Ch04 eec3

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Ch04 eec3

  1. 1. The Human Body Four Chapter
  2. 2. <ul><li>Terms used to refer to regions </li></ul><ul><li>and directions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and function of the </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory, cardiovascular, </li></ul><ul><li>musculoskeletal, nervous, and </li></ul><ul><li>endocrine systems </li></ul>Four Chapter CORE CONCEPTS
  3. 3. Knowledge of Anatomy Necessary For: <ul><li>Accurate patient assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Locating body organs, systems </li></ul><ul><li>Quality patient care </li></ul>
  4. 4. A NATOMICAL TERMS AND DIRECTIONS
  5. 5. <ul><li>Person standing, facing forward </li></ul><ul><li>Palms facing forward </li></ul><ul><li>The basis for description of </li></ul>(Continued) Anatomical Position anatomy
  6. 6. Anatomical Position
  7. 7. Anatomical Planes <ul><li>Divide the body into </li></ul><ul><li>specific areas </li></ul><ul><li>Used as anatomic </li></ul><ul><li>reference points </li></ul>
  8. 8. Directional Terms: Frontal
  9. 9. Directional Terms: Lateral
  10. 10. Supine/Prone
  11. 11. Recovery (Lateral Recumbent) Position
  12. 12. Semi-Fowler’s Position
  13. 13. Trendelenburg Position
  14. 14. B ODY S YSTEMS
  15. 15. <ul><li>Moves oxygen into bloodstream through inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Picks up carbon dioxide to be excreted through exhalation </li></ul>Respiratory System
  16. 16. Respiratory System
  17. 17. Thoracic Cavity
  18. 18. Gas Exchange: Alveolar Capillary <ul><li>Oxygen-rich air enters alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen-poor blood passes </li></ul><ul><li>around the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen enters capillaries; carbon dioxide enters alveoli. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cells give off carbon dioxide to capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries give off oxygen to cells. </li></ul>Gas Exchange: Capillary Cellular
  20. 20. <ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm moves downward. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move upward and outward. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of chest cavity increases. </li></ul>(Continued) Inhalation
  21. 21. Inhalation — Air Flows into Lungs diaphragm diaphragm
  22. 22. <ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal </li></ul><ul><li>muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm moves upward. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move downward and </li></ul>(Continued) Exhalation inward. <ul><li>Size of chest cavity decreases. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exhalation — Air Flows out of Lungs diaphragm
  24. 24. It is not enough to determine if your patient is breathing. The patient must be breathing ADEQUATELY. Adequate Breathing (Continued)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Infant </li></ul>12 – 20/min. 15 – 30/min. 25 – 50/min. (Continued) Adequate Breathing: Normal Rates
  26. 26. <ul><li>Usually regular </li></ul><ul><li>May be slightly irregular and influenced by talking </li></ul>(Continued) Adequate Breathing: Rhythm
  27. 27. <ul><li>Breath sounds: Present, equal </li></ul><ul><li>Chest expansion: Adequate, equal </li></ul><ul><li>Effort : Minimal or no use of </li></ul>(Continued) Adequate Breathing: Quality accessory muscles
  28. 28. <ul><li>Adequate tidal volume </li></ul>Adequate Breathing: Depth
  29. 29. <ul><li>Rate: Outside of normal ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm: May be irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Depth: Inadequate or shallow </li></ul>(Continued) Inadequate Breathing volume
  30. 30. <ul><li>Breath sounds: Diminished or absent </li></ul>(Continued) Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Chest expansion: Unequal or inadequate </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Breathing effort </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of accessory muscles, especially in infants and children </li></ul>(Continued) Inadequate Breathing
  32. 32. Nasal flaring Excessive use of accessory muscles Chest tightness Cyanosis Numbness, tingling in hands and feet Signs of Inadequate Breathing Pursed lips on exhalation Coughing, crowing, high-pitched bark <ul><li>Respiratory noise </li></ul><ul><li>wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>rattling </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired mentation </li></ul><ul><li>unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>confusion </li></ul><ul><li>combativeness </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Pale or cyanotic (blue) skin </li></ul><ul><li>Cool, clammy skin </li></ul><ul><li>Agonal respirations </li></ul>(seen just before death) (occasional, gasping) Inadequate Breathing
  34. 34. (more easily obstructed) . <ul><li>Airway structures are smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue is proportionately </li></ul><ul><li>larger than an adult’s. </li></ul>(Continued) Pediatric Airway Anatomy
  35. 35. <ul><li>Trachea is narrower </li></ul>(more easily obstructed) . <ul><li>Trachea is softer, more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>than an adult’s. </li></ul>(Continued) Pediatric Airway Anatomy
  36. 36. <ul><li>Cricoid is not well developed </li></ul>(less rigid) . <ul><li>Chest wall is softer </li></ul>(infants are abdominal breathers) . Pediatric Airway Anatomy
  37. 37. Retractions Nasal Flaring See-Saw Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing Inadequate Breathing: Infants and Children
  38. 38. Abdominal Quadrants (Continued)
  39. 39. Abdominal Quadrants
  40. 40. Abdominal Cavity
  41. 41. C IRCULATORY SYSTEM
  42. 42. Circulatory System <ul><li>Heart pumps blood that is </li></ul><ul><li>carried by blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood carries food and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>to cells and removes wastes from them. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Heart Aorta L. Pulmonary Artery L. Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Valves Left Ventricle R. Pulmonary Artery Superior Vena Cava R. Pulmonary Veins Right Atrium Valves Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava
  44. 44. Lungs, Heart, and Great Vessels
  45. 45. <ul><li>Valves between chambers prevent </li></ul><ul><li>Contains specialized contractile and conductive tissue. </li></ul>Heart backflow of blood.
  46. 46. 4-14a.jpg Cardiac Conduction System Superior Vena Cava Aorta Sino-Atrial (SA) Node R. Atrium R. Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava L. Atrium L. Ventricle Atrio-Ventricular (AV) Node
  47. 47. C a p i l l a r y b e d V e i n A r t e r y A r t e r i o l e s V e n u l e s V a l v e Vessels of Circulation
  48. 48. <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul>(carry blood away from heart) (carry blood toward heart) (smallest arteries) (smallest veins) Vessels of Circulation
  49. 49. <ul><li>Tiny vessels that connect arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for the exchange of waste and nutrients at the cellular level </li></ul>to venules Capillaries
  50. 50. <ul><li>Red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Give blood its color </li></ul><ul><li>Carry oxygen to organs </li></ul><ul><li>Carry carbon dioxide away </li></ul>(Continued) from organs Blood Composition
  51. 51. <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Defense against infection </li></ul>(Continued) Blood Composition
  52. 52. <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid that carries blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for clot formation </li></ul>and nutrients Blood Composition
  53. 53. Pulse a bone: carotid, femoral, radial, brachial, tibial, and dorsalis pedis. <ul><li>Left ventricle contracts, sending </li></ul><ul><li>a wave of blood through arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>May be palpated when an artery is near the skin surface and over </li></ul>
  54. 54. Systolic Blood Pressure Pressure exerted against the walls of an artery when the left ventricle contracts K EY TERM
  55. 55. Diastolic Blood Pressure Pressure exerted against the walls of an artery when the left ventricle is at rest K EY TERM
  56. 56. Circulation Movement of blood through the heart and vessels K EY TERM
  57. 57. Perfusion <ul><li>Delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems and removal of waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate perfusion is necessary for life. </li></ul>K EY TERM
  58. 58. Hypoperfusion <ul><li>Inadequate circulation of blood </li></ul><ul><li>through an organ or structure </li></ul><ul><li>Results in inadequate oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>supply to cells and causes </li></ul><ul><li>buildup of waste products </li></ul>K EY TERM
  59. 59. <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Cool, pale </li></ul><ul><li>Clammy </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanotic </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid, weak </li></ul>(Continued) Hypoperfusion: Signs and Symptoms
  60. 60. <ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid, shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Restless, anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting </li></ul>Hypoperfusion: Signs and Symptoms
  61. 61. <ul><li>Gives the body shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for body movement. </li></ul>Musculoskeletal System
  62. 62. CRANIUM FACE Zygoma (cheek) Maxilla Mandible (jaw) Orbit Nasal Bones Skull and Facial Bones
  63. 63. Spinal Column
  64. 64. P RECEPTOR P EARL Whenever a patient sustains a high-energy injury to the clavicles or superior, be sure to manually stabilize the head and neck and apply a cervical collar. Also be sure to fully immobilize the spine and document distal assessment of all four extremities before and after the treatment.
  65. 65. Spinal Column
  66. 66. S KELETAL SYSTEM
  67. 67. Irregular bones Long bone Flat bones Short bones Four Types of Bones
  68. 68. Detail of the Upper Extremities
  69. 69. Joints
  70. 70. Ball-and-Socket Joint
  71. 71. Hinge Joint
  72. 72. <ul><li>Voluntary (skeletal) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary (smooth) </li></ul>Three Types of Muscle
  73. 73. (Continued) Involuntary (Smooth) Muscle <ul><li>Found in gastrointestinal tract, </li></ul><ul><li>urinary system, blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the flow of materials through these structures </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Carries out automatic muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Is not under conscious control </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to stimuli such as heat, </li></ul>functions cold, and stretching Involuntary (Smooth) Muscle
  75. 75. <ul><li>Attaches to the bones </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the major muscle mass of </li></ul><ul><li>the body </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for movement </li></ul><ul><li>Under conscious control </li></ul>Voluntary (Skeletal) Muscle
  76. 76. <ul><li>Found only in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>(coronary arteries) </li></ul>(Continued) Cardiac Muscle
  77. 77. <ul><li>Can tolerate interruption of blood supply for only a short time </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts on its own (automaticity) </li></ul>Cardiac Muscle
  78. 78. Muscles of the Lower Extremity
  79. 79. Controls the voluntary and involuntary activity of the body. (Continued) Nervous System
  80. 80. (includes the autonomic nervous system) (Continued) Nervous System: Components <ul><li>Central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul>(Continued) Central Nervous System
  82. 82. Cross-Section of Brain and Brain Stem
  83. 83. <ul><li>Sensory nerves </li></ul>(carry information from the bod y to the brain and spinal cord) <ul><li>Motor nerves </li></ul>(carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the body) Peripheral Nervous System
  84. 84. Central nervous system Controls all basic bodily functions, and responds to external changes Nervous System Peripheral nervous system Provides a complete network of motor and sensory nerve fibers connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body Autonomic nervous system Parallels spinal cord but is separately involved in control of exocrine glands, blood vessels, viscera and external genitalia
  85. 85. Secretes chemicals that regulate body activities, functions: <ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul>(Continued) Endocrine System
  86. 86. Endocrine System
  87. 87. Thoracic Cavity
  88. 88. 1. Name the terms used to refer to regions and directions of the body. 2. Discuss the structure and function of the respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, and endocrine systems. R EVIEW QUESTIONS

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