ul><li>glands </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland = located just below the larynx and releases hormones important for regulating body metabolism </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Endocrine System Cont. <ul><li>Parathyroid glands = located on the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus gland = located beneath the sternum. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas = known for its production of insulin and glucagon. </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands = located on top of the kidneys and produce such hormones as aldosterone, cortisol (hydrocortisone), androgens, and estrogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla region = adrenal glands produce the catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). </li></ul>
    20. 20. Endocrine System <ul><li>lipid = fat </li></ul><ul><li>Nephr = kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Thym = thymus </li></ul><ul><li>adrena = adrenal </li></ul><ul><li>Glyc = sugar </li></ul><ul><li>pancreat = pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>somat = body </li></ul>Hypothyroidism = a deficiency of thyroid hormone Hyperthyroidism = overactive thyroid Somatic = pertaining to the body Hyperglycemia = high blood sugar
    21. 21. Common Endocrine Conditions and Drug Therapies <ul><li>Diabetes mellitus - Glucophage® (metformin), </li></ul><ul><li> Humalog® (insulin lispro) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism – Levoxyl®, Synthroid® (levothyroxin) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    22. 22. The Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract <ul><li>Located in the abdomen and contains the organs that are involved in the digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Organs include the stomach, small and large intestine, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Alimentary tract refers to the system that goes from the mouth to the anus. (includes the GI tract) </li></ul><ul><li>Several organs contribute to the digestion of foods by secreting enzymes into the small intestine when food is present. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Gastrointestinal Tract <ul><li>Consists of organs that are involved in digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Gastritis = inflammation of the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Gastroenteritis = inflammation of the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis = inflammation of the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicitis = inflammation of the appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Colitis = inflammation of the colon </li></ul>
    24. 24. Alimentary Tract <ul><li>chol = bile </li></ul><ul><li>col = colon </li></ul><ul><li>Duoden =duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Enter = intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Orexia = appetite </li></ul><ul><li>esophag = esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>gastr = stomach </li></ul><ul><li>hepat = liver </li></ul><ul><li>lapar = abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreat = pancreas </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Integumentary System <ul><li>Covering of body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first line of defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin, hair, and nails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mammary glands, or breasts, are also considered part of the integumentary system. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epidermis – no blood or nerves- constatly discarding dead cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis - living cells, contains capillaries, nerves, lymphatics, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous – separates the skin from the other organs </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. The Integumentary System <ul><li>necr = death </li></ul><ul><li>dermat = skin </li></ul><ul><li>cutane = skin </li></ul><ul><li>mast = breast </li></ul><ul><li>onych = nail </li></ul><ul><li>myco = fungal </li></ul><ul><li>Lact = milk </li></ul>
    27. 27. The Integumentary System <ul><li>Dermatitis = skin inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Erythroderma = abnormal redness of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation = secretion of milk </li></ul><ul><li>Mastectomy = surgical removal of breast </li></ul><ul><li>Onychomycosis = fungal infection of nails </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous = beneath the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Transdermal = through the skin </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Lymphatic System <ul><li>The Lymphatic System is the center of the body’s immune system and is responsible for collecting plasma water that leaves the blood vessels, filtering it for impurities through its lymph nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spleen is the largest organ in the system and is responsible for removing old red blood cells from the circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria and disease cells by releasing antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>The thymus, tonsils, spleen, and adenoids are lymphoid organs outside the network of the lymphatic system. </li></ul>
    29. 29. The Lymphatic System <ul><li>aden = gland </li></ul><ul><li>cyt = cell </li></ul><ul><li>hemo, hemat = blood </li></ul><ul><li>Leuk = white </li></ul><ul><li>lymph = lymph </li></ul><ul><li>splen = spleen </li></ul><ul><li>philia = attraction of </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Lymphatic System <ul><li>Adenopathy = lymph node disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hematoma = a collection of clotted blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia = a disease in which the blood does not clot normally </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoma = lymphatic system tumor </li></ul>
    31. 31. The Muscular System <ul><li>Muscle has a Latin origin: mus=mouse; cle=little </li></ul><ul><li>The body contains > 600 muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary muscles are most muscles and controlled consciously. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary muscles operate automatically and are found in the heart, the stomach, or in the walls of blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agonist muscles: produce an outward or flexor movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antagonist muscles: muscles that contract or bring the muscle back to the original position </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. The Muscular System <ul><li>my = muscle </li></ul><ul><li>fibr = fiber </li></ul><ul><li>tendin = tendon </li></ul><ul><li>chondr =cartilage </li></ul>
    33. 33. The Nervous System <ul><li>The Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and Spinal Cord (CNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over 100 billion neurons in the brain alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The neuron (nerve cell) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic functional unit that transmits information from the brain to the entire body. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>autonomic nervous system-controls the automatic functions of the body, e.g., breathing, digestion, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>somatic nervous system-controls the voluntary actions of the body, e.g., muscle movements . </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. The Nervous System <ul><li>Cerebr = cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Encephal = brain </li></ul><ul><li>Mening = meningnes </li></ul><ul><li>Myel = spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Neur = nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Phas =speech </li></ul>
    35. 35. The Nervous System <ul><li>Encephalitis = inflammation of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Neuralgia = severe pain in a nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroma = tumor or nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Dysphagia = difficulty speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis = inflammation of the meninges </li></ul>
    36. 36. The Skeletal System <ul><li>206 Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects soft organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides structure and support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Axial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skull and vertebra surrounding the spinal column </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms, legs, and connecting bones </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Skeletal System <ul><li>arthr = joint </li></ul><ul><li>carp = wrist </li></ul><ul><li>crani = skull </li></ul><ul><li>dactyl = finger or toe </li></ul><ul><li>femor = thigh bone </li></ul><ul><li>oste =bone </li></ul><ul><li>ped/pod =foot </li></ul>
    38. 38. The Reproductive System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces hormones (e.g. estrogen, progesterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controls menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>childbearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the external genitalia. </li></ul><ul><li>The mammary glands (located in breast tissue) produce and secrete milk at childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina is a muscular tube that leads from an external opening to the cervix and uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ. </li></ul><ul><li>The fallopian tubes transport eggs from the ovary to the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus. </li></ul>
    39. 39. The Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Gynec = woman </li></ul><ul><li>Hyster = uterus </li></ul><ul><li>lact = milk </li></ul><ul><li>mast = breast </li></ul><ul><li>metr = uterus </li></ul><ul><li>ovari = ovary </li></ul><ul><li>uter = uterine </li></ul>
    40. 40. The Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Gynecology = the study of the female reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea = absence of menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Dysmenorrhea = menstrual pain </li></ul><ul><li>Endometriosis = abnormal growth of uteral tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginitis = inflammation of the vagina </li></ul>
    41. 41. The Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce sperm and secrete the hormone testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The testes (also called testicles) are the primary male sex organs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are oval-shaped organs enclosed in the scrotum. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The seminal glands , located at the base of the bladder, produce part of the seminal fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vas Deferens are ducts that allow the passage of the sperm from the testes. </li></ul><ul><li>The prostate gland is located at the upper end of the urethra. </li></ul><ul><li>The penis (glans penis) is the external organ for urination and sexual intercourse. </li></ul><ul><li>The urethra, by which urine and semen leave the body, is inside the penis. </li></ul>
    42. 42. The Male Reproductive System <ul><li>andr = male </li></ul><ul><li>test = testicle </li></ul><ul><li>prostat = prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>sperm = sperm </li></ul><ul><li>vas = duct, vessel </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings oxygen into the body through inhalation and expels carbon dioxide gas through exhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The diaphram expands the lungs causing air to be inhaled into the upper respiratory tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces sound for speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pleural cavity surrounds the lungs and provides lubrication for respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharynx directs food into the esophagus and air into the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>The larynx contains the vocal cords. </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea , or windpipe, connects to the two bronchi (bronchial tubes) that enter the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli are specialized tissues that are responsible for the exchange of gases between the blood and inhaled air. </li></ul>
    44. 44. The Respiratory System <ul><li>aer = air </li></ul><ul><li>aero =gas </li></ul><ul><li>pneum, pulmon = lung </li></ul><ul><li>pector = chest </li></ul><ul><li>Bronch = bronchus </li></ul><ul><li>ox = oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>capn = carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Rhin =nose </li></ul>
    45. 45. The Respiratory System
    46. 46. The Urinary Tract <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for removing wastes from the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kidney is the primary organ of the urinary tract. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine is produced as plasma water and is filtered through the glomerulus, the filtrate is then collected in the tubule. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine is the filtrate that moves along the tubule. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine leaves the kidney through the ureters and collects in the bladder . It is excreted from the bladder through the urethra. </li></ul>
    47. 47. The Urinary Tract <ul><li>cyst = bladder </li></ul><ul><li>vesic = bladder </li></ul><ul><li>ren = kidney </li></ul><ul><li>nephr = kidney </li></ul><ul><li>uria = urine </li></ul>
    48. 48. The Urinary Tract <ul><li>Anuria = inability to produce urine </li></ul><ul><li>Cystitis = inflammation of the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Nephritis = inflammation of the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Polyuria = excessive urination </li></ul><ul><li>Uremia = toxic blood condition caused by kidney failure </li></ul>
    49. 49. The Ears <ul><li>The Ears perform hearing, as well as the maintenance of body equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>The External ear functions to capture sound waves and channels them inside the ear. </li></ul><ul><li>The tympanic membrane (eardrum) is a funnel-shaped structure with an opening to outside. It contains glands that make earwax (cerumen) that protects the external ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Malleus, incus, and stapes are three bony structures that transmit sound from a vibrating tympanic membrane to the cochlea and located in the middle ear. </li></ul><ul><li>The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the nose and throat, serving to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The labyrinth is the principal structure in the inner ear is which consists of the vestibule, the cochlea , and the semicircular canals. </li></ul><ul><li>The cochlea contains the organ of hearing. When sound waves are transmitted to the cochlea, it converts them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. The semicircular canals and the vestibule are primarily responsible for body equilibrium. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Senses: SIGHT <ul><li>Belphar = eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>cor = pupil </li></ul><ul><li>lacrim = tear </li></ul><ul><li>corne = cornea </li></ul><ul><li>rein = retina </li></ul><ul><li>bi = two </li></ul><ul><li>opia = vision </li></ul>
    51. 51. The Eyes <ul><li>The Eyes are the organs that provide sight. </li></ul><ul><li>The eyelids protect the eye and assist in its lubrication. </li></ul><ul><li>The conjunctiva is the blood-rich membrane between the eye and the eyelid. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several glands that secrete fluids to protect and lubricate the eye; the lacrimal gland s above each eye secrete tears and the meibomian glands produce sebum. </li></ul><ul><li>Canalicula (tear ducts) drains excess fluid into the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>The eye has three layers. The outer layer is composed of the sclera and the cornea. </li></ul><ul><li>The sclera is the white part of the eye. The cornea is transparent so the iris (the color of the eye) and the pupil (the opening of the eye) are visible. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle layer is called the choroid and contains blood vessels that nourish the entire eye. </li></ul><ul><li>In the third layer, the lens focuses light rays on the retina . </li></ul><ul><li>The vitreous humor (one of two fluids in the eye) fills the space between the retina and the lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Rods and cones within the retina they are responsible for visual reception. </li></ul><ul><li>The optic nerve within the retina transmits the nerve impulses to the brain for interpretation. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Senses: Sight <ul><li>Blepharitis = inflammation of the eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis = inflammation of the conjunctiva </li></ul><ul><li>Retinitis = inflammation of the retina </li></ul>
    53. 53. Drug Classifications “anti” means “Against” <ul><li>Antacid =relieves gastritis, ulcer pain, heartburn, indigestion </li></ul><ul><li>Antianginals =relieves heart pain </li></ul><ul><li>Anticoagulants =dissolves or prevents blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>Anticonvulsants =prevents seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants =prevents depression </li></ul><ul><li>Antidiarrheals =stops diarrhea (loose stool) </li></ul><ul><li>Antiemetics =prevents nausea and vomiting </li></ul>
    54. 54. Drug Classifications “anti” means “Against” <ul><li>Antihistamine = blocks the effects of histamine </li></ul><ul><li>Antihyperlipidemia = lowers high cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Antihypertensive = reduces high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory = reduces inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Antipruritics = prevents or relieves itching </li></ul><ul><li>Antispasmodics = relieves intestinal cramping </li></ul><ul><li>Antitussive = relieves coughing </li></ul>
    55. 55. Other Classes <ul><li>Decongestant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= de + Conges + tant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce nasal congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analgesic </li></ul><ul><li>= an + alges + ic </li></ul><ul><li>without pain, pain killer </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemic </li></ul><ul><li>= hypo + glyc + emic reduces blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>hypolipidemic </li></ul><ul><li>= hypo + lipid + emic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces cholesterol or lipid levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contraceptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= contra + cep + tive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spermicide </li></ul><ul><li>= sperm + I + cide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kills sperm </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Pharmacy Abbreviations <ul><li>Most common abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Abbreviations <ul><li>ad = right ear </li></ul><ul><li>as = left ear </li></ul><ul><li>au = each ear </li></ul><ul><li>IM = intramuscular </li></ul><ul><li>IV = intravenous </li></ul><ul><li>od = right eye </li></ul><ul><li>os = left eye </li></ul><ul><li>ou = each eye </li></ul><ul><li>po = by mouth </li></ul><ul><li>sl = sublingually </li></ul>
    58. 58. Abbreviations <ul><li>elix = elixir </li></ul><ul><li>supp = suppository </li></ul><ul><li>ung = ointment </li></ul><ul><li>ac = before meals </li></ul><ul><li>pc = after meals </li></ul><ul><li>hs = at bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>qd = every day </li></ul><ul><li>prn = as needed </li></ul><ul><li>qid = four times a day </li></ul><ul><li>tid = three times a day </li></ul><ul><li>bid = two times a day </li></ul>
    59. 59. Abbreviations <ul><li>gtt </li></ul><ul><li>gm </li></ul><ul><li>gr </li></ul><ul><li>l </li></ul><ul><li>mcg </li></ul><ul><li>mg </li></ul><ul><li>meq </li></ul><ul><li>ml </li></ul><ul><li>qs </li></ul><ul><li>disp </li></ul><ul><li>= drop </li></ul><ul><li>= gram </li></ul><ul><li>= grain </li></ul><ul><li>= liter </li></ul><ul><li>= microgram </li></ul><ul><li>= milligram </li></ul><ul><li>= milliequivalent </li></ul><ul><li>= milliliter </li></ul><ul><li>= a sufficient quantity </li></ul><ul><li>= dispense </li></ul>
    60. 60. Terms to Remember <ul><li>1. Through the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>2. Blood Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ven </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ot </li></ul><ul><li>5. Gastr </li></ul><ul><li>6. Hardening of Artery </li></ul><ul><li>7. Muscle Repair </li></ul><ul><li>8. Otalgia </li></ul><ul><li>9. Liver Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>10. Card </li></ul><ul><li>11. Cyst </li></ul><ul><li>12. Derma </li></ul><ul><li>13. Loss Of Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>14. Hemat </li></ul><ul><li>15. Hepat </li></ul><ul><li>16. Mast </li></ul><ul><li>17. Increase In White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>18. Nephr </li></ul><ul><li>19. Neur </li></ul><ul><li>20. Ocul </li></ul><ul><li>21. Oste </li></ul><ul><li>22. Brain Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>23. Pector </li></ul><ul><li>24. Pneum </li></ul><ul><li>25. My </li></ul>
    61. 61. Terms to Remember <ul><li>26. Alimentary tract </li></ul><ul><li>27. Alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>28. Combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>29. Conjunctiva </li></ul><ul><li>30. Cornea </li></ul><ul><li>31. Diastolic phase </li></ul><ul><li>32. Endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>33. Eustachian tube </li></ul><ul><li>34. Flexor movement </li></ul><ul><li>35. Integumentary system </li></ul><ul><li>36. Lacrimal gland </li></ul><ul><li>37. Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>38. Nephron </li></ul><ul><li>39. Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>40. Osseous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>41. Prefix </li></ul><ul><li>42. Retina </li></ul><ul><li>43. Root word </li></ul><ul><li>44. Suffix </li></ul><ul><li>45. Systolic phase </li></ul><ul><li>46. Tympanic membrane </li></ul>