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Reading october


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Reading october

  1. 1. Research Proven Strategies in Language Arts/Literacy Katie Drummond CCSSO, October 20, 2003
  2. 2. <ul><li>Definitive research base still building </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies continue (e.g., Fletcher & Lyon, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over identification: </li></ul><ul><li>reading deficit vs. reading disability </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy acquisition is problematic for many </li></ul>Reading: Prominent Issues
  3. 3. The Evidence Base <ul><li>5 strands from Reading Panel (NRP, 2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literacy for adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Phonemic Awareness & Phonics <ul><li>Best when explicit, systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Not a complete program </li></ul><ul><li>System is complicated; teachers’ skills need to be developed (Moats, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to ensure that materials are carefully constructed (Stein, Johnson & Gutlohn, 1999) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fluency <ul><li>Accurate and quick reading of text </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated, monitored, & modeled oral reading is best mode of achieving </li></ul><ul><li>(Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Passages need to be at independent-reading level </li></ul>
  6. 6. Vocabulary <ul><li>Extended instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Word substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple methods work best </li></ul>
  7. 7. Comprehension <ul><li>Use of graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Question answering/generation </li></ul><ul><li>Structure-- fiction and expository (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed methods work best </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reading and Verbal Competency <ul><li>As skill in decoding grows, general linguistic competency accounts for more of reading outcomes (Shankweiler et al., 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalinguistic awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background knowledge (Shankweiler et al., 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement with complex ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Older Readers <ul><li>Need to transact with text (Peterson, Caverly, Nicholson, O’Neal, & Cusenbary, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of late-emerging reading disability (Leach, Scarborough, & Rescorla, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Still need basics; higher level decoding (Moats, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Need ways to engage with complex ideas even if they cannot read it yet </li></ul>
  10. 10. Writing <ul><li>Process and self-regulation are key </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for planning (Harris & Graham, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention or compensation for handwriting and spelling issues (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2004) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overall <ul><li>More conclusive findings on general strategies than programs/curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Rigor of instruction time (Chard & Kameenui, 2000; Vaughn, Levy, & Coleman, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies, integration important for special needs (Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>More research </li></ul>
  12. 12. This content was developed by staff at The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 , funded by U. S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs and housed at the American Institutes for Research. Retrieved [today's date], from the World Wide Web: