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Unit # 01 (Developmental Psychology)


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Unit # 01 (Developmental Psychology)

  1. 1. Unit # 01 Introduction to Psychology Pir Bux (Nursing Lecturer) BBS-ION (PUMHSW) 23-08-2014
  2. 2. Objectives • This unit helps to orient learners to the field of Psychology, and its significance to nursing profession. At the end of this unit learners will be able to: 1. Define Psychology. 2. Identify different perspectives in Psychology. 3. Identify various fields of Psychology 4. Demonstrate understanding and its practical applications to Nursing.
  3. 3. PSYCHOLOGY • Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. . The word “ psychology ‖comes from the Greek words “ psyche, meaning life , and “ logos, meaning explanation. • to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, • The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior
  4. 4. Understanding the difference Biology Psychology Sociology Study human life as Organ systems of tissues and metabolism Study human life as Individual centers of thought, emotion, and action Study human life as Participants in group and cultural processes
  6. 6. Explanation Level of Examples Lower Biological Depression is in part genetically influences It is influenced by action of neurotransmitters Middle Interpersonal Peoples who are depressed may interpret events that occurs them negatively Psychotherapy is used to help people talk and combat depression Higher Socio Cultural Women experience more depression than men The prevalence of depression varies across cultures and historical time periods
  7. 7. Branches of Psychology • Psychiatry is a branch of medicine specializing with mental disorders. • Psychiatrists are medical doctors, specialized physicians. • Psychotherapy is a form of treatment emphasizing communication • Psychotherapist is a mental health professional who treats patients ("clients") by communicating with them. Usually, this takes place in verbal form: talking and hearing.
  8. 8. Branches of Psychology • Psychoanalysis refers to the theories of the mind and psychotherapeutic techniques developed by Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalyst conducts Psychoanalysis • People are frequently unaware of the causes of their own behaviors. • Psychologists use the scientific method to collect, analyze, and interpret evidence. • Employing the scientific method allows the scientist to collect empirical data objectively, which adds to the accumulation of scientific knowledge.
  9. 9. Importance • Although both fields differ from each other apparently but still Psychology is interlinked with nursing practices, to a great extent. Before believing the stance of similarity or difference, it is very important to understand both fields separately. • Psychology • According to Pastorino & Portillo (2012), Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Ciccarelli & Meyer (2006) further explain that behavior incorporates all our overt actions and reactions and mental processes refer to our covert activity of mind(cited Barker 2007).
  10. 10. • Nursing • Nursing as profession is considered to assist the individual (usually patient) in performance, of activities contributing towards the recovery of their health (Barker, 2007). • The Relationship • Working in the health related profession provides the opportunity to work with other people and a key part in such professions is to promote the health and well- being of people. In this case, it is very important to be well aware of the attitude and behaviour of people – Point where Psychology comes in (Walker, Payne, Smith, & Jarrett, 2007).
  11. 11. • Byrne & Byrne (1992) describe that in its most elementary form the practice of nursing involves the application of medical science to the management of people with physical illness. Both nurses and psychologists try not only to understand the health related issues of people but also to change their thoughts and attitude to enhance their well-being. • Nurses are required to provide very basic care to the people they work with but the effort is always to change the thought process in a very positive manner (Barker, 2007).
  12. 12. Significance • Byrne & Byrne (1992) state that psychological factors play an important part in the development and course of many illnesses and in the processes of recovery from them. • Russell (1999, p. 180) solidify the importance saying that accurate identification of one’s problems and needs is critical to the process of effective nursing care, as it defines both the significance and quality of the nursing actions. • External symptoms and management of physical pathology, patient’s response and reaction to illness. • Different individuals have different reactions towards the entire process of illness.
  13. 13. • Byrne & Byrne (1992, p. 29)say that nurses enter into the “system” soon as they get involved in the interpersonal interaction with the patient and in result this creates an environment for the care of patient. In this environment, nurses become part of complex social psychological system which comprise of patient, medical staff and any relatives of patient. • Walker, Payne, Smith, & Jarrett (2007) : solid facts Consider how people’s thoughts and needs vary and what best can be done to ensure these needs satisfied.
  14. 14. • establishing the communication processes in order to improve the therapeutic relationship and work more effectively in inter-professional and inter- agency contexts. • Psychological factors inform the health care professionals about the lifestyles of people and how certain health-related behaviors i.e. smoking, dietary change and exercise, can affect that. • Logical steps can be taken in order to improve the health and well-being of these individuals. • Opportunity: understand their responsibilities in a better way and perform exactly as what is expected of them. • Psychology plays a vital role in understanding the health-related matters of the individuals and nurses need to know them. •
  15. 15. References • Slater A & Bremner G. (2007). An introduction to Develomental Psychology (2nd Edition). BPS Blackwell • Hoerger, M. (2007, January 8). Introduction to Developmental Psychology. Presented at a PSY 220 lecture at Central Michigan University. • Unit# 01:- The difinition and history of Psychology content/uploads/2011/01/TLBrink_PSYCH01.pdf • Importance of Psychology for nursing Practice (Roles & Prespectives) ing_Practice