Unit 4: Human Diversity

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In this chapter we will explore the concepts of social and economic justice and examine the characteristics of social injustice implicit in racism, classism, sexism, and gender orientation. The impact of social injustice is not always the same for people of color, women, or those who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or trans-gender.

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Unit 4: Human Diversity

  1. 1. Chapter 4:Diversity and Social Justice Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  3. 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  4. 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  5. 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  6. 6. Social justiceSocial justice can be defined as full participation ofall groups in a society that is mutually shaped tomeet their needs and ensures that all of itsmembers are psychologically safe and secureEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  7. 7. Prejudice and discrimination• Social inequality – product of prejudice and discrimination• Prejudice – preconceived judgment formed without adequate information• Stereotypes – beliefs that members of certain groups behave in specific ways EP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  8. 8. Prejudice and discrimination• Discrimination – action that maintains and supports prejudice and denies to members of minority groups equal access to opportunities such as education, housing, and employment• Institutional discrimination – occurs as result of accepted beliefs and behaviors and is codified in societal roles and policiesEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  9. 9. Prejudice and discrimination• Oppression – unjust use of power against non- dominant groups by the dominant group to exploit those groups to its advantage• Populations at risk – groups that experience prejudice, discrimination, and oppression from the dominant group EP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  10. 10. Social and economic justice: Women• Women still experience discrimination• Equality for women means equal rights, not more rights than men have• Women not always paid comparable wages in comparison to men EP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  11. 11. Gender and income• Women earn less than men; women of color earn less than Caucasian women• The median weekly earnings ratio between men and women was 79.2% in 2010• Women are more often in lower level positions than men in religion, politics, social workEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  12. 12. Gender issues• Men hold leadership positions in professions that predominantly employ women• Over 80% of all social work practitioners are women• Slightly more than 15% of state governors are women• About 25% of state legislators are womenEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  13. 13. Gender issues (cont’d)• Institutional sexism – negative, differential treatment of individuals because of their gender or sex• Sexual harassment – unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that affect a person’s employment, job performance, or create an intimidating or hostile work environmentEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  14. 14. Issues related to reproductive rights• Some frame issues as conflict between status of human embryo and women’s right to privacy and choice• Other issues include rights of minors, men, and medical determinations such as risk of women’s health, third trimester abortions, and emergency contraceptionEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  15. 15. Issues related to reproductive rights• Social workers have diverse viewpoints on issues related to reproductive rights• Social work profession supports compassion for• clients, client self-determination, and appropriate referrals regardless of personal beliefs, as well as respect for diverse points of viewEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  16. 16. Social reform: the feminist movement• 19th Amendment to Constitution (right to vote) enacted in 1920• Civil Rights Act of 1964• Equal Rights Amendment – passed by Congress in 1972 but not ratified by all states• Both NASW and CSWE support social and economic justice for women in many waysEP 2.1.5b, 2.1.5c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  17. 17. Sexual orientation• The direction of one’s sexual interests toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes• Persons who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, experience prejudice, oppression, and discrimination• Homophobia – negative emotional reaction to homosexuality/persons who are homosexualEP 2.1.5b, 2.1.5c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  18. 18. Sexual orientation (cont’d)• Sodomy laws declared unconstitutional in 2003• Only 27 states have hate crimes legislation that includes sexual orientation• Rights and benefits of same-sex couples hotly debated, progress toward achieving parity with those of heterosexual couples mixed• Gay/lesbian parents experience discriminationEP 2.1.5b, 2.1.5c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  19. 19. Social and economic justice• People at the low end of the economic structure experience class-based discrimination regardless of ethnicity• Classism – discrimination toward members of a group because of their economic status• Women and people of color more likely to be poor because of oppressionEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  20. 20. Social and economic justice (cont’d)• Underclass – oppressed people unable to escape poverty due to societal barriers• Underclass will increase without access to higher education and training in technology• Increase in underclass impacts us allEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  21. 21. Race and ethnicity• Persons singled out because of physical or cultural traits experience discrimination• It is expected that people will adopt values and behaviors of dominant group• Cultural pluralism - coexistence of various groups whose cultural differences are respected as equally validEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  22. 22. Race and Ethnicity (cont’d)• Those who discriminate are members of groups that were discriminated against at some point historically; i.e., early immigrants to U.S.• Important to be aware that in spite of common history and oppression experienced by a specific group, there is still rich diversity within that groupEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  23. 23. African Americans• Approximately 12% of U.S. population• Majority live in southern states• About 50% live in inner-cities• Experience differential treatment• Income about two-thirds that of whites• Three times more likely to be unemployed and live in poverty than whitesEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  24. 24. African Americans (cont’d)• Under-represented in medicine, business, law• Over-represented in manual labor jobs• Less likely to finish high school or go to college than whitesEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  25. 25. Latinos• About 15% of U.S. population• Expected to comprise 25% of U.S. population by 2050• Largest sub-group is Mexican Americans• Growing number of new immigrants from South and Central America becoming the new poor, work in lowest-wage jobsEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  26. 26. Latinos (cont’d)• Undocumented immigrants at risk of exploitation• Language barriers result in discrimination, controversies over bilingual education• Issue for many Latinos is retaining language as part of culture• Earn less than their white counterparts• Less likely to finish high school, go to college than whitesEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  27. 27. Asians and Pacific Islanders• Includes Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Thais, Malaysians, Pakistanis, Filipinos, Cambodians, Indians, Vietnamese, and Pacific Islanders• Less than 5% of the U.S. population• Chinese largest sub-group, followed by Filipinos and Asian IndiansEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  28. 28. Asians and Pacific Islanders• Many groups preserve heritage by living in enclaves in urban areas (e.g., “China town”)• In spite of efforts to assimilate, still experience much discrimination• Language barrier results in discrimination• Many groups live in poverty in substandard conditionsEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  29. 29. Native Americans• Less than 0.5% of U.S. population• Have experienced considerable oppression since early immigrants first came to U.S.• Diverse group - 75% report being members of one of the approximately 300 tribes in the U.S.• Many live in poverty conditions on reservations in rural areas; others in urban areasEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  30. 30. Native Americans (cont’d)• Few opportunities for minimum wage employment, though some tribes have strong economic development programs• Lowest level of education for any group• Only 20% have high school degreesEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  31. 31. Efforts to produce social justice for populations at risk • Integration of military in 1948 • School desegregation in 1950s, busing in 1970s and 1980s • Civil Rights Act and Economic Opportunity Act passed in 1964 • Affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, compensatory justiceEP 2.1.5b, 2.1.5c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  32. 32. Uneven progress• Polarization on issues such as affirmative action and compensatory justice• U.S. Supreme Court ruling on college admissions• Continued racial profiling by law enforcement• Welfare reform exemplifies ambivalence toward how much effort should be given to improving opportunity structure for oppressed groupsEP 2.1.2a, 2.1.4a, 2.1.5a Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  33. 33. Social work and civil rights• social work profession is committed to social justice - achieving a society in which all members have access to the same rights and privileges without regard to gender, race, ethnic affiliation, creed, age, sexual orientation, or physical and mental capacitiesEP 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  34. 34. Social work and civil rights (cont’d)• NASW, CSWE give high priority to inclusion in both education and practice• Focus on strengths of individuals and groups to which they belong as well as impact of discrimination and oppression on clients and client systems• Emphasize advocacy for and empowerment of at-risk populationsEP 2.1.4c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .

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