Ecological succession (1)

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Ecological succession (1)

  1. 1. Changes in Ecosystems: Ecological Succession
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time </li></ul>
  3. 3. Primary Succession <ul><li>Begins in a place without any soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sides of volcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Called PIONEER SPECIES </li></ul>
  4. 4. http://botit.botany.wisc.edu http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/
  5. 5. Primary Succession <ul><li>Soil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>When lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil </li></ul>
  6. 6. http://www.life.uiuc.edu
  7. 7. Primary Succession <ul><li>Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil </li></ul>http://uisstc.georgetown.edu http://www.uncw.edu
  8. 8. Primary Succession <ul><li>The simple plants die, adding more organic material </li></ul><ul><li>The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over </li></ul>http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu
  9. 9. Primary Succession <ul><li>These plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs and tress can survive now </li></ul>http://www.rowan.edu
  10. 10. Primary Succession <ul><li>Insects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move in </li></ul><ul><li>What was once bare rock now supports a variety of life </li></ul>http://p2-raw.greenpeace.org
  11. 11. Secondary Succession <ul><li>Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession </li></ul><ul><li>Example: after forest fires </li></ul>
  12. 12. http://www.geo.arizona.edu
  13. 13. http://www.ux1.eiu.edu
  14. 14. http://www.agen.ufl.edu
  15. 15. Climax Community <ul><li>A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process </li></ul><ul><li>Does not always mean big trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses in prairies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cacti in deserts </li></ul></ul>

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