TV Lighting


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Lighting in television or film is a fundamental part of any production.This presentation includes nature of light,color,color temperature,white balance,basic lights,anatomy of human eye, .....and many more.

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TV Lighting

  2. 2. What is Light Light is a form of energy ,that associated with molecular motion Duel Nature of Light 1. 2. Light Travel in straight rays Light Travel in Packets (photon)
  3. 3. What is Light? Light is made up of different wavelengths of energy. Colour we see falls into the bracket of the visible spectrum. Red has the longest wavelength and blue has the shortest. Physical Science 7.3a - The Nature of Light.flv
  4. 4. Light Theory   White light is actually made from a mixture of full red, full green and full blue wavelengths as shown below. RGB can make all colours in the visible spectrum. Mixing pairs of the primary colours makes the secondary colours (cyan, magenta and yellow).
  5. 5. How We See Light – The Eye  Light is gathered through the pupil and focused by the lens onto the retina.  The retina is covered in light sensitive cells called rods and cones.  Tiny electrical pulses are sent down the optical nerve to the brain where they are assembled into an image. A Journey Through the Human Eye_ How We See.mp4
  6. 6. Process of Vision Animation[1].flv How The Eye Deals Detects Light    95% of the retina is made of rods and are sensitive to luminance (brightness/intensity/black or white info) and work at low light levels only. 5% of the retina is made of cones that are sensitive to chrominance (colour) and work in only good light levels. This is why in darkness we see black and white and edges.
  7. 7. The Eye      There three cones are all sensitive to a different wavelengths of light. We have cones sensitive to red, green and blue light. We are most sensitive to green, less to red and even less to blue. We actually see 60% green, 29% red and 11% blue All video devices work on the same principles as the eye and because we are least sensitive to colour. This is where the most compression is used.
  8. 8.  Without light it is virtually impossible to make television images.  Lighting has both a technical and aesthetic function  The right light will create excellent pictures
  9. 9. Objectives of TV Lighting To fulfill the technical requirement of the system Lighting must provide sufficient level of illumination for the camera’s
  10. 10. To provide a three dimensional prospective The TV screen is two dimensional. Depth must be provided through the - use of camera angels - set design - Performer blocking - Proper use of light to emphasize texture, shape and form
  11. 11. To direct attention to important element in a scene The use of light and shadow can reveal and conceal important elements in the scene , The director uses light to guide the viewer’s attention within a scene.
  12. 12. To establish the mood of a scene Lighting can provide the viewer with a sense of a scene emotional mood.
  13. 13. To fix the time of the action It conveys the feeling about time i.e morning, evening, night and season.
  14. 14. Amount of light  The amount of lighting a shot will determine how clearly we see the images  The type of light affects the color
  15. 15. MOOD  Lighting affects mood…two messages can be conveyed in the same room with different lighting.
  16. 16. Video Cameras  Video cameras require more light than other cameras.  There must be enough light reflected off a scene to produce an image.
  17. 17. BRIGHTNESS      The intensity or brightness of the light on a subject affects how well a camera can see it Too little= too dark and underexposed The image will be soft and underexposed Will create a grainy look (this is called picture noise) Bright light creates sharp and clear images
  18. 18. BASE LIGHT     The light that already exists in an environment is its base light. If you turn the lights off in a room you lower the base light If you turn more light on then you raise the base light Base light is often all you will have to work with but that doesn’t mean you can’t think about lighting
  19. 19. DIRECTION    The direction of a light source affects the way light and shadow fall on a subject. Direction is determines by how you position both the subject and the lighting fixture. Light from the side produces dimension and texture where as light coming directly in front (from the angle of the camera) will reduce texture and shape.
  20. 20. QUALITY     The quality of light refers to whether it is hard or soft . Hard light creates sharp and well defined dark shadows. It brings out the shapes and textures of the subject Hard light is created by sunlight and directional focused lighting fixtures
  21. 21. SOFT LIGHT  Soft light is diffused and creates very few or no shadows (like a cloudy day)
  22. 22. COLOR      Light also determines the color an object will be White light is an equal mixture of colors across the full spectrum of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet Our eyes compensate for these differences in color temperature Cameras don’t The type of light affects the color of the object
  23. 23. Color Temperature     Different types of lighting casts a different temperature of light. Different temperatures cast different color tints of light. Indoor Lighting generally is 3200 K (Kelvin) **red** Outdoor Lighting 5600 K **blue**
  24. 24. COLOR TEMPERATURE     The exact color and tone of light is called color temperature Color characteristics are classified on a KELVIN (K) color temperature scale. This scale measures the degree of red or blue in the light (not the heat or brightness) The higher the color temperature the more prominent the blue tones
  25. 25. COLOR TEMP….      As the light gets brighter or as the light source changes the color temperature changes Daylight has more blue tones Video lights usually have red tones Lights in homes are even redder Fluorescent lights are green
  26. 26. Color Temperature For example, in the photo on the right, both sources of light (sunlight on the right; a standard light bulb on the left) normally appear as white light to the eye. It's only when we see them together that we notice that the colors of the two sources of light are quite different. Color Temperature.flv
  27. 27. Example of Color Temperature Video Production Lighting _ Color Temperatures in Video Lighting.mp4 Warm (2000-3000K Mid-range (3000-4000K) Cool (4000K +)
  28. 28. Studio and Field Light Levels Although most TV cameras need at least 1000 lux (about 90 FC) of light to produce good quality video in the middle of the lens f-stop range, many can produce acceptable pictures under a few footcandles of light. Today, many on-location shoots are done with as little as 30 foot-candles (about 300 lux) of light. The latest generation of professional video cameras can produce good quality video under less than one foot-candle (less than 10 lux) of light
  29. 29. Intensity Control Through Varying Distance
  30. 30. Light Coherence Coherence, often called quality, is the hardness or softness of light. Light quality is probably the least understood and the most neglected of the three variables. In the photos above the objects are exactly the same. Two of the variables of light are also exactly the same: intensity and color temperature. The only difference is the third variable: the coherence of the light. The first photo was shot with soft light, the second with a hard light source.
  31. 31. Hard Light Hard light casts a sharp, clearly defined shadow. When hard light is used to illuminate a face, imperfections in the skin stand out. The result is less than flattering. But in other applications, such as bringing out the texture in leather, or the engraving on a piece of jewelry, this can be an advantage.
  32. 32. Primary Factor of Lighting      Understand 3 point lighting to illuminate subject, give shape, add texture, fill in harsh shadows and separate from background Not too large contrast light and dark Create an even base light Working knowledge of two type of instruments Reasonable understanding of color temperature
  33. 33. Measuring Light     Reflected Light- gives shape and texture, paints visual image We perceive shape and color by what is not reflected Incident Light- direct path from instrument to subject Without enough there are black holes
  34. 34. Foot Candles- Light’s Measurement  Amount of light collected in a one foot radius of a standard candle.  Using a light meter, you measure the objects. Example-Suit 15 ftc/Wall 700 ftc… 46:1 ratio 
  35. 35. WHITE BALANCE   Most cameras will white balance automatically but some will have the option to do this manually To do so you would select the color temperature for the dominant light source,; place a white object or card in that areas; point the camera at the white object completely filling the screen and perform the white balance function
  36. 36. Lighting for Television & Video Design & Practice
  37. 37. Hue, Saturation, Brilliance  Hue and saturation are the two qualitative differences of physical colors. Essential character, inherent feature, property  The quantitative difference is brilliance, the intensity or energy of the light. "Color," Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Hue & Saturation HUE - Actual color: Human color perception is based on only 4 HUES: Yellow, green, blue, & red. SATURATION: (“chroma”) Amount, strength, purity of color Computers & TVs Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth
  39. 39. The Look & Feel of Lighting Look  sensory, surface properties, visual style; “slick”, hard, soft, bright, dark, etc. Feel  emotional, subjective, connotative; rhythms, textures, colors, tonal values Viera, D. & Viera, M. (2005). Lighting for film and digital cinematography, 2 nd ed. Belmont CA: Thompson-Wadsworth.
  40. 40. Aesthetics      Shadows Falloff Color High Key / Low Key lighting Patterns
  41. 41. Patterns  Kukuloris (“Cookies”) or Gobos 24” or 42” sq. panel frame
  42. 42. Shadow projected on background …and actors in this case Viera & Viera, p. 35.
  43. 43. Shadows Suggest:      Shape Location Mood Time, season Texture
  44. 44. Shadows What shape are these objects? “Flat” with diffused source Directional source, off to side.
  45. 45. Shadows Define Shape & Location Attached Shadow vs. Cast Shadow: Gives info on shape of object & where it is relative to its surroundings.  • Where is the light source? • How far from the ground is the cone?
  46. 46. Shadow  Indicates distance, time, mood. Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4 th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth, p23
  47. 47. Falloff Facial texture Fast falloff Slow Falloff Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth, p28
  48. 48. Ext shadow  Time of day
  49. 49. Angle
  50. 50. Predictive Lighting  Portends a coming event… Often used along with predictive sound, music…
  51. 51. Soft & Hard Light  Dramatically different shadows and moods
  52. 52. Background Lighting and Composition Bkgd. divided into B & W, separates characters (The Third Man, Studio Canal Image, 1949) Photographs, Viera & Viera, p. 34 Bkgd. Light used to create composition; where does the light bkgd. lead you? (8 ½, Corinth Films Inc., 1963.)
  53. 53. Background Light   The same ¾ key, fill, background set up Different intensity for different moods Bkgd. Fill Photographs, Viera & Viera, p. 33 Key
  54. 54. Cameo  Black background, subjects sharply set off from bkgd. No fill, no bkgd light. Sometimes a kicker. Zettl, p. 43
  55. 55. Chiaroscuro Three functions: Organic, Directional, and Spatial / Compositional. Here, light seems to radiate from a single candle hidden behind the left woman’s hand. Zettl, p. 41
  56. 56. Back Key- back light is dominant   When light comes from behind. Frontal fill Viera & Viera, p. 25
  57. 57. Eyelight, cont.  Without eyelight, eyes would be lost in shadow.  Give a sense of “aliveness,” twinkle Viera & Viera, p. 37, 81/2, Corinth Films, Inc. 1963
  58. 58. Eyelight: Do you see a difference? No eyelight Eyelight
  59. 59. High Key / Low Key
  60. 60. What kind of lighting is this? a. b. c. d. Low Key High Key Flat lighting Cameo
  61. 61. Hollywood style lighting
  62. 62. Hollywood style lighting
  63. 63. Silhouette - opposite of cameo Shows contour but no volume, no texture. What’s being used? a) b) c) d) e) Key Back Fill Kicker Background
  64. 64. Review: Lighting lingo  “INSTRUMENT”= light   fc, lux Light meters  (gaffer’s tape)   L.D., Gaffer, Best Boy Gaffer: lighting personnel Cookies Baselight   Shadow  Contrast  (Color Temperature)  “LAMP”= bulb  Reflectors Flags  Barn doors    Scrims Gels
  65. 65. Thank you!