Definition of a ‘BANKER’
• The Banking Regulations Act (B R Act) 1949 does
not define the term ‘banker’ but defines what
• As per Sec.5 (b) of the B R Act “Banking' means
accepting, for the purpose of lending or
investment, of deposits of money from the public
repayable on demand or otherwise and
withdrawable by cheque, draft, order or
Who is a ‘Customer’?
• The term Customer has not been defined by any
• The word ‘customer’ has been derived from the
word ‘custom’, which means a ‘habit or tendency’
to-do certain things in a regular or a particular
• The term 'customer' is used only with respect to
the branch, where the account is maintained. He
cannot be treated as a ‘customer' for other
branches of the same bank.
Bank customers can be categorized in
to four broad categories
• Those who maintain account relationship with banks
i.e. Existing customers.
• Those who had account relationship with bank i.e.
• Those who do not maintain any account relationship
with the bank but frequently visit branch of a bank for
availing banking facilities such as for purchasing a
draft, en-cashing a cheque, etc. Technically they are not
customers, as they do not maintain any account with
the bank branch.
• Prospective/ Potential customers
Banker and a Customer Relationship
• The relationship between a banker and a
customer depends on the type of transaction.
• These relationships confer certain rights and
obligations both on the part of the banker and
on the customer.
Classification of Relationship
• General Relationship
• Special Relationship
• Bank as a Trustee
– As per Sec. 3 of Indian Trust Act, 1882: A "trust" is
an obligation annexed to the ownership of
property, and arising out of a confidence reposed
in and accepted by the owner, or declared and
accepted by him, for the benefit of another, or of
another and the owner.’
– Thus trustee is the holder of property on behalf of
• Bailee – Bailor
– Sec.148 of Indian Contract Act, 1872: A "bailment" is the
delivery of goods by one person to another for some
purpose, upon a contract that they shall, when the
purpose is accomplished, be returned or otherwise
disposed of according to the directions of the person
– The person delivering the goods is called the "bailor".
– The person to whom they are delivered is called, the
– Banks secure their advances by obtaining tangible
securities. In some cases physical possession of securities
goods (Pledge), valuables, bonds etc., are taken.
• Lessor and Lessee
– Sec.105 of Transfer of property Act 1882: A lease
of immovable property is a transfer of a right to
enjoy such property, made for a certain
time, express or implied, or in perpetuity, in
consideration of a price paid or promised, or of
money, a share of crops, service or any other thing
of value, to be rendered periodically or on
specified occasions to the transferor by the
transferee, who accepts the transfer on such
– Safe deposit lockers
• Agent and Principal
– Sec.182 of ‘The Indian Contract Act, 1872’ defines
“an agent” as a person employed to do any act for
another or to represent another in dealings with
– The person for whom such act is done or who is so
represented is called “the Principal”.
– Banks collect cheques, bills, and makes payment
to various authorities viz., rent, telephone
bills, insurance premium etc., on behalf of
• As a Custodian
– A custodian is a person who acts as a caretaker of
– Banks take legal responsibility for a customer’s
– While opening a Dmat account bank becomes a
• As a Guarantor
– Banks give guarantee on behalf of their customers
and enter in to their shoes.
– Guarantee is a contingent (conditional) contract.
– As per sec 31, of Indian contract Act, guarantee is
a “contingent contract ."
Termination of relationship between
a banker and a customer
• The death, insolvency, lunacy of the customer.
• The customer closing the account i.e.
• Liquidation of the company.
• The closing of the account by the bank after
giving due notice.
• The completion of the contract or the specific
Duties of a banker
Duty to maintain secrecy/confidentiality of customers' accounts.
Duty to honour cheques drawn by customers on their accounts
and collect cheque, bills on his behalf.
Duty to pay bills etc., as per standing instructions of the customer.
Duty to provide proper services.
Duty to act as per the directions given by the customer. If
directions are not given the banker has to act according to how he
is expected to act.
Duty to submit periodical statements i.e. informing customers of
the state of the account
Articles/items kept should not be released to a third party without
due authorization by the customer
Types of Bank Accounts in India
Current deposits / accounts
Saving bank / saving fund deposits / accounts
Recurring deposits / accounts
Fixed deposits / accounts or term deposits
Types of Bank Accounts in India
• Traditionally banks in India have four types of deposit
accounts, namely Current Accounts, Saving Banking
Accounts, Recurring Deposits and, Fixed Deposits.
• However, in recent years, due to ever increasing
competition, some banks have introduced new products,
which combine the features of above two or more types of
• These are known by different names in different banks, e.g
2-in-1 deposits, Smart Deposits, Power Saving Deposits,
Automatic Sweep Deposits etc.
• However, these have not been very popular among the
(Who uses current accounts?)
• Current Accounts are basically meant for businessmen and are never used
for the purpose of investment or savings.
• These deposits are the most liquid deposits and there are no limits for
number of transactions or the amount of transactions in a day.
• Most of the current account are opened in the names of firm / company
• Cheque book facility is provided and the account holder can deposit all
types of the cheques and drafts in their name or endorsed in their favour
by third parties.
• No interest is paid by banks on these accounts.
• On the other hand, banks charges certain
service charges, on such
Savings Bank Account
(Who uses Saving Bank Accounts?)
• These deposits accounts are for individual accounts.
• These accounts not only provide cheque facility but also have lot of
flexibility for deposits and withdrawal of funds from the account.
• Most of the banks have rules for the maximum number of withdrawals in
a period and the maximum amount of withdrawal, but hardly any bank
• However, banks have every right to enforce such restrictions if it is felt that
the account is being misused as a current account.
• Till 24/10/2011, the interest on Saving Bank Accounts was regulared by
RBI and it was fixed at 4.00% on daily balance basis.
• However, wef 25th October, 2011, RBI has deregulated Saving Fund
account interest rates and now banks are free to decide the same within
certain conditions imposed by RBI.
Savings Bank Account
(Who uses Saving Bank Accounts?)
• Under directions of RBI, now banks are also required to
open no frill accounts (this term is used for accounts
which do not have any minimum balance
• Although Public Sector Banks still pay only 4% rate of
interest, some private banks like Kotak Bank and Yes
Bank pay between 6% and 7% on such deposits.
• From the FY 2012-13, interest earned upto Rs 10,000 in
a financial year on Saving Bank accounts is exempted
Fixed Deposit Accounts or Term Deposits
• All Banks offer fixed deposits schemes with a wide
range of tenures for periods from 7 days to 10 years.
• In case of need, the depositor can ask for closing (or
breaking) the fixed deposit prematurely by paying a
penalty (usually of 1%, but some banks either charge
less or no penalty).
• Variable interest fixed deposits, the rate of interest on
such deposits keeps on varying with the prevalent
market rates i.e. it will go up if market interest rates
goes and it will come down if the market rates fall.
Recurring Deposit Accounts
(Who use Recurring Deposit Accounts?)
• Suitable for people who do not have lump sum amount of
savings, but are ready to save a small amount every month.
• Normally, such deposits earn interest on the amount already
deposited (through monthly installments) at the same rates as are
applicable for Fixed Deposits / Term Deposits.
• Some Banks besides offering a fixed installment RD, have also
introduced a flexible / variable RD.
• Under these flexible RDs the person is allowed to deposit even
higher amount of installments, with an upper limit fixed for the
same e.g. 10 times of the minimum amount agreed upon.
• Recurring Deposit accounts are normally allowed for maturities
ranging from 6 months to 120 months.
• Deposit accounts can be opened by an
individual in his own name (status : known as
account in single name) or by more than one
individual in their own names (status: known
as Joint Account).
• Minor accounts can be opened under the
guardianship of mother/father/legal guardian.
• No loan be allowed even against sufficient security.
• Under NIA can bind all other except for himself.
• Minor can be admitted only to the benefits of a
• Minor can be appointed as an agent but shall not be
personally responsible to his principal who shall be
responsible for the acts of the minor agent.
• Savings Bank Account can also be opened by a
minor jointly with natural guardian or with
mother as the guardian (Status: known as
• Minors above the age of 10 will also be
allowed to open and operate saving bank
• Max no of partners 20 (10 in banking)
• Registration is not mandatory, but only
registered firms can file suits to enforce a
• Minor can be admitted only to the benefits.
• A partner can bind the firm by doing usual
business on behalf of the firm.
• A partnership is not treated as a separate
entity from the partners.
• Death of a partner/admission of a partner
dissolves the partnership firm.
Joint Stock Companies
• Private Limited Companies
– Min. 2 and Max. 50 shareholders.
– Directors; min.2 and Max. 7
– Name must end with “Private Limited”
• Public Limited Companies
– Min. Directors – 3; Shareholders: Min-7 and Max – No
– Name must end with “Limited”
• Government Companies
– 51% or more share held by the Govt.
Documents required for
opening an account
• Memorandum of association
• Articles of association
• Certificate of incorporation
• Certificate of commencement of business
• Accounts which are not operated for a
considerable period of time will be transferred to
a separate dormant / inoperative account status
in the interest of the depositor as well as the
• The depositor will be informed of charges, if
any, which the Bank will levy on dormant /
• The depositor can request the Bank to activate
the account for operating it.
‘Know Your Customer’
As per ‘Know Your Customer’ guidelines issued by Reserve Bank of
India, customer has been defined as:
A person or entity that maintains an account and/or has a
business relationship with the bank;
One on whose behalf the account is maintained (i.e. the beneficial
Beneficiaries of transactions conducted by professional
Accountants, Solicitors etc. as permitted under the law, and
Any person or entity connected with a financial transaction, which
can pose significant reputational or other risks to the bank, say, a
wire transfer or issue of a high value demand draft as a single
• It is the process of concealing the source of
large amounts of money that have been
gained through illegitimate means.
• Money evidently gained through crime is
"dirty" money, and money that has been
"laundered" to appear as if it came from a
legitimate source is "clean" money.
• Money can be laundered by many
methods, which vary in complexity and
Customer Acceptance Policy (CAP)
• Every bank should develop a clear Customer
Acceptance Policy laying down explicit criteria for
acceptance of customers.
– No account is opened in anonymous or fictitious /
– The customers are categorized as per their risk
perception based on their profile
– Documentation requirements and other information
to be collected in respect of different categories of
customers depending on perceived risk
Customer Acceptance Policy (CAP)
• Not to open an account or close an existing account where the bank is
unable to apply appropriate customer due diligence measures.
• Circumstances, in which a customer is permitted to act on behalf of
another person/entity, should be clearly spelt out in conformity with the
established law and practice of banking as there could be occasions when
an account is operated by a mandate holder or where an account is
opened by an intermediary in fiduciary capacity.
• Necessary checks before opening a new account so as to ensure that the
identity of the customer does not match with any person with known
criminal background or with banned entities such as individual terrorists
or terrorist organisations etc.
What is Customer Due Diligence?
• Customer Due Diligence (CDD) can be defined
as any measure undertaken by a financial
institution to collect and verify information
and positively establish the identity of a
When should a bank apply CDD?
• establishes a business relationship;
• carries out an occasional transaction;
• suspects money laundering or terrorist
• doubts the reality of documents, data or
information previously obtained for the
purpose of identification or verification