• It is a unit of information that represents
• There are five types of accounts: Asset,
Liability, Equity, Revenue and Expense.
• It is concerned with the use of which the
records are put, their analysis and
• It is the process of recording business
activities that make changes to accounts.
• Sales of products, Revenue from services
earned, Buying products and/or services and
Attributes of Accounting
• It is the art of recording business transactions.
• It is the art of classifying business
• The transactions or events of a business must
be recorded in monetary terms.
• It is the art of summarizing financial
• The results should be communicated to users.
Systematic record of business transactions.
Protecting the property of business.
Communicating results to users.
Compliance with legal requirements.
Users of Accounting Information
Research Scholars / Agencies
Replacement of Memory
Evidence in court
Sale of business
Assistance to the insolvent
For various parties
Records only monetary transactions
Effect of price level changes not considered
No realistic information
Personal bias of accountant affects the
• Permits alternative treatments (LIFO, FIFO)
• No real test for managerial performance
• Historical in nature
• Business: An organization created with the objective of
making a profit from the sale of goods or services.
• Book keeping: The act of systematically recording the
financial transactions affecting a business.
• Book Value: The net amount (original value plus or minus
any adjustments such as depreciation) showed in the
accounts for an asset, liability, or owners' equity item.
• Calendar Year: An entity's reporting year, covering 12
• Transactions: Exchange of goods or services between
businesses or individuals. Can also be other events having
an economic impact on a business.
• Journal: A book or original entry in a double-entry
bookkeeping system. The journal lists all transactions and
indicates the accounts to which they are posted.
• Journal Entry: A recording of a transaction where debits
• Ledger: A summary statement of all the transactions
relating to a person, asset, expense or income which have
taken place during a given period of time and show their
• Trial Balance: A listing of all account balances that provides
a test of whether total debits equals total credits.
• Revenues: Increases in a company's resources from the
sale of goods or services.
• Balance sheet: A balance sheet is an itemized
statement which lists the total assets and the total
liabilities of a given business to show its net worth at a
given moment in time (like a snapshot).
• Capital: Property or money used and owned by a
business and used to acquire future income or
• Debtor: A debtor is a person who owes money. The
amount due from his is called debt.
• Creditor: A person to whom money is owing or
payable is called a creditor.
• Credit: An entry on the right side of a ledger account.
• Goods: This includes all articles, commodities or
merchandise in which the business deals. Thus, cloth
would be goods for a dealer in cloth; furniture would be
goods for a dealer in furniture and so on.
• Assets: Economic resources owned or controlled by a
person or company.
• Net Assets: The difference between assets and liabilities.
• Liquidity: The availability of cash or ability to obtain it
quickly. Also used to determine debt repayment ability.
• Goodwill: An intangible asset that exists when a business is
valued at more than the fair market value of its net assets.
• Interest: The cost of the use of money.
• Current Assets: Current assets are those assets of a company that
are expected to be converted to cash, sold, or consumed during
the normal operating cycle of the business (usually one year).
Examples are cash, accounts receivable, short-term investments,
US government bonds, inventories, and prepaid expenses.
• Current Liabilities: Liabilities to be paid within one year of the
balance sheet date.
• Drawings: Any amount or goods withdrawn by the owner of a
business for personal use is called drawings.
• Bad Debt: An uncollectible Account Receivable.
• Loss: A loss is expenditure without any benefit to the concern. On
the other hand, expense is incurred to result in some benefit.
Thus, amount spent on lighting is an expense but loss due to fire is
• Income: It is an inflow of assets which results in an increase in the
• Expenditure: Expenditure takes place when an asset or service is
acquired. Expenditure will include both payment of a sum
immediately and a promise to pay it at a future date.
• Expense: An expenditure whose benefit is finished or enjoyed
immediately such as salaries, rent, etc.
• Turnover: It means total trading income from cash sales and credit
• Net worth: It means assets minus outside liabilities. Profits of a
business increase net worth whereas losses reduce the net worth
of a business.
• GAAP - Refer to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.
Basis of Accounting
• Cash basis
– Actual cash receipts and payments
– Credit transactions are not recorded.
Basis of Accounting
• Accrual basis
– The income whether received or not but has been
earned or accrued during the period forms part of
the total income of the period.
– The firm has taken benefit of a particular service,
but has not paid within that period, the expenses
will relates to the period in which the service has
been utilized and not to the period in which
payment for it is made.
Basis of Accounting
• Mixed basis
– Combination of cash and accrual basis.
System of Accounting
• Single Entry System: This system has no
complete record of business transactions
done during a specified period.
• Double Entry System: One account is given
debit while the other account is given credit
with an equal amount.
Classification of Accounts
Types of Accounts
• Natural Person’s Personal Account: An account recording
transactions with an individual human being is known as a
natural person’s Personal Account. (eg. Krishna account)
• Artificial Person’s Personal Account: An account recording
financial transactions with an artificial person created by
law or otherwise is called an artificial person’s personal
account. (eg. VSL College)
• Representative Person’s Personal Account: An account
indirectly representing a person or persons is known as a
representative account. (eg. Salaries account)
• Tangible Real Account: An asset which can be touched,
seen, and measured. (eg. Machinery Account)
• Intangible Real Account: An asset which can’t be touched
physically but can be measured in value. (eg. Goodwill)
Rules of Double Entry System
Debit the receiver
Credit the giver
Debit what comes in
Credit what goes out
Debit all expenses and losses
Credit all incomes and gains
Recording monetary transactions in a systematic manner
Trading and Profit & Loss Account
Business entity concept: The Business is distinct from the
persons who own it.
Going concern concept: It assumes that the business will
continue for a long time.
Cost concept: All the transactions will be recorded at cost in the
books. It means deducted depreciation from the assets yearly.
Dual aspect concept: Each transaction is twofold affect.
Money measurement concept: The transactions should be
recorded in monetary aspect only. We should not record the
transaction in kilograms, quintals, meters, liters, etc.
Accounting period concept: Measuring the profit, incomes or
expenses of the period only are to be considered. Usually the
period is one year (12 months).
Realization concept: If the revenue is recognized too early or too
late, the company would not project the right financial position. It
would look more profitable or less profitable than what it actually
Matching concept: Expenses incurred for a period are matched
with the revenues for the same period to arrive as a reasonably
correct measurement of the net income or the net loss. The
difference between revenues and expenses is a measure of how
effectively management has utilized the firm’s resources.
Objective evidence concept: All accounting transactions should be
evidenced and supported by object documents.
Convention of disclosure: Accounts should be prepared
in such a way that all material information is clearly
disclosed to the users.
Convention of consistency: An accounting method or
procedure once chosen should be followed consistently
from year to year.
Convention of conservatism: Any business while
recording the transactions should ‘anticipate no profits
but provide for all possible losses’.
Convention of materiality: Only those events should be
recorded which have a significant bearing and
insignificant things should be ignored. There is no
formula for identifying material and immaterial events.
It depends on the accountant discretion.
• Cash Memo: When goods are sold or purchased for
cash, the firm receives or gives cash memos which
provide details regarding cash transactions.
• Invoice or Bill: This document is prepared when goods
are sold or purchased on credit.
• Receipt: When a firm receives cash from customers it
issues a receipt which is a proof for receiving cash.
• Pay in Slip: This is a form available from a bank for
depositing cash or cheque in a bank account.
• Cheque: It is a document in writing drawn upon a
specified banker and payable on demand.
• Debit Notes: For the party from whom the
money is recoverable this document becomes
• Credit Note: For the party who is to recover the
amount the document becomes credit note.
When goods returned from the customer, a
proper credit note should be sent to him.
• The word journal is derived from the Latin
word ‘Journ’ which means a day.
• Journal means a day book where in day-to-day
business transactions are recorded in a
• The process of recording a transaction in the
journal is called Journalisation.
• The entries made in the book are called
Proforma of Journal
Name of the a/c Dr.
To Name of the a/c
L.F. Dr. ()
Items in Journal
• Date: The first column deals with the date of transaction.
• Particulars: In the first line write about debit aspect and
in the second line write about credit aspect. In the third
line write regarding brief explanation of the entry
• Ledger Folio (L.F.): It denotes page number on which its
journal entry is found.
• Debit: Fourth column deals with the amount to be
• Credit: Fifth column deals with the amount to be
Points to be noted before journalising
• Compound journal entry
• Cash or credit transaction
• Cash discount
• Trade discount
• Purchase of shares: When shares or securities are
purchased, the entry is made at market value and not at
face value. Brokerage paid on the purchase of such
investment is also added in the amount of investment.
• Sale of shares: If shares or securities are sold, the entry
should be passed at market value less brokerage, if any,
paid on such shares.
Points to be noted before journalising
• Expenses incidental to the purchase of Fixed
• Insurance of Life Policy (Debited to Drawings a/c)
• Goods given as charity
• Goods distributed as free samples
• Loss of stock by Fire
• Interest due on Loans
credited to loan account)
(debited to interest account and
Advantages of Journal
• It provides a chronological (date wise) order of all
transactions and hence provides permanent
• It provides the information of debit and credit in
an entry and an explanation to make it
• It reduces the possibility of error as both aspects
of a business transaction are written side by side.
• It is a book which contains various accounts. It is
in ‘T’ form.
• It is a summary statement of all the transactions
relating to a person, asset, expense or income
which have taken place during a given period of
time and shows their net effect.
• It is designed to accommodate the various
accounts maintained by a trader.
• The process of transferring the entries from the
journal into the ledger is called posting.
Proforma of Ledger
To Name of
L.F. Amount () Date
By Name of
L.F. Amount ()
Posting of ledger
• For each item a separate new account is to be
• For each account there must be a name. This
should be written on the top of the account in
• The debit side of the journal entry is posted to
the debit side of the account by starting with To.
• The credit side of the journal entry is posted on
the credit side of the account by starting with
• A list of balances of the ledger accounts at a point of
time is called trail balance.
• The balances of all the ledger accounts are extracted
and are written up in a statement known as Trial
Balance and finally totaled up to see if the total of
debit balances is equal to the total of credit balances.
• It is a list of ledger account titles and their respective
• As per double entry system, every debit equals to
corresponding equal credit. To prove this, statements
of debits and credits will be prepared by accountant.
This statement is called trail balance.
Proforma of Trial balance
Name of the Account
• Omission of any entry in a subsidiary book.
• A wrong entry in a subsidiary book.
• Posting an item to the correct side but in the
wrong account. Purchase from X and credited to
• Compensating errors.
• Errors of principles. These errors will not affect
the agreement of the Trial Balance as they arise
from the debiting or crediting of wrong heads of
Disagreement of the Trial Balance
• An item omitted to be posted from a subsidiary book into the
• Posting of wrong amount to a ledger account.
• Posting an amount to the wrong side of the ledger account.
• Wrong additions or balancing of ledger accounts.
• Wrong totaling of subsidiary books.
• An item in the subsidiary book posted twice to a ledger account.
• Balance of some accounts written to the wrong side of the Trial
• An error in totaling the trial balance.
• Cash book to record cash receipts and payments.
• Simple Cash Book: It makes a record of all the receipts
and payments of cash. All cash received in the form of
coin, notes, cheques, postal orders, bank drafts or
treasury notes will be recorded on the debit side and
payments on the credit side.
• Cash Book with Discount Column
• Cash Book with Discount and Bank Column (Three
column cash book)
• Purchases book is for recording all credit purchases of goods.
• Sales book is for recording all goods sold on credit.
• Purchases returns book (returns outwards book) for recording
all purchases returned to creditors.
• Sales returns book (returns inwards book) for recording all
sales retuned by customers.
• Bills Receivable Book to keep a record of bills received from
• Bills Payable Book to keep a record of bills payable to
• Journal proper to keep a record of those transactions for
which there is no separate book.