Green Energy for the Poor in Rural Mexico and Southeast Asia.


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Case study on USAID projects that EFI has developed successfully delivering biogas to communities to power their homes and cook using biogas as opposed to wood or to live in the dark.

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  • Should also use flexible piping at the effluent
  • Add cook stove
  • Green Energy for the Poor in Rural Mexico and Southeast Asia.

    1. 1. Animal Waste Biogas for Rural Communities in Developing Nations. Case Study presented by: Ricardo Hamdan and Andy Spicer, PhD.1
    2. 2. Project Background • Environmental Fabrics was first invited in the summer of 2009 by the Methane to Markets initiative with the Environmental Protection Agency. • In coordination with TetraTech International we established parameters to install this technology in rural areas in Mexico and Southeast Asia. • The project has been a huge success in rural development and increasing people’s quality of life.2
    3. 3. Social Drivers for the Project • This is the perfect project to improve the conditions of the poorest people in rural areas. • Most of the people in rural communities use wood and kerosene as their source of fuel and energy causing health problems and deaths every year. • This minor investment increases the quality of life of the poorest citizens and it is a lesser investment than taking care of health issues in the long term.3
    4. 4. Digester Benefits HEALTH BENEFITS • Digesters kill pathogens such as Salmonella and several enteroviruses in a retention time of 20-30 days. • The avoidance of Kerosene and Wood as a fuel eliminates respiratory and blood pollution.4
    5. 5. Digester Benefits ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS • Because of the small size of the digester we do not need a very big footprint. Not disturbing the normal environment. • The fertilizer capabilities of effluent can help crop growing. • Reduction of flies, rodents and other plagues has been observed. • Odor is reduced if not eliminated.5
    6. 6. Digester Benefits ECONOMICAL BENEFITS • Cheap alternative to a waste management problem. • Brings electricity and basic cooking needs to the rural communities. • Reduces the government investment in critical healthcare expenses, reducing rural mortality.6
    7. 7. Sample Projects Size Biogas TCO2e/ Energy Energy kW/ EffulentName Type Animals Size (m3) (gal) m3 yr BTU BTU/yr kWh yr Cost Use UseFarm 1 Swine 15-25 Sows 12 2 7.7 42360 1 4531 $ 5,200 Fertilizer Heat Pigs 3,170 15,461,350 Water HeatersFarm 2 Swine 6-10 Finishers 5 1 3.8 21180 0 2266 $ 3,000 Fertilizer 1,321 7,730,675 and Cooking © 2009 Methane to Markets, Environmental Protection Agency, Tetratech Inc and Environmental Fabrics Inc. All rights reserved. 7
    8. 8. Completed Household System Biogas storage Pig Future storage lagoon Pens of the effluent Digester Biogas storage8 Construction
    9. 9. Digester Installation9 Construction
    10. 10. Entrance of the Digester • The digester can also be hand fed. Below: pouring a bucket of manure in a funnel on the inlet pipe10 Construction
    11. 11. Effluent Pipe Installation • Pictures show PVC pipes • However, the effluent pipes should also be replaced by flexible piping to accommodate the movements of the digester. • Effluent lagoon is used to store the effluent for irrigation etc. Bag Towards Effluent Lagoon Exit of the digester11 Construction
    12. 12. Sludge Removal Pipes • “Y-shaped” pipes at the entrance and the exit of the digester to remove the settled solids from the bottom of the digesterEntrance ofthe digester Exit of the digester12 Construction
    13. 13. Installation of the Biogas Storage Bag •Polypropylene bag 4m x 1.4m ~ 5m3 •Attached to the roof or frame with thick thread13 Construction
    14. 14. Pressure Relief Device • Objective: avoid rupture of the digester due to high biogas pressure • Can also serve as moisture trap T-shape pipe Biogas submerged in water pipe Plastic bottle14 Construction
    15. 15. Practical USES of Biogas • Communal system • Heating (hot water, heat mat, heat lamps) • Cooking • Lighting15
    16. 16. Communal Digester N. Vietnam  Social structure allows for communal development, operation, and management of covered lagoon  200 families and 1,500 pigs  Village waste canal to be constructed  Designed for rainfall exclusion  Gas purchased and used as cook fuel for families Village Waste Canal System Bank-to-bank covered lagoon type Effluent integrated into fish pond16 Biogas Uses
    17. 17. Heating – Hot Water • Heating system to warm piglets Hot water circulating in pipes Cold water Hot water Biogas inlet17 Biogas Uses
    18. 18. Heating – Heat Mats • Heat mats to warm piglets18 Biogas Uses
    19. 19. Heating – Heat Lamps • Biogas heat lamps to warm piglets19 Biogas Uses
    20. 20. Cooking • Cooking energy accounts for about 90 % of all household energy consumption in developing countries. • Advantage of biogas for cooking: Biogas burns very cleanly, and produces less pollutants during cooking than any other fuel except electricity A biogas cooking stove (Photo credit: Grameen Shakti)Cooking using biogas in a home in the village of Chauhanas Vas, near Ranthambhore. (Photo credit: Martin Wright).20 Biogas Uses
    21. 21. Biogas Burners • Tarlac HBS Project, Philippines,  Burner specifically designed for biogas/methane21 Biogas Uses
    22. 22. Hot Water Boilers22 Biogas Uses
    23. 23. Lighting23 Biogas Uses
    24. 24. Feasibility of the Project. • The main issue to discuss here is if the project can make money. • Currently the distribution is done via cooperatives that currently sell items to BoP final customers. A tire tube is distributed home by home for a price. The collection happens just like with any other good managed by the co-op. • Who do we cater our business model to? The end customer? The co-ops? Or Governments? Can this model work without government intervention?24
    25. 25. Key Issues to Consider • Creation of the Market. Are the health costs far superior than the cost of the digester systems? How much are people willing to pay for energy as opposed to the current practices? Are there any barriers to the spread of this technology? • Distribution and Collection of Revenue. Should co- ops manage the systems. Is this prone to any corruption? How would you charge the co-op? How can you get all parties involved?25
    26. 26. Key Issues to Consider • Competition. How do you create brand loyalty? Is exclusivity an affordable venue? Or should we franchise the digesters? • Opportunity Cost. Is this a profitable business opportunity? How is the relationship time invested vs potential profit? • Entrepreneurship. Is there room for entrepreneurship or should this be primarily a “pet project” for a multinational/governments?26
    27. 27. References and Credits Video of bag digester construction: Bag Digester construction manuals: • e/biodig/manual.htm#Preparing%20the%20plastic%20tube • •
    28. 28. References and Credits (cont’d) • Fulford, D., 1996. Biogas Stove Design, A Short Course, • Pictures and techincal data provided by: – TetraTech International – Environmental Fabrics Inc. – Global Methane Initiative – Environmental Protection Agency28