Ch 5 biogeography


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Ch 5 biogeography

  1. 1. Biogeography: Distribution of Plants and Animals Chapter Five
  2. 3. California: Living Laboratory <ul><li>Enormous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we start? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we organize our study? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we classify the various environments? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debates revolve around the diversity, connections, and change. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. California: Living Laboratory <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range of latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position within subtropical and mid-latitude west coast </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Biomes <ul><li>Large regional ecological units, or subdivisions of plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomes are the largest recognizable terrestrial ecosystems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomes serve as a starting point in the study of California Biogeography. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Ecosystems <ul><li>Represents a group of interacting organism and the physical environment in which they live. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides only the most general categories and associations of California’s plants and animals. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9.
  7. 11. Habitats <ul><li>Knowledge of habitats is critical to understanding California’s biogeography. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats include a combination of physical factors that represent the environmental conditions in which organisms live. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 13. California Biomes <ul><li>Forest Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Scrub Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Desert Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra Biome </li></ul>
  9. 14. Forest Biome <ul><li>The most productive biome, with the largest biomass (total weight of organisms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur where there is water and temperatures are not too extreme. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Forest Biome <ul><li>Temperate coniferous forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needle leaved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperate deciduous forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad leaved often found mixed with coniferous forests in California </li></ul></ul>
  11. 18. Scrub Biome <ul><li>Includes environments from coastal scrub to chaparral and even into oak woodlands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some consider this another biome, a dwarf schlerophyll forest (dry Mediterranean Forest). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The oaks might be considered park of the savannah biome (grassland) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 19. Grassland Biome <ul><li>Includes most of the cismontane inland valleys even where it is hot. </li></ul>
  13. 20. Desert Biome <ul><li>Includes most of transmontane California. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low species diversity </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Tundra Biome <ul><li>Only in the high elevation environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short growing seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting factors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 24. Connections… <ul><li>General connections can be made when comparing California’s biomes, vegetation structure, and habitats to other regions of the world: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Scrub: like Chile, South Africa, Australia, and the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal fog, fires, mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar adjacent forests and deserts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 26. Gocek, Turkey
  17. 27. Santiago, Chile
  18. 28. Perth, Australia
  19. 29. Vegetation Zones <ul><li>Vegetation zonation by elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Use plant communities to paint a pictures of California’s landscape. </li></ul>
  20. 30. Living Communities <ul><li>Ecological succession: continual process after each event or disturbance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary versus secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climax community is in equilibrium so that it can maintain itself until the next event or disturbance. </li></ul>
  21. 32. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Coastal Sand Dune and Beach Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach: the strip of coastline above the mean tide, inland to the greatest extent of storm waves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals must adapts to waves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Sand Dunes: may extend well inland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals must adapt to shifting sands. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Strand and Littoral Strip are terms used to describe both the beach and the dunes. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 33. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Habitat and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine air: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderates temperature and brings in moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to rain and fog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% of California’s coast is beaches and dunes, but plant communities make up less than 1% of land surface. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 34. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Coastal Scrub Communities </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Coastal Sage or Soft Chaparral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to chaparral but smaller plants with softer leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Oregon to Mexico along our coasts, into the coast ranges in the south. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted to frequent fires. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 35. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Coastal Scrub Habitat and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mildest temperatures, daily and seasonally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety of species from south to north, north gets more rain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently blends into dune communities, woodlands, grasslands, and chaparral, includes succulents in the south. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% of California’s coast-many endangered plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure from coastal development. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 36. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally about 13% of California, especially inland valleys </li></ul></ul>
  26. 37. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Grasslands Habitat and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less precipitation than surrounding higher terrain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, hot summers: where trees and shrubs do not survive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California’s Kansas: similar to Great Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large grazers: tule elk and pronghorn antelope </li></ul></ul>
  27. 38. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Chaparral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 10% of California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All over the hills of Southern California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Southern Coast Ranges, dry spots in Northern California </li></ul></ul>
  28. 39. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Chaparral Habitat and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model Mediterranean drought adapted plant community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sclerophyllous refers to the hard leaves which are often small with waxy or resinous coating and fine hair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves may also curl or be oriented to decrease direct sunlight-keeps transpiration rates down during summer drought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evergreen 800+ species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted to fire (succession) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pryophyte: only germinate and grow after fire </li></ul></ul>
  29. 43. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Mixed Evergreen Forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition between oak and chaparral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal mountains of the north, southern coastal mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of California </li></ul></ul>
  30. 44. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Mixed Evergreen Forest Habitat and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwoods, especially oaks, keep leaves all year, mixed with conifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaparral mix </li></ul></ul>
  31. 45. Communities of Cismontane California’s Lower Elevations <ul><li>Coastal Coniferous Forest Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon to Big Sur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern extension of temperate rainforest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the redwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat: located just inland from ocean to western slopes of the Klamaths and Central Coast Ranges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 100 inches of rain per year </li></ul></ul>
  32. 46. Montane Coniferous Forest Communities <ul><li>Grow on mountain slopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1,000 feet in the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between wetter forests to the west and drier communities in the east. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 5,000 feet in the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patchy high country in the Transverse and Peninsular ranges </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 47. Montane Coniferous Forest Communities <ul><li>Occurs above chaparral and oak woodlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooler, more precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher elevation, sparser. Less precipitation. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 48. Montane Coniferous Forest Communities <ul><li>Mixed/Lower Montane Coniferous Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10% of California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees about 200 feet (tallest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed with oaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergrowth ranges from sparse to thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition zone </li></ul></ul>
  35. 49. Red Fir and Lodgepole Pine Forest/Upper Montane Forests <ul><li>Higher elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Colder temperatures, heavy snow, short growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Lodgepole dominant above 8,000 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Fir needs more moisture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lodgepoles grow at lower elevation in drier areas where Red Fir will not. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 50. Subalpine Forests <ul><li>All creatures must be adapted to long, extremely cold winters-summer 7 to 9 weeks long. </li></ul><ul><li>Above 6,500 feet in Klamaths </li></ul><ul><li>Above 10,000 feet in the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper limit is the tree line </li></ul></ul>
  37. 52. Alpine Communities <ul><li>Isolated islands above the tree line </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible cold and wind create very harsh conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 7,000 feet in the north, about 11,000 in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. San Antonio and San Gorgonio in the Transverse Ranges and Mt. San Jacinto in the Peninsular Ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>Most north of southern California were covered in glaciers during the Pleistocene. </li></ul>
  38. 53. Riparian Communities <ul><li>Located on or adjacent to a river bank or other freshwater body. </li></ul><ul><li>Water availability is the most important limiting factor. </li></ul>
  39. 54. Riparian Communities <ul><li>Lots of variety: streams in narrow strips, wide in flood channels of rivers, 10 miles wide in the Central Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Tall shrubs, small trees, towering giants </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, cools, shady, protected environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic differences in Southern California to surrounding dry land. </li></ul>
  40. 55. Transmontane Deserts <ul><li>California’s great physical barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Rain shadow deserts </li></ul>
  41. 56. Transmontane Deserts <ul><li>Pinon Pine and Juniper Woodland Communities </li></ul><ul><li>4,000-8,000 feet in the desert </li></ul><ul><li>3% of California </li></ul><ul><li>Below coniferous forests </li></ul>
  42. 57. Transmontane Deserts <ul><li>Mixed dwarf forest </li></ul><ul><li>Winter snow </li></ul><ul><li>20 inches of precipitation per year </li></ul><ul><li>Most plants related to Great Basin and Colorado Plateau species </li></ul>
  43. 58. Joshua Tree Woodlands <ul><li>Found at 2,000 to 5,000 feet from Southern Owens Valley through the Mojave Desert into Nevada and Arizona. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate frost and occasional winter snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not grow in the hot valleys of the desert. </li></ul>
  44. 59. Joshua Tree Woodlands <ul><li>Species from many other communities grow with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Merge into juniper woodlands at higher elevations, creosote lower, sagebrush north. </li></ul><ul><li>Carpet of wildflowers and grasses underneath in wetter years-lasts only a few weeks, dries and goes to seed. </li></ul>
  45. 62. Desert Scrub Communities <ul><li>Vast open expanses of desert scrub covers about 30% of California. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of water-limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Hot summers, cold winters </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh environment, too harsh for trees </li></ul>
  46. 63. Desert Scrub Communities <ul><li>Sagebrush Scrub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northeast deserts, higher elevations 4,000-9,500 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blackbush Scrub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower elevation, below sagebrush </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shadescale Scrub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between sagebrush and creosote scrub, alkaline soils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saltbush Scrub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher salinity soils of lower desert plains and basins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkalai Sink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most salt tolerant halophytes, lower basins of Basin and Range </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creosote Bush and Cactus Scrub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creosote oldest plant, tolerates heat and drought, but not cold-middle to lower elevations of Mojave Desert </li></ul></ul>
  47. 64. Sagebrush Blackbrush
  48. 65. Shadescale Scrub Saltbush Scrub
  49. 66. Alkali Sink Cactus Scrub Burrowing Owl
  50. 67. Desert Wash, Riparian, and Oasis Communities <ul><li>Water may only flow briefly, then disappear under the surface but is still available to root systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Dense thickets or thin strips </li></ul>