The Skin That We Speak


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The Skin That We Speak

  1. 1. The Skin That We Speak : Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom Edited By: Lisa Delpit Lauren Cramer, Rhiannon Plock, Ryan Solomon, Danielle Vitta, Briana Walsh Fox News and Black English
  2. 2. The Skin That We Speak <ul><li>Twelve Chapters that tell personal experiences of teachers/professors, linguists and scholars in areas of language, culture and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part One: Language and Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part Two: Language in the Classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part Three: Teacher Knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Trilingualism <ul><li>Chapter 4 : “Trilingualism” (Judith Baker) </li></ul><ul><li>Trilingualism (adj): using or able to use three languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>3 forms of the English language that most Americans need to learn in order to lead socially fulfilling and economically viable lives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Trilingualism <ul><ul><li>“ Home” – English or dialect, which most students learn at home and recent immigrants often learn from peers, and which for the first and second generation immigrants may be a combination of English and their mother tongue. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Trilingualism <ul><li>“ Formal” or academic English, which is learned by many in school, from reading, and from the media, although it may also be learned in well-educated families. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trilingualism <ul><ul><li>“ Professional” – the particular language of one’s profession, which is most likely learned in college or on the job, or in vocational education. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Trilingualism <ul><li>“ I see no reason why students have to be convinced that the way they talk is wrong in order to master formal English grammar and speech.” </li></ul><ul><li>Trilingualism proves that there really is no “wrong” way of talking, it just depends on the setting that you are in and the speech, people that you are with. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Trilingualism <ul><li>“ I speak English with my family, except for my grandparents. With my friends I speak English slang and sometimes Spanish. Sometimes when I speak Spanish I end up finishing my sentences in English because there is words that I don’t know in Spanish.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juanita: Puerto Rican but lived in Boston most of her life. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Trilingualism <ul><li>Learning about the different “types” of standard English students become less afraid of how they speak and they become more conscious of how they are speaking in certain settings </li></ul><ul><li>“ They can weigh their options, choose how they want to speak and write in each new setting.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Code-Switching <ul><li>Code-switching (n): the alternate use of two </li></ul><ul><li>or more languages or varieties of language, esp. within the same discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Standard English” vs. “African American Language” or “African American Vernacular English” (AAVE), “Black English,” “Ebonics” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Code-Switching <ul><li>Chapter 3: “No Kinda Sense” (Lisa Delpit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya: 11 years old, Middle-Class, African American, daughter of a university professor, Standard American English as “first” language but develops AAVE at her new school. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul><ul><li>“ She be all like, ‘What ch’all talkin’ ‘about?’ like she ain’t had no kinda sense.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ M-m-m g-i-r-r-r-l, that sweet potato pie is smokin’! I don’t know how you do it, but that pie is callin’ my name!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mom, you don’t have to worry about me… ‘cause I know how to code switch!” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Code-Switching <ul><li>Why code-switch? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Done to “fit in” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change according to setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School or Work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With Friends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How does one learn to code switch? </li></ul><ul><li>Seen throughout The Skin That We Speak </li></ul>
  13. 13. Code-Switching <ul><li>Chapter 1: “Ovuh Dyuh” (Joanne Kilgour Dowdy) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now my soul could find its way throughout my body, and I could feel at one with my inner reality . No more hesitation of translating Trinidadian to British idiom, no more the self-doubt associated with being perceived as a second language learner . But now, at last, I had the dignity of shaping my world as I saw it and the ability to name the world the world in the way that I experienced it. I now had a choice between the “th”s and the “de”s”. </li></ul>
  14. 14. People Judged Based on Language <ul><li>Linguicism (n): prejudicial stereotyping involved in blaming nonstandard speakers’ oral dialects for their academic failures (P-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Deficit or Difference? (Ch. 8 P-Gates) </li></ul><ul><li>Language and Class Membership (Ch. 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard English used to ward off stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>( Ch. 11 Meacham) </li></ul><ul><li>African American English = Unintelligence (Ch. 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Not just an American issue (Ch. 12 Wynne) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Relating My Personal Experiences to TSTWS <ul><li>LC </li></ul><ul><li>“ Walking to the bus” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Growing up, My mother and grandmother always corrected my grammar” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oreo Cookie” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Talking White, Whatever that is???” </li></ul><ul><li>TSTWS </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts from Dowdy’s mother and grandmother (Ch. 1 Dowdy) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard English = “Talking right” (Ch. 11 Wynne) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard English = Language of Power (Ch. 11) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Feelings of Inferiority <ul><li>Journalism students feel inferior after winning an award (Ch. 12 Wynne) </li></ul><ul><li>African American parents would not speak in front of a group of mainstream parents (Ch. 12 Wynne) </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Can Be Done? <ul><li>Accept, believe and act upon the belief that all children are learners (P-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome different dialects of language in the classroom (P-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from one another, and respect everyone’s language as valid (Wynne) </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that Standard English is a dialect (Wynne) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify thoughts by bringing dialect </li></ul><ul><li>lessons into the classroom (Wynne) </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Lingering Conflict in the Schools: Black Dialect vs. Standard Speech” by Felicia R. Lee (The New York Times) <ul><li>The Inner City Youth’s POV </li></ul><ul><li>There is a stigma with “talking proper” </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance of young </li></ul><ul><li>blacks to assimilate </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes: “Nerds” </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t gain respect by </li></ul><ul><li>peers if they talk proper </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>POV of Inner City Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ constantly correcting students grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ want to prepare their students for the mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>Have to speak well to gain respect </li></ul><ul><li>Young inner city youth need more positive role models (people of color) </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Should Teachers Do? <ul><li>“ A teacher’s job is to provide access to the national ‘standard’ as well as to understand the language the children speak sufficiently to celebrate its beauty.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Lisa Delpit </li></ul>
  20. 20. What Should Teachers Do? <ul><li>Research has shown that the constant interruption and correction of Ebonics-influenced pronunciation and grammar many teachers employ in an effort to help their students become better speakers and readers actually cause students to subvocalize, fidget and guess at pronunciations – all while also making them less confident, and consequently less likely to volunteer in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>So what should teachers do? </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Should Teachers Do? <ul><li>Role-playing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting out instances of formal speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom news broadcasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drama productions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videotaping speeches and self-critiquing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students will learn the usefulness of different language styles in different contexts. </li></ul>Ebonics Informational Video