• Motivation is the inner state causing an
individual to behave in a way that ensures
accomplishment of some goal.
• When managers understand what motivates
different individuals, they can better influence
their employees to accomplish organizational
• Motivation explains why people behave the
way they do.
• Motivation depends on how much we want
something and how likely we are to get it.
• Assumes that:
– Behavior is determined by a combination of personal
and environmental forces.
– People make decisions about their own behavior in
– Different people have different types of needs,
desires, and goals.
– People choose among alternatives of behaviors in
selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome.
Introduction to Porter and Lawler
• Porter and Lawler used Victor Vroom’s
expectancy theory as a foundation to develop
their expectancy model. Similar to Vroom’s
theory, Porter and Lawler concluded that an
individual’s motivation to complete a task is
affected by the reward they expect to receive
for completing the task. However Porter and
Lawler introduced additional aspects to the
The Porter-Lawler Model
The model predicts that satisfaction is
determined by the perceived equity of
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for
Relevance of Porter and Lawler Model
The Porter-Lawler theory is a more complete
theory because it stresses:
(1) intrinsic and extrinsic rewards,
(2) task requirements and ability, and
(3) the perceived fairness of rewards.