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Class 1 PowerPoint slides


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These are the PowerPoint slides from the first class. The topic was the history of social science research.

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Class 1 PowerPoint slides

  1. 1. Research DesignRobert Croker, Nanzan University
  2. 2. What is research?Research investigates an issue in a systematicway, by creating and analyzing data.
  3. 3. What is research design? Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009) • A research design is the plan and process for doing research.
  4. 4. Worldviews Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Worldviews are your basic assumptions about how and why to do research.
  5. 5. Worldviews Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Worldviews determine which research approaches and research methods you use.
  6. 6. The Scientist and the Psychiatrist The The Scientist Psychiatrist
  7. 7. The Scientist
  8. 8. The Scientist1930s
  9. 9. The Scientist1940s
  10. 10. The Scientist1950s
  11. 11. The Scientist• Research method: linear research design. choose collect analyze method data data• One step at a time.• Research processes are standardized, - there are set research rules to follow.
  12. 12. The Scientist• Participants are usually selected using random sampling methods.
  13. 13. The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Data collection: the researcher uses instruments like questionnaires to collect data.
  14. 14. The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Analysis: descriptive statistics, inferential statistics
  15. 15. The Scientist• Assumes: that there are laws or theories or rules that govern the world.• These laws or theories or rules need to be tested and refined, to help us understand the world better.
  16. 16. The Scientist• Assumes: that there is one, objective reality out there in the world.
  17. 17. Different Worldviews The The Scientist Psychiatrist
  18. 18. The Psychiatrist
  19. 19. The Psychiatrist1960s
  20. 20. The Psychiatrist
  21. 21. The Social Activist
  22. 22. The Social Activist• Do research to change the world!• Researchers have a responsibility to help groups in our society who have no power and no voice – the young and old, the poor, women, gay and lesbian people, foreigners, people with special needs and disabilities – the marginalized.
  23. 23. The Social Activist• Research should not be done on the participants, research should be done with them – together.• The purpose of research is to empower participants, create new choices for them, and give them a voice to improve their lives.
  24. 24. The Psychiatrist• Assumes: there is not one reality, but many.
  25. 25. The Psychiatrist• Purpose of research – to understand these realities, and find patterns of experience.
  26. 26. The PsychiatristAssumes: Each person experiences asituation in different and unique ways.Each person ‘interprets’ this experiencedifferently, and ‘constructs’ their ownunderstandings of the situation.These understandings are oftencomplex, multiple, and dynamic.
  27. 27. The Psychiatristcomplex – each person’s ideas are oftenquite complex, with many layersmultiple – each person often has manydifferent ideas about somethingdynamic – these ideas change over time
  28. 28. The Psychiatrist• Research purpose: to get inside the minds of your participants …
  29. 29. The Psychiatrist• … to understand these complex, multiple, and dynamic ways of seeing the world …
  30. 30. The Psychiatrist• … and to build up a deep understanding of their lived experiences.
  31. 31. Ways of seeing the world … Researchers use different lenses to ‘see’ the world.
  32. 32. … and exploring it! Researchers do research in different ways, too.
  33. 33. Research Approaches Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Research approaches are a set of processes that help you plan your research design.
  34. 34. What type of research …?Do you want to explore a phenomenon[exploratory research], or do you want to confirma theory [confirmatory research]? exploratory confirmatoryDo you want to describe something [descriptiveresearch], or to explain causes and relationships[explanatory research]? descriptive explanatory 34 concrete abstract
  35. 35. Research Approaches• The main research approaches: • Grounded theory – purpose: to create theory • Case studies – purpose: to explore one case • Ethnography – focus: the culture • Narrative analysis – focus: life stories • Phenomenology – focus: the experience Basic approach – purpose: just answer your research questions!
  36. 36. Research Methods Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Research methods are the ways that you create and analyze your data.
  37. 37. The Psychiatrist• You are the primary research instrument: You create the data yourself (using observations or interviews), or get participants to directly create data using their own words (e.g. journals).
  38. 38. The Psychiatrist• Data is created in natural settings like schools, hospitals, and homes.
  39. 39. The Psychiatrist• Participants are carefully selected to best answer the research questions: purposive sampling. • critical case, typical vs. extreme case
  40. 40. The Psychiatrist• The whole research process is an create interactive process: you create data, analyze then analyze it, then create more data, then analyze that. create A spiral – with moreflexible research rules,based on research logic.
  41. 41. The Psychiatrist• Data: is mostly text (words) and images (photos and videos), but also numbers.
  42. 42. The Psychiatrist• The researcher is the primary data analysis instrument: • The researcher herself analyzes the data, by deeply reading it – and not using statistical techniques.
  43. 43. The Psychiatrist• Purpose of analysis – to find patterns of experience.
  44. 44. The Psychiatrist• Results: words and images, and figures.
  45. 45. Different Worldviews Constructivist / Post-Positivist Interpretivist
  46. 46. The Old Man in the Café
  47. 47. The Old Man in the Café1980s
  48. 48. The Old Man in the Café1980s
  49. 49. The Old Man in the Café• The purpose of research is to question, to challenge ways of seeing the world, to interrupt, to problematize, to deconstruct accepted ways of looking at the world.• So, have another coffee and cigarette, and enjoy how crazy life is!
  50. 50. Research Design Post- Modernist, EmaPost-Positivist ncipatory, Const ructivist
  51. 51. Social Scientists
  52. 52. Social Scientists2000s
  53. 53. Social Scientists2000s
  54. 54. Social ScientistsCreating good quality data is absolutely essential in social science research.
  55. 55. Social Scientists questionnaires statistics and data interviews and focus groups observations journals, diaries, histories
  56. 56. Research Design Post-Modernist,Post-Positivist Emancipatory, Constructivist Pragmatic (Mixed Methods)