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Class 3 PowerPoint Slides

Class 3 PowerPoint Slides

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Class 3 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. Introduction to Socialization 10/1/17 Robert Croker, Nanzan University 1 A Brief Introduction to Socialization Robert Croker Nanzan University Definition of Socialization Socialization is the process that prepares humans to function in social life. Socialization is culturally relative – people in different cultures are socialized differently. Socialization is individually relative – people in the same group are socialized differently. Scott & Schwarz (2006)2 Two-Step Process First step: the external process The process by which a society, culture or a group teaches a person how to become a functioning member. Second step: the internal process The process by which each individual internalizes the values and norms of the society, culture or group. 3 Why is socialization needed? 1. Society: Ensures the continuity of the social order by teaching a society’s new members the accepted way of doing things. 2. Individual: Provides the foundation for the development of the individual’s personality (relatively stable set of attitudes, values, and behaviours) and a sense of self (the conscious recognition of being a distinct individual). Scott & Schwarz (2006) 4 Primary vs. Secondary Socialization is a life process with two stages: Primary socialization – takes place early in life when you are a child and adolescent, giving you your core identity. Usually takes places at home, within your family. Secondary socialization – takes place throughout your life as you encounter new groups, roles, and social situations. Usually takes places outside the family – at school, at university, at work, and when you move. 5 Stages in the Life Course focus differs by age – infancy and childhood: regulating biological drives, developing basic cognitive process adolescence: fostering self-image, developing concrete then abstract thinking. adulthood: learning specific behaviours and developing norms, e.g. work- and family- related roles 6
  2. 2. Introduction to Socialization 10/1/17 Robert Croker, Nanzan University 2 Stages in the Life Course roles differ by age – childhood and adolescence: more explicitly assuming the status of learner within the family, school or peer group adulthood: sometimes assuming the role of learner, but often have more control and independence, especially when the learning process is self-initiated and voluntary. 7 Natural vs. Planned Socialization Natural – through play. Planned – other people take actions designed to teach or train you. 8 Agents of Socialization the family – the most important agent of socialization, the center of the child's life, as infants are totally dependent on others (and particularly mothers). peer groups – social groups whose members have interests, social positions and age in common. Peer groups are places to escape parental or familial supervision and learn to form relationships on your own. 9 Agents of Socialization media – mass and social media. schools – formal vs. hidden curriculum 10 Positive vs. Negative Socialization Positive socialization – based upon pleasurable and exciting experiences. Negative socialization – occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms or anger to try to “teach you a lesson.” 11 Gender Socialization The learning of culturally defined gender roles, behavior and attitudes – boys learning to be boys and girls learning to be girls. Parents: shape gender through different interaction, activities, based on the sex of the child; serve as primary gender models ; communicate gender expectations + ideals. Schools: shape gender in the classroom, and also in the ‘corridor curriculum.’ 12

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