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Understanding how collaboration improves productivity

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Understanding how collaboration improves productivity

  1. 1. Understanding How Collaboration Improves Productivity Paul Boos
  2. 2. Agenda • Learn the rules and execute the Power of 13 Collaboration Game through several 'scenarios’ • Compare and debrief the results • Discuss and post the highlights of learning • Compare experience to various models used to describe team dynamics and communication • What can you do to improve collaboration • Discuss how participants will use the game • Describe possible extensions and how this game has been used by the facilitator/co-facilitators
  3. 3. Collaboration: Power of 13 Simulation This game was created at Agile Games 2014 by – Jamie Gaull Robert Smith Peter Barzdines Bobby Zhakov Paul Boos
  4. 4. Power of 13 Goal: Work off the the number of cards equal to the number of people within your iteration’s length Mechanics: • We need a ‘Scrum Master’ and ‘Product Owner’ – everyone else is a development team member • Each card is worked off whenever a 13 is rolled on 3 dice (~10% chance per roll) • The product owner will count off the number of cards completed using a deck of cards • The scrum master will use another suit of cards to count down your iteration of 13 work days (3 week Sprints, the other two days are sprint review, retro, and planning = 15 days) • We will mark down what day you meet your goal and the total # of cards worked off
  5. 5. Power of 13 :: Round 1 This round will simulate developers working alone in their silos/cubes • Each developer is responsible for completing a card from the backlog • Each developer rolls the dice once per day; the scrum master keeps track of the 13 work days using the suit of cards he or she has • If a dice roll has a sum total of exactly ‘13’, they state “my card is DONE.” The product owner turns this card over from his stack. The developer stops work and pats himself on the back. • Record cards completed as each person says they are ‘DONE’; also record what day the required # of stories was completed.
  6. 6. Power of 13 :: Round 2 This round will simulate pulling additional work after you complete work • The team is still responsible for completing at least the a number of cards from the backlog equal to the number of developers • Each developer rolls the dice once per day; the scrum master keeps track of the 13 work days using the suit of cards he or she has • If a dice roll has a sum total of exactly ‘13’, they state “my card is DONE.” The product owner turns this card over from his stack. The developer pats himself on the back; however they may now continue to roll on subsequent days and declare another card done for each ‘13’ they roll. • Record cards that were completed and what day the required # of stories was completed.
  7. 7. Power of 13 :: Round 3 • This round simulates collaborative pairing to complete work • The team is still responsible for completing at least the a number of cards from the backlog equal to the number of developers • Each developer rolls the dice once per day; the scrum master keeps track of the 13 work days using the suit of cards he or she has • Once each developer has rolled, they work together in pairs (or triads for an odd numbered group) to pull as many sums of exactly ‘13’ on 3 dice as possible; each ’13’ identified equals a card worked. • Record cards that were completed and what day the required # of stories was completed.
  8. 8. Power of 13 :: Round 4 • This round simulates collaborative swarming to complete work • The team is still responsible for completing at least the a number of cards from the backlog equal to the number of developers • Each developer rolls the dice once per day; the scrum master keeps track of the 13 work days using the suit of cards he or she has • Once each developer has rolled and placed the dice into a common pool, they work together to pull as many sums of exactly ‘13’ on 3 dice as possible; each ’13’ identified equals a card worked. The product owner turns these cards over from his stack. • Record cards that were completed and what day the required # of stories was completed.
  9. 9. Collaboration: Power of 13 Simulation Debrief For the next 3 minutes, write down learning points or observations you had from playing the game. Write one item per sticky. Then over the next 5 minutes discuss at your table to find the common learning points or observations people feel were seen. We’ll share these. Part 1
  10. 10. Collaboration: Power of 13 Simulation Debrief What did you notice happening? What did the dice/rolls represent? How did the effectiveness change in each round? How does or does not this correlate with how real work happens? How did the coordination in the last round feel? What did allowing a person to continue work simulate? Part 2
  11. 11. Let’s Look at Some Models Important to Understanding Group Dynamics Remember: All models are wrong and some are useful!
  12. 12. Group Communications Patterns Linear Hub & Spoke Network
  13. 13. Network Pattern: as Nodes Grow, Maintaining the Network Itself Grows Communications Paths = N(N-1)/2 where N = number of people (as nodes in the graph). Realistically, this limits the amount of productive two-way communication. How so..?
  14. 14. Some Interesting Data… Based on - log(N) = 0.093 + 3.389 log(CR) (1) (r2=0.764, t34=10.35, p<0.001) This equation places the upper limit of how many people with which we can regularly communicate and maintain stable relationships (aka social grooming) based on neocortex size. 150 Based on – Tribal Reciprocity; the limit on the number of people that will give with an expectation they will receive in kind. 50 Based on – The lower limit of short term memory limit for bits of information used in judgement; we can retain only about 7±2 items in memory. This limits the number of people with which we can have deep communication. 5 Evolutionary Psychology Cultural Anthropology Cognitive Psychology
  15. 15. Team Performance Predictors ENERGY “…when someone announces a new discovery in the same group, excitement and energy skyrocket as all the members start talking to one another at once.” ENGAGEMENT “all members of a team have relatively equal and reasonably high energy with all other members, engagement is extremely strong. Teams that have clusters of members who engage in high-energy communication while other members do not participate don’t perform as well.” EXPLORATION “…seek more outside connections…”
  16. 16. Communications Patterns Predict Successful Teams Successful Teams: 1. Everyone on the team talks and listens in roughly equal measure, keeping contributions short and sweet. 2. Members face one another, and their conversations and gestures are energetic. 3. Members connect directly with one another—not just with the team leader. 4. Members carry on back-channel or side conversations within the team. 5. Members periodically break, go exploring outside the team, and bring information back.
  17. 17. Sociometric Measurement of Team Communications
  18. 18. The Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self KnowntoOthersUnknowntoOthers OPEN AREA BLIND AREA HIDDEN AREA UNKNOWN AREA
  19. 19. The Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self KnowntoOthersUnknowntoOthers FEEDBACK DISCLOSURE SHARED DISCOVERY OPEN AREA BLIND AREA HIDDEN AREA UNKNOWN AREA
  20. 20. The Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self KnowntoOthersUnknowntoOthers TELL ASK FEEDBACK DISCLOSURE SHARED DISCOVERY OPEN AREA BLIND AREA HIDDEN AREA UNKNOWN AREA
  21. 21. The Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self KnowntoOthersUnknowntoOthers TELL ASK FEEDBACK DISCLOSURE SHARED DISCOVERY OPEN AREA BLIND AREA HIDDEN AREA UNKNOWN AREA Anyone have a 4? I have a 4!
  22. 22. Information Transfer Occurs Both Explicitly and Tacitly Tacit transfer builds trust Explicit transfer creates artifacts Focusing = (Heads-Down) Work Alone Collaboration = f( [WorkF]) Learning = Building Knowledge with Explicit Thinking Socializing = Building Trust + Building Knowledge  Innovation Σ n 1 Nonaka Model
  23. 23. More Data “82% of white collar workers feel they need to partner with others throughout the workday to get work done” Knowledge Work = Social Activity
  24. 24. Tuckman Stages of Group Development FocusonWork Relationship/Trust Forming Storming Norming Performing
  25. 25. Tuckman Stages of Group Development FocusonWork Relationship/Trust Forming Storming Norming Performing First day or two…
  26. 26. Tuckman Stages of Group Development FocusonWork Relationship/Trust Forming Storming Norming Performing Days 2-3 to 5- 7…
  27. 27. Tuckman Stages of Group Development FocusonWork Relationship/Trust Forming Storming Norming Performing Days 5-7 to 8- 9…
  28. 28. Tuckman Stages of Group Development FocusonWork Relationship/Trust Forming Storming Norming Performing Days 8-9 on…
  29. 29. As a Team Forms, Only Explicit Info Is Known People know about you some, perhaps you tell them a few things. People will focus on performing their own work (utilizing what they know tacitly about themselves) and sharing information only explicitly.
  30. 30. Next is Storming; People Still Share Explicitly People still know only what you have revealed and they are unlikely to give you feedback, so your Blind Area remains that way – Blind. People lose some focus on performing their own work, but collaboration suffers more.
  31. 31. On to Norming! Now Things Begin to Get Cooking As norming occurs, people begin to reveal more information and ask questions so they know more how they fit in. These help build the trust and relationships. Focus and collaboration come back and learning starts happening as informal settings begin to take hold.
  32. 32. Performing; People Share Informally and Comfortably Frequently More and more information is shared about each other, leading to greater and greater trust, increasing the ability to get more done. Informal settings (casual discussions, greater sharing of mental models, higher use of shared metaphors, etc.) takes place. The amount of information transferred regularly is enormous.
  33. 33. That was interesting, what should we do with it...? We’re going to look at this from 3 different viewpoints: • Team Member • Leader • Influencer
  34. 34. Team Member Has a need to be bound to social achievement of a common goal • Forming sets the goal, but shared understanding of it may be missing • Storming is a natural progression, but progress deteriorates – we want to progress through this stage quickly • Norming is where the shared understanding for the social achievement is created • Performing is where this shared understanding is used effectively
  35. 35. Improving Teamwork • Increasing the Open Area increases trust – Disclose information about yourself willingly – Request feedback to receive it – Establish working agreements and project charters (explicit transfer) to help establish the metaphors, shared understanding, and casualness that is acceptable (tacit transfer) • And as we saw, increasing trust, increases work focus  productivity Only focusing on the goal misses the need for also having the good relationships needed to produce.
  36. 36. The Leader Has a need to accomplish goals through others AND are only indirectly involved in the social achievement • Often they set the initial goal(s) and environment in Forming • During the remaining stages, they usually only involve themselves when ‘needed’; depending on how this is done, this may impede performance through the social achievement in progress
  37. 37. Supporting Teamwork • Model the behavior needed to increase the open Area – Disclose what help teams can get from you (and under what circumstances) – Disclose pertinent vulnerabilities – Ask for and graciously acknowledge feedback (do this more than asking for info) • Taken together these increase trust because you aren’t just about them achieving goals, but you are showing you have both interest and empathy Building good relationships with teams gives them license to set the behaviors they need to produce.
  38. 38. Influencer Has a need for the goal to be successful but has no direct interest (or authority) in the social achievement • During Forming, often sets expectations for performance needs tangential to the first order team goal • Often may be a trigger for deepening lack of focus during Storming • Usually consulted when a team attempts to Norm • Often ignored if a team is Performing (Individual or External Stakeholder Group)
  39. 39. Encouraging Teamwork • Increasing the Open Area increases trust with the teams – Disclose information about yourself willingly (coaching role) – Disclose what the relationship of your tangential goals to the team’s and the help they can get from you for achieving these (and under what circumstances) – Establish working agreements specifically around a protocol for interaction (explicit transfer) to help establish the metaphors, shared understanding, and casualness that is acceptable (tacit transfer) during all phases of the team’s phases – Ask for and graciously acknowledge feedback; particularly on interventions you make to to help the team’s effectiveness • Taken together these increase trust because you aren’t just about them achieving goals to your tangential needs, but you are showing you have interest in their success as well Building good relationships with the team allows you to influence their behaviors they need to produce.
  40. 40. Collaboration – What Helps & Hinders • Break into groups of ~5 • Create a list of items that promote collaboration. – What forces are at play that help people to want to collaborate? • Create a list of items that impede collaboration. – What forces are at work that hinder people from wanting to collaborate? • Assign a weight to each item from 1-5 • Timebox of 5 min • Elect a spokesperson.
  41. 41. Promotes Impedes Collaboration – Forcefield Analysis
  42. 42. Resources Luft, Joseph; Ingham, Harrison (1955). "The Johari window, a graphic model of interpersonal awareness". Proceedings of the western training laboratory in group development (Los Angeles: UCLA) Tuckman, Bruce (1965). "Developmental sequence in small groups". Psychological Bulletin 63 Pentland, Alex "Sandy”(2012). “The New Science of Building Great Teams”. Harvard Business Review, April 2012 Nonaka, Ikujiro; Hirotaka Takeuchi (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company (2008) “Inside Innovation,” Business Week, April 28, 2008 Steelcase WorkSpace Futures (2010). How The Workplace Can Improve Collaboration, June 2010 Whitepaper on Supporting Collaboration Spradley, Jonothan; McCurdy, David W. (2012). Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology, Pearson Education Miller, George A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, Psychologicial Review 63 Dunbar, Robin I. M. (1992). “Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 16 Issue 04, December 1993

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