deliberate use of light toachieve a practical oraesthetic effect.
Lighting can emphasizeimportant details or hide them. Itcan flatter a subject by bringingout positive attributes and it cande-emphasize or hide lessattractive attributes. Lighting caneven impart a sinister and hostilelook.
Television is based on themedium of light; in fact, withoutlight there could be no video. Justas sound must be skillfullycontrolled in audio production,light must be expertly controlledin television.
Functions of LightingTo provide the television camera with adequateillumination for technicallyacceptable pictures.To establish the general mood of the event.
To show the viewers what the objects shown onscreen actually look like,say, for instance, if there was no light in theroom, we would not have beenable to see how the chair, table or anything else forthat matter would looklike. Lights also help us know when the event istaking place, in terms of theseason and the time of the day
Key Termsbarn doors metal flaps mounted in front of a lighting instrument taht control the speed of the light beambaselight even, nondirectional (diffused) light necessary for the camera to operate optimally. normal baselight levels are 150-200 ft candles (1500-2000 lux) at f/8 to f/16. also called basecolor temperature the standard by which we measure the relative reddishness or bluishness of white light. it is measured on the Delvin (K) scale. the standard color temperature for indoor light is 3200K; for outdoor it is 5600K. technically the numbers express Kelvin degrees
dimmer a device that controls the intensity of light by throttling the electric current flowing to the lampellipsoidal spotlight spotlight that produces a very defined beam, which can be shaped further by metal shuttersfloodlight lighting instrument that produces diffused light with a relatively undefined beam edgefoot-candle the amount of light that falls on an object. one foot-candle is the amount of light from a single candle that falls on a 1- square-foot area located 1 foot away from the light sourceFresnel spotlight one of the most common spotlights, named after the inventor of its lens. its lens has steplike concentric ringsLED light stand for light emitting diode light. its light source is an array of semiconductors (a solid-state electronic device) that emits light when electricity passes through. Can produce different-colored light
LED light stand for light emitting diode light. its light source is an array of semiconductors (a solid-state electronic device) that emits light when electricity passes through. Can produce different-colored lightlumen the light intensity power of one candle (light source radiating isotropically, i.e., in all directions)luminaire technical term for a lighting instrumentluminant lamp that produces the light; the light sourcelux european standard unit for measuring light intensity. 11.75 lux = 1fc; usually roughly translated as 10 lux = 1 fcquartz a high-intensity incandescent light whose lamp consists of a quartz or silica housing (instead of the customary glass) that contains halogen gas and a tungsten filament. produces a very bright light of stable color temperature (3200K). also called a TH (tungsten-halogen) lamp
softlight television floodlight that produces extremely diffused lightspotlight a lighting instrument that produces directional, relatively undiffused light with a relatively well-defined beam edge
Qualities in lightingThe four main qualities or propertiesof lighting are intensity, color andfocus.
Intensity is measured in lux, lumens and foot-candles. The intensity of a luminaire (lightinginstrument or fixture) depends on a numberof factors including its lamp power, the designof the instrument (and its efficiency), opticalobstructions such as color gels or mechanicalfilters, the distance to the area to be lit andthe beam or field angle of the fixture, the colorand material to be lit, and the relativecontrasts to other regions of illumination.
Color temperature is measured in kelvins. A lightsapparent color is determined by its lamp color, thecolor of any gels in the optical path, its power level, andthe color of the material it lightsDirection refers to the shape, quality and evenness ofa lamps output.Focus is a term usually used to describe where aninstrument is pointed.
"Quartz" LampsAlmost all incandescent lamps used in TV productionare tungsten-halogen lamps (commonly called quartzlamps). They normally range from 500 to 2,000 watts.This type of lamp is more efficient than the commonlight bulb type incandescent lamp, and it does notdarken with age.Tungsten-halogen lamps are used in severalcommon types of lighting instruments includingthe type that has been used for decades,the Fresnel (pronounced fra-nell).
Special care must be taken when theselamps are changed (in addition tounplugging the lights and letting them cooldown) to make sure that oil from fingers isnot deposited on the outer glass (quartz)envelope of the lamp. Because of the greatheat associated with these lamps, anyresidue of this sort will create an area ofconcentrated heat that will cause the lampto fail -- and they can be rather expensiveto replace.
FresnelsThe Fresnel lens, invented by French physicistAugustin-Jean Fresnel, consists of concentric circlesthat both concentrate and slightly diffuse the light.Note the photo on the left below. The coherence(quality) of the resulting light represents an idealblend between hard and soft. In the studio theselights are typically hung from a grid in the ceiling.
LED LightThe LED offers the advantage of power efficiency byproducing more light per watt used. As a result, LEDinstruments also operate at low temperatures likefluorescent lights.LED lights can be controlled to change colors on cue.This feature is useful for matching indoor or outdoorlight conditions. LEDs can also be dimmed whilekeeping their original color temperature.LED instruments are expensive and can produce someundesirable artifacts under certain camera conditions.Fortunately, the technology is rapidly improving andproduction costs are decreasing.
EllipsoidalThe ellipsoidal is a specific type of spotlight used instudio applications as a key light for actors or toenhance set details. The instrument reflects light off ofa surface shaped like an ellipsoid placed in the rear ofthe unit. The light path can be focused by moving thelamp closer to or farther away from the reflector. Thelight is further focused using a lens attached at thefront of a narrow tube that directs the light path.Internal frame shutters can also restrict the lightpattern. The result is a small to mid-sized circular lightpattern.
ScoopScoops provide a broad, soft light patternused to boost overall light levels across anentire scene. Scoops cannot be focused. Theyinclude lamps that range from 500 to 2,000watts and include a frame in the front thatallows insertion of colored gels.
FluorescentFluorescent instruments provide extremely soft,broad lighting. The high efficiency and cooloperating temperatures of this type of lightingmake them ideal choices for lighting actors upclose when other light sources may causeperspiration or discomfort.