Persons With Disabilities Rebecca Comeau EDU 627 Multicultural Education Spring 2012
Chapter 16 Review There is no real definition if disability. Nagi (1969) defined disability consisting of four elements: 1. Pathology that interrupts physical or mental processes 2. Impairment that limit’s a person’s ability to function and that may result in, 3. Functional limitation relative to the ability to perform or engage in life tasks, and 4. Disability or the inability to perform socially expected activities.
Chapter 16 Review (cont.) The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that about 52.6 million Americans live with disabilities and 33 million live with severe disabilities. It is estimated that the poverty rate is more than three times the poverty rate of nondisabled individuals. (McNeil, 2001)
Chapter 16 Review (cont.) In the 2007 Census, it was estimated that 14.9% of Americans, age 5 years and above live with disabilities. Prevalence of disability types was estimated as follows: Sensory: 4.2% Physical: 9.4% Mental: 5.8% Self-Care: 3.0% Go-outside home: 5.4% Employment: 7.1% The prevalence of disability for working-age people (ages 21-64) was: 12.6% among Whites 17% among Black/African Americans 6.3% among Asians 22.5% among Native Americans 11.7% among persons of some other race Prevalence of disability increases with age: 14.9 % for persons ages 5+ 6.3% for persons ages 5-15 6.8% for persons ages 16-20 12.8% for persons ages 21-64 29.7% for persons ages 65-74 52% of persons ages 75+
Chapter 16 Review (cont.) Culturally competent practice can be viewed as embracing five dimensions of knowledge of skills. 1. Disabled individuals live in a nondisabled world and usually nondisabled families and communities. 2. Exposing disabled persons to other disabled persons and allies aids social workers in helping disabled people develop alternate attitudes. 3. Language evolution creates conundrums for social workers who strive to use politically correct language relative to disability and other diversities. 4. Assert and demonstrate respect for the disability perceptions of the disabled participants. 5. Social workers need to respect the disability perspectives and identities of participants.
Chapter 16 Review (cont.)Historical Oppression and Current Social Issues Ancient Greeks saw disabled persons as inhuman Within Christian contexts disabilities were seen as a sin, demonic possession, or curse. The Enlightenment Period- The Elizabethan Poor Laws defined disabled persons as “worthy” poor compared to lazy people. Late 1880s-Social Darwinists developed the practice of eugenics that promoted policies like sterilization of undesirables including non-whites and disables people. In late 1960s disability rights movement arose 1990- Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
Chapter 16 Review (cont.)International Disability Rights France Law 75-534 made disability integration a national obligation in 1975 Argentina Passed a disabilities right law in 1981 Chile Passed a disabilities right law in 1994 United Kingdom, Hong Kong, India, Russia, Bolivia Passed a disabilities right law in 1995
Chapter 16 Review (cont.) Three models of disability Moral -Assumes disability is unnatural and out of order with nature Medical -based on reason and rational thought Social/minority -an element of diversity
Teaching About the Population:Project Promotes Understanding of Living With Disabilities Written by Kristen GaydosThis article is about a professor, Dr. AlyshaNordstrom, who created a special program for herstudents called “The Voices Project: Disability.” Thisis the second in a series that “aimed atcomprehending and understanding cultural attitudestoward groups of difference (Gaydos, 2012).”“Nordstrom asked some of her psychology students to interview a cross-section of community members and their families about living with disabilities such as deafness, blindness, dwarfism, spinal cord injury, stroke, stuttering, spina bifida and cerebral palsy (Gaydos, 2012).”Nordstrom believes that many people may feel unsure or they may experience an unneeded discomfort when dealing with people with disabilities.
Teaching About the Population: Project Promotes Understanding of Living With Disabilities Written by Kristen Gaydos (Cont.) The students took what they learned wrote memoirs in the first person to capture how the disability affected that person’s lives. After doing this activity, students felt more knowledgeable. One student, Taylor Burak, replied, “I always knew that people with disabilities had challenging lives, but I didn’t know how challenging…I just felt like I knew her so well after I was done.”
Teaching to the Population The following summarizes an article Disability Awareness in the Classroom, written by Monica J. Foster. As a former student with disabilities, Foster gave some great advice for having students with disabilities feel more comfortable in their classroom. Her tips also would help make fellow students who do not have disabilities feel more at ease by understanding more.
Practical Ideas for Providing AnAppropriate Educational Experience Monica J. Foster wrote Disability Awareness in the Classroom and listed many ways to make a child with disabilities feel more included: Room Placement Rather than cramming and segregating them all in the back, disperse students with disabilities around the classroom as their needs and preferences dictate. Activities and Communication Encourage students to participate Turn in own papers Help teacher pass out papers Be patient for students with speech impediments Don’t finish their sentences Discuss this with other students to help them understand that it is important that each student has a voice Call on them for answers just as often as the rest of the class Peer Buddy Depending on if the student has an aide and/or IEP needs, peer buddies could assist children with a physical disability Help with papers and books Push student in a wheelchair Take turns rotating peer buddies
Practical Ideas for Providing AnAppropriate Educational Experience(cont.)… Education A key to success Talk to students with disabilities about college and career opportunities o Ask what they want to be when they grow up Encourage and challenge them to do their best Suggest books, activities, and more to encourage their growth, development of future goals, and more Startle Reflex “When a student jumps easily at a noise or sudden action (Foster, 2012).” Can be frightening, painful, and unnecessarily embarrassing Prepare a student if you know something sudden will happen Such as a fire drill Prepare other students by asking them not to come up suddenly to the student or too quietly Books on Tape/Book Holders Some children with a physical disability may be unable to hold a book due to strength and tremor issues Things you can try: A book holder Page-turner Books on tape
Practical Ideas for Providing AnAppropriate Educational Experience(cont.)… Computers Encourage students to learn about computers and how to use computers Excellent tool for independence Useful for a career Develops good technical skills Typing aids Screen readers Disability Awareness Teach every student and their families about disabilities Answer questions students have about disability to encourage curiosity and understanding Invite guest speakers who have disabilities Promote: Disability history talks Books about people with disabilities Classroom Activities Pair students with disabilities up with students without disabilities for class projects Each student’s strengths are used Will help the student with the disability showcase their strengths Builds friendships in class
Makes You Think… “…the last 40-45 years have seen a burgeoning disability rights movement and an embracing of disability as an attribute, disability community for support and validation, and a validation, and a disability culture that celebrates disability and the lives of disabled people (Lum, p. 440).” “Capitalist societies place value on people according to their economic output while making it difficult for disabled people to work (Lum, p.451).” “Everyone, with or without a disability, deserves the opportunity to set goals (Foster, 2012).” “The more students know about people with disabilities and their countless abilities, the more accepting they will be with their classmates and peers who have disabilities. And seeing that adults with disabilities can be successful monumentally boosts a student with disabilities’ self esteem (Foster, 2012).” “As a college professor, that was an important thing to address in the classroom, so that student’s don’t graduate and act negatively toward groups they don’t know a lot about (Gaydos, 2012).”
Let’s Discuss… What have you done/would do to make student’s with disabilities feel more comfortable within the classroom? How do you explain to your students without disabilities about students with disabilities?
ReferencesFoster, M. J. (2012,). Disability Awareness in the Classroom. BellaOnline: The Voice of Women Retrieved Apr. 19, 2012, from http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art29483.asp.Gaydos, K.. (2012, Apr. 21). Project promotes understanding of living with disabilities. The Citizens Voice Retrieved Apr. 22, 2012, from http://citizensvoice.com/news/project-promotes- understanding-of-living-with-disabilities- 1.1303141#axzz1tObv3iJI.Lum, D. (2011). Culturally Competent Practice: A Framework for Understanding Diverse Groups and Justice Issues. Belmont, CA: