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BIOSENSORS
BY- PRITAM PRAJAPATI
B.TECH BIOTECH 3rd YR
ASHOKA INSTITUTE OF TECH & MGMT
VARANASI
WHAT IS SENSOR …?
A SENSOR IS ACONVERTER THAT MEASURES A PHYSICAL QUANTITY AND
CONVERT IT INTO A SIGNAL WHICH CAN BE READ BY AN OBSERVER OR
BY AN INSTRUMENT.
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
WHAT IS NANO–SENSOR ?
 NANOSENSORS ARE ANY BIOLOGICAL,CHEMICAL OR SURGICAL
SENSORY POINT USED TO CONVEY INFOR MATION ABOUT NANO
PARTICALS TO THE MICROSCOPIC WORLD.
 MEDICAL PURPOSES
 NANOPRODUCTS, SUCH AS COMPUTER CHIPS THAT WORKS AT THE
NANOSCALE AND NANOROBOTS.
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
WHAT IS BIO-SENSORS…??
A BIOSENSOR IS A ANALYTICAL DEVICE , USED FOR THE DETECTION OF
A ANALYTE, THAT COMBINES A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS WITH A
PHYSICOCHEMICAL DETECTOR.
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
BIO-SENSOR…??
FATHER OF THE
BIOSENSOR
PROF. LELAND C CLARK JNR
1918-2005
 A DEVICE IN CORPORATING A BIOLOGICAL SENSING
ELEMENT EITHER INTIMATELY CONNECTED TO OR
INTEGRATED WITHIN A TRANSDUCER.
 RECOGNITION BASED ON AFFINITY BETWEEN
COMPLEMENTARY STRUCTURE LIKE:
 ENZYME-SUBSTRATE , ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN
AND RECEPTOR-HARMONES COMPLEX.
 SELECTIVELY AND SPECIFICITY DEPEND ON
BIOLOGICAL RECOGNITION SYSTEM CONNECTED
TO A SUITABLE TRANSDUCER
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
BIO – SENSOR…??
 IT IS AN ANALYTICAL DEVICE WHICH CONVERTS A BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
INTO A ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.
 IT DETECTS , RECORDS ,AND TRANSMITS INFORMATION REGARDIND A
PHYSIOLOICAL CHANGE OR PROCESS.
 IT DETERMINES THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF A SPECIFIC
SUBSTANCE IN ANY TEST SOLUTION.
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR..
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIO SENSOR INVOLVED IN THREE ELEMENTS:-
 FIRST BIOLOGICAL RECOGNIZATION ELEMENTS WHICH HIGHLY SPECIFIC
TO WORDS THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS ANALYTE PRODUCES.
 SECONDS TRANSDUCERS DETECT AND TRANSDUCES SIGNAL FROM
BIOLOGICAL TARGET-RECEPTORS.
 THIRD AFTER TRANSDUCTION SIGNALFROM BIOLOGICAL TO ELECTRICAL
SIGNAL WHERE ITS AMPLIFICATION IS NECESSARY AND TAKES PLACE AND
READ OUT IN DETECTOR AFTER PROCESSING THE VALUES ARE DISPLAYED
FOR MONITOR AND CONTROLLING THE SYSTEM.
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR…
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR
 THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL IS IMMOBILIZED AND A CONTACT IS
MADE BETWEEN THE IMMOBILIZED MATERIAL AND THE
TRANSDUCER.
 THE ANALYTE BINDS TO THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL TO FORM A
BOUND ANALYTE WHICH IN TURN PRODUCES THE ELECTRONIC
RESPONSE THAT CAN BE MEASURED.
 SOME TIME THE ANALYTEIS CONVERTED TO A PRODUCT WHICH
COULD BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE REALEASE OF HEAT , GAS
(OXYGEN).ELECTRONS AND HYDROGEN IONS. THE
TRANSDUCERTHEN CONVERTS THE PRODUCT LINKED CHANGES
INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNALS WHICH CAN BE AMPLIFIED AND
MEASURED.
COMPONENTS OF BIOSENSORS…
pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
FIRST COMPONENT OF BIOLOGICAL
ELEMENTS
THE COMPONENTS USED TO BIND THE TARGET MOLECULE.
MUST BE HIGHLY SPECIFIC, STABLE UNDER STORAGE CONDITIONS, AND IMMOBILISED
MICROORGANISM
TISSUE
CELL
ORGANELLE
NUCLEIC ACID
ENZYME
ENZYME
COMPONENTS
RECEPTORS
ANTIBODY
FIRST COMPONENT OF BIOLOGICAL
ELEMENTS
 FUNCTIONS
TO INTRECT SPECIFICALLY WITH A TARGET COMPOUND THAT IS
THE COMPOUND TO BE DETECTED
 IT MUST BE CAPABLE OF DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF A TARGET
COMPOUND IN THE TEST SOLUTION.
 THE ABILITY OF A BIO ELEMENT TO INTRECT SPECIFICALLY WITH
TARGET COMPOUND(SPECIFICITY) IS BASIS OF BIOSENSOR.
SECOND COMPONENT OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL
TRANSDUCER
ACTS AS AN INTERFACE, MEASURING THE PHYSICAL CHANGETHAT OCCURS WITH
THE REACTION AT THE BIORECEPTORS THAN TRANSFORMINGTHAT ENERGY INTO
MEASURABLE ELECTRICAL OUTPUT.
THIRD COMPONENT-DETECTOR
SIGNAL FROM THE TRANSDUCER
PASSED TO A MICROPROCESSOR
WHERE THEY ARE AMPLIFIED AND
ANALYZED.
THE DATA IS THEN CONVERTED TO
CONCENTRATION UNITS AND
TRANSFERRED TO A DISPLAY OR
DATA STORAGE DEVICE.
PRINCIPLE OF DETECTION
WORKING OF BIOSENSOR
HOW DOES THEY WORK…??
 BIOSENSORS BASICALLY INVOLVES THE QUANTITATIVE
ANALYYSIS OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES BY CONVERTING THEIR
BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS INTO MEASURABLE SIGNALS.
 GENERALLY THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BIOSENSORS IS
MOSTLY DEPENDENT ON THE SPECIFICALLYAND
SENSITIVITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL REACTION , BESIDES
THE STABILITY OF THE ENZYME.
HOW DOES THEY WORK…??
IDEAL BIOSENSOR
 THE OUTPUT SIGNAL MUST BE RELEVANT TO MEASURE MENT
ENVIROMENT .
 THE FUNCTIONAL SURFACE MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE
TRANSDUSER .
 HIGH SPECIFITITY AND SELECTIVITY (LOW INTERFERANCE).
 SUFFICIENT SENSITIVITY AND RESOLUTION.
IDEAL BIOSENSOR
 SUFFICIENT ACCURACY AND REPEATTABILITY
 SUFFICIENT SPEED OF RESPONSE
 SUFFICIENT DYNAMIC RANGE
 INSENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL
INTERFERENCE OR THEIR EFFECT MUST BE
COMPENSATED
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOSENSOR
LINEARITY- LINEARITY OF THE SENSOR SHOULD BE HIGH FOR
DETECTION OF HIGH SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION
SENSITIVITY-VALUE OF THE ELECTRODE RESPONSE PERSUBSTRATE
CONCENTRATION
SELECTIVITY- CHEMICALS INTERFERENCE MUST BE MINIMISED FOR
OBTAINING THE CORRECT RESULT.
RESPONSE TIME- TIME NECESSARY FOR HAVING 95% OF THE
RESPONSE
BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY
TYPES OF BIOSENSOR
 BASED ON BIORECEPTOR
ENZYME BIOSENSOR
MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR
AFFINITY BIOSENSOR
 BASED ON TRANSDUCER
POTENTIOMETRIC
AMPEROMETRIC
CONDUCTOMETRIC
OPTICAL
ACOUSTIC OR PIEZOELECTRIC ETC.
OPTICAL BIOSENSORS
COLORIMETRIC FOR COLOR MEASURE
CHANGE IN LIGHT ADSORPTION AS
REACTANTS ARE COVERTED TO PRODUCTS.
PHOTOMETRIC FOR LIGHT INTENSITY PHOTON
OUTPUT FOR A LUMINESCENT OR FLUIRESCENT
PROCESS CAN BE DETECTED WITH PHOTO MULTIPLIER
TUBES OR PHOTODIODE SYSTEM.
CALORIMETRIC BIOSENSORS
IF THE ENZYME CATALYSED REACTION IS EXOTHERMIC ,TWO
THERMISTORS MAY BE USED TO MEASURE THE DIFFERENCE IN
RESISTANCE BETWEEN REACTANT AND PRODUCT AND HENCE
THE ANALYTE CONCENTRATION
EXAMPLE OF BIOSENSOR
EXAMPLE OF BIOSENSOR
THANK YOU….
CONTACT ME- www.fb.com/pritam.prajapati37
email id- pritamprajapati9@gmail.com

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Biosensors by pritam prajapati

  • 1. BIOSENSORS BY- PRITAM PRAJAPATI B.TECH BIOTECH 3rd YR ASHOKA INSTITUTE OF TECH & MGMT VARANASI
  • 2. WHAT IS SENSOR …? A SENSOR IS ACONVERTER THAT MEASURES A PHYSICAL QUANTITY AND CONVERT IT INTO A SIGNAL WHICH CAN BE READ BY AN OBSERVER OR BY AN INSTRUMENT. pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 3. WHAT IS NANO–SENSOR ?  NANOSENSORS ARE ANY BIOLOGICAL,CHEMICAL OR SURGICAL SENSORY POINT USED TO CONVEY INFOR MATION ABOUT NANO PARTICALS TO THE MICROSCOPIC WORLD.  MEDICAL PURPOSES  NANOPRODUCTS, SUCH AS COMPUTER CHIPS THAT WORKS AT THE NANOSCALE AND NANOROBOTS. pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 4. WHAT IS BIO-SENSORS…?? A BIOSENSOR IS A ANALYTICAL DEVICE , USED FOR THE DETECTION OF A ANALYTE, THAT COMBINES A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS WITH A PHYSICOCHEMICAL DETECTOR. pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 5. BIO-SENSOR…?? FATHER OF THE BIOSENSOR PROF. LELAND C CLARK JNR 1918-2005  A DEVICE IN CORPORATING A BIOLOGICAL SENSING ELEMENT EITHER INTIMATELY CONNECTED TO OR INTEGRATED WITHIN A TRANSDUCER.  RECOGNITION BASED ON AFFINITY BETWEEN COMPLEMENTARY STRUCTURE LIKE:  ENZYME-SUBSTRATE , ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN AND RECEPTOR-HARMONES COMPLEX.  SELECTIVELY AND SPECIFICITY DEPEND ON BIOLOGICAL RECOGNITION SYSTEM CONNECTED TO A SUITABLE TRANSDUCER pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 6. BIO – SENSOR…??  IT IS AN ANALYTICAL DEVICE WHICH CONVERTS A BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE INTO A ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.  IT DETECTS , RECORDS ,AND TRANSMITS INFORMATION REGARDIND A PHYSIOLOICAL CHANGE OR PROCESS.  IT DETERMINES THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF A SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE IN ANY TEST SOLUTION. pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 7. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR.. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIO SENSOR INVOLVED IN THREE ELEMENTS:-  FIRST BIOLOGICAL RECOGNIZATION ELEMENTS WHICH HIGHLY SPECIFIC TO WORDS THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS ANALYTE PRODUCES.  SECONDS TRANSDUCERS DETECT AND TRANSDUCES SIGNAL FROM BIOLOGICAL TARGET-RECEPTORS.  THIRD AFTER TRANSDUCTION SIGNALFROM BIOLOGICAL TO ELECTRICAL SIGNAL WHERE ITS AMPLIFICATION IS NECESSARY AND TAKES PLACE AND READ OUT IN DETECTOR AFTER PROCESSING THE VALUES ARE DISPLAYED FOR MONITOR AND CONTROLLING THE SYSTEM. pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 8. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR… pritamprajapati9@gmail.com
  • 9. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR  THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL IS IMMOBILIZED AND A CONTACT IS MADE BETWEEN THE IMMOBILIZED MATERIAL AND THE TRANSDUCER.  THE ANALYTE BINDS TO THE BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL TO FORM A BOUND ANALYTE WHICH IN TURN PRODUCES THE ELECTRONIC RESPONSE THAT CAN BE MEASURED.  SOME TIME THE ANALYTEIS CONVERTED TO A PRODUCT WHICH COULD BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE REALEASE OF HEAT , GAS (OXYGEN).ELECTRONS AND HYDROGEN IONS. THE TRANSDUCERTHEN CONVERTS THE PRODUCT LINKED CHANGES INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNALS WHICH CAN BE AMPLIFIED AND MEASURED.
  • 11. FIRST COMPONENT OF BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS THE COMPONENTS USED TO BIND THE TARGET MOLECULE. MUST BE HIGHLY SPECIFIC, STABLE UNDER STORAGE CONDITIONS, AND IMMOBILISED MICROORGANISM TISSUE CELL ORGANELLE NUCLEIC ACID ENZYME ENZYME COMPONENTS RECEPTORS ANTIBODY
  • 12. FIRST COMPONENT OF BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS  FUNCTIONS TO INTRECT SPECIFICALLY WITH A TARGET COMPOUND THAT IS THE COMPOUND TO BE DETECTED  IT MUST BE CAPABLE OF DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF A TARGET COMPOUND IN THE TEST SOLUTION.  THE ABILITY OF A BIO ELEMENT TO INTRECT SPECIFICALLY WITH TARGET COMPOUND(SPECIFICITY) IS BASIS OF BIOSENSOR.
  • 13. SECOND COMPONENT OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL TRANSDUCER ACTS AS AN INTERFACE, MEASURING THE PHYSICAL CHANGETHAT OCCURS WITH THE REACTION AT THE BIORECEPTORS THAN TRANSFORMINGTHAT ENERGY INTO MEASURABLE ELECTRICAL OUTPUT.
  • 14. THIRD COMPONENT-DETECTOR SIGNAL FROM THE TRANSDUCER PASSED TO A MICROPROCESSOR WHERE THEY ARE AMPLIFIED AND ANALYZED. THE DATA IS THEN CONVERTED TO CONCENTRATION UNITS AND TRANSFERRED TO A DISPLAY OR DATA STORAGE DEVICE.
  • 17. HOW DOES THEY WORK…??  BIOSENSORS BASICALLY INVOLVES THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYYSIS OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES BY CONVERTING THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS INTO MEASURABLE SIGNALS.  GENERALLY THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BIOSENSORS IS MOSTLY DEPENDENT ON THE SPECIFICALLYAND SENSITIVITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL REACTION , BESIDES THE STABILITY OF THE ENZYME.
  • 18. HOW DOES THEY WORK…??
  • 19. IDEAL BIOSENSOR  THE OUTPUT SIGNAL MUST BE RELEVANT TO MEASURE MENT ENVIROMENT .  THE FUNCTIONAL SURFACE MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE TRANSDUSER .  HIGH SPECIFITITY AND SELECTIVITY (LOW INTERFERANCE).  SUFFICIENT SENSITIVITY AND RESOLUTION.
  • 20. IDEAL BIOSENSOR  SUFFICIENT ACCURACY AND REPEATTABILITY  SUFFICIENT SPEED OF RESPONSE  SUFFICIENT DYNAMIC RANGE  INSENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL INTERFERENCE OR THEIR EFFECT MUST BE COMPENSATED
  • 21. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOSENSOR LINEARITY- LINEARITY OF THE SENSOR SHOULD BE HIGH FOR DETECTION OF HIGH SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION SENSITIVITY-VALUE OF THE ELECTRODE RESPONSE PERSUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION SELECTIVITY- CHEMICALS INTERFERENCE MUST BE MINIMISED FOR OBTAINING THE CORRECT RESULT. RESPONSE TIME- TIME NECESSARY FOR HAVING 95% OF THE RESPONSE
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  • 24. TYPES OF BIOSENSOR  BASED ON BIORECEPTOR ENZYME BIOSENSOR MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR AFFINITY BIOSENSOR  BASED ON TRANSDUCER POTENTIOMETRIC AMPEROMETRIC CONDUCTOMETRIC OPTICAL ACOUSTIC OR PIEZOELECTRIC ETC.
  • 25. OPTICAL BIOSENSORS COLORIMETRIC FOR COLOR MEASURE CHANGE IN LIGHT ADSORPTION AS REACTANTS ARE COVERTED TO PRODUCTS. PHOTOMETRIC FOR LIGHT INTENSITY PHOTON OUTPUT FOR A LUMINESCENT OR FLUIRESCENT PROCESS CAN BE DETECTED WITH PHOTO MULTIPLIER TUBES OR PHOTODIODE SYSTEM.
  • 26. CALORIMETRIC BIOSENSORS IF THE ENZYME CATALYSED REACTION IS EXOTHERMIC ,TWO THERMISTORS MAY BE USED TO MEASURE THE DIFFERENCE IN RESISTANCE BETWEEN REACTANT AND PRODUCT AND HENCE THE ANALYTE CONCENTRATION
  • 29. THANK YOU…. CONTACT ME- www.fb.com/pritam.prajapati37 email id- pritamprajapati9@gmail.com