Lighting in television or film is a fundamental part of any production.This presentation includes nature of light,color,color temperature,white balance,basic lights,anatomy of human eye, .....and many more.
What is Light
Light is a form of energy ,that associated
with molecular motion
Duel Nature of Light
Light Travel in straight rays
Light Travel in Packets (photon)
What is Light?
Light is made up of different wavelengths of energy.
Colour we see falls into the bracket of the visible
Red has the longest wavelength and blue has the
Physical Science 7.3a - The Nature of Light.flv
White light is actually made from a mixture of full
red, full green and full blue wavelengths as
RGB can make all colours in the visible spectrum.
Mixing pairs of the primary colours makes the
secondary colours (cyan, magenta and yellow).
How We See Light – The Eye
Light is gathered through
the pupil and focused by
the lens onto the retina.
The retina is covered in
light sensitive cells called
rods and cones.
Tiny electrical pulses are
sent down the optical nerve
to the brain where they are
assembled into an image.
A Journey Through the Human Eye_ How We See.mp4
Process of Vision Animation.flv
How The Eye Deals Detects Light
95% of the retina is made of rods and are
sensitive to luminance
(brightness/intensity/black or white info)
and work at low light levels only.
5% of the retina is made of cones that are
sensitive to chrominance (colour) and work
in only good light levels.
This is why in darkness we see black and
white and edges.
There three cones are all sensitive to a different
wavelengths of light.
We have cones sensitive to red, green and blue light.
We are most sensitive to green, less to red and even
less to blue.
We actually see 60% green, 29% red and 11% blue
All video devices work on the same principles as the eye
and because we are least sensitive to colour. This is
where the most compression is used.
light it is virtually impossible to
make television images.
Lighting has both a technical and
The right light will create excellent
Objectives of TV Lighting
To fulfill the technical requirement of the system
Lighting must provide sufficient level of illumination
for the camera’s
To provide a three dimensional prospective
The TV screen is two dimensional.
Depth must be provided through the - use of
- set design
- Performer blocking
- Proper use of light to emphasize texture,
shape and form
To direct attention to important element
in a scene
The use of light and shadow can reveal
and conceal important elements
the scene ,
The director uses light to guide the
within a scene.
To establish the mood of a scene
Lighting can provide the viewer with a sense of
a scene emotional mood.
To fix the time of the action
It conveys the feeling about time i.e
morning, evening, night and season.
Amount of light
amount of lighting a shot will
determine how clearly we see the
The type of light affects the color
affects mood…two messages
can be conveyed in the same room
with different lighting.
cameras require more light than
There must be enough light reflected
off a scene to produce an image.
The intensity or brightness of the light on a
subject affects how well a camera can see
Too little= too dark and underexposed
The image will be soft and underexposed
Will create a grainy look (this is called
Bright light creates sharp and clear images
The light that already exists in an environment is
its base light.
If you turn the lights off in a room you lower the
If you turn more light on then you raise the base
Base light is often all you will have to work with
but that doesn’t mean you can’t think about
The direction of a light source affects the
way light and shadow fall on a subject.
Direction is determines by how you position
both the subject and the lighting fixture.
Light from the side produces dimension and
texture where as light coming directly in
front (from the angle of the camera) will
reduce texture and shape.
The quality of light refers to whether it is
hard or soft .
Hard light creates sharp and well defined
It brings out the shapes and textures of the
Hard light is created by sunlight and
directional focused lighting fixtures
Soft light is diffused and creates very few or
no shadows (like a cloudy day)
Light also determines the color an object will be
White light is an equal mixture of colors across
the full spectrum of red, orange, yellow, green,
blue, indigo and violet
Our eyes compensate for these differences in
The type of light affects the color of the object
Different types of lighting casts a different
temperature of light.
Different temperatures cast different color
tints of light.
Indoor Lighting generally is 3200 K (Kelvin)
Outdoor Lighting 5600 K **blue**
The exact color and tone of light is called
Color characteristics are classified on a
KELVIN (K) color temperature scale.
This scale measures the degree of red or
blue in the light (not the heat or brightness)
The higher the color temperature the more
prominent the blue tones
As the light gets brighter or as the light
source changes the color temperature
Daylight has more blue tones
Video lights usually have red tones
Lights in homes are even redder
Fluorescent lights are green
For example, in the photo
on the right,
both sources of light
(sunlight on the right; a
standard light bulb on the
left) normally appear as
white light to the eye. It's
only when we see them
together that we notice
that the colors of the two
sources of light are quite
Example of Color Temperature
Video Production Lighting _ Color Temperatures in Video Lighting.mp4
Studio and Field Light Levels
Although most TV cameras need at least 1000 lux
(about 90 FC) of light to produce good quality video
in the middle of the lens f-stop range, many can
produce acceptable pictures under a few footcandles of light.
Today, many on-location shoots are done with as
little as 30 foot-candles (about 300 lux) of light.
The latest generation of professional video cameras
can produce good quality video under less than one
foot-candle (less than 10 lux) of light
Coherence, often called quality, is the hardness or
softness of light. Light quality is probably the least
understood and the most neglected of the three
In the photos above the objects are exactly the same. Two
of the variables of light are also exactly the same: intensity
and color temperature. The only difference is the third
variable: the coherence of the light. The first photo was shot
with soft light, the second with a hard light source.
Hard light casts a sharp, clearly
When hard light is used to
illuminate a face, imperfections in
the skin stand out.
The result is less than flattering.
But in other applications, such as
bringing out the texture in leather,
or the engraving on a piece of
jewelry, this can be an
Primary Factor of Lighting
Understand 3 point lighting to illuminate subject,
give shape, add texture, fill in harsh shadows
and separate from background
Not too large contrast light and dark
Create an even base light
Working knowledge of two type of instruments
Reasonable understanding of color temperature
Reflected Light- gives shape and texture,
paints visual image
We perceive shape and color by what is
Incident Light- direct path from
instrument to subject
Without enough there are black holes
Foot Candles- Light’s Measurement
Amount of light collected
in a one foot radius of a
Using a light meter, you
measure the objects.
Example-Suit 15 ftc/Wall
700 ftc… 46:1 ratio
Most cameras will white balance
automatically but some will have the option
to do this manually
To do so you would select the color
temperature for the dominant light source,;
place a white object or card in that areas;
point the camera at the white object
completely filling the screen and perform
the white balance function
Lighting for Television & Video
Design & Practice
Hue, Saturation, Brilliance
Hue and saturation are the two qualitative
differences of physical colors.
The quantitative difference is brilliance, the
intensity or energy of the light.
"Color," Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Hue & Saturation
HUE - Actual color:
Human color perception is
based on only 4 HUES:
Yellow, green, blue, & red.
Amount, strength, purity of color
Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth
The Look & Feel of Lighting
sensory, surface properties, visual style; “slick”,
hard, soft, bright, dark, etc.
emotional, subjective, connotative; rhythms,
textures, colors, tonal values
Viera, D. & Viera, M. (2005). Lighting for film and digital cinematography, 2 nd ed. Belmont CA: Thompson-Wadsworth.
High Key / Low Key lighting
Kukuloris (“Cookies”) or Gobos
24” or 42” sq. panel frame
Shadow projected on background
…and actors in this case
Viera & Viera, p. 35.
What shape are these objects?
off to side.
Shadows Define Shape & Location
Attached Shadow vs. Cast Shadow:
Gives info on shape of object & where it is
relative to its surroundings.
• Where is the light source?
• How far from the ground is the cone?
Indicates distance, time, mood.
Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4 th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth, p23
Zettl, H. (2005). Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth, p28
Portends a coming event…
Often used along with predictive
Soft & Hard Light
Dramatically different shadows and moods
Bkgd. divided into B & W,
(The Third Man, Studio Canal Image, 1949)
Photographs, Viera & Viera, p. 34
Bkgd. Light used to create
composition; where does the light
bkgd. lead you?
(8 ½, Corinth Films Inc.,
The same ¾ key, fill, background set up
Different intensity for different moods
Photographs, Viera & Viera, p. 33
Black background, subjects sharply set off
from bkgd. No fill, no bkgd light. Sometimes
Zettl, p. 43
Organic, Directional, and Spatial / Compositional.
Here, light seems to radiate from a single candle hidden behind the
left woman’s hand.
Zettl, p. 41
Back Key- back light is dominant
When light comes from behind.
Viera & Viera, p. 25
would be lost
Give a sense
Viera & Viera, p. 37, 81/2, Corinth Films, Inc. 1963
Eyelight: Do you see a difference?