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[1] Concurrent 3 Gender Differences


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[1] Concurrent 3 Gender Differences

  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study <ul><ul><li>Cognitive view of learning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language learning = a dynamic and creative process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language learners = active strategy users and knowledge constructors </li></ul></ul></ul>Chamot & O’Malley (1994) Learners Teaching methods How learners approach learning The kinds of strategies and cognitive processing they use
  5. 5. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study <ul><li>Learning strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Learning strategies are optimal means for exploiting available information to improve competence in a second language” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bialystock 1987: 71) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning strategies = “one of the most important variables influencing performance in a second language” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Oxford, 1989: 238) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study <ul><li>Target language </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Task performed </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>Gender = “a profound” choice on strategy choice (Oxford & Nyiko, 1989: 545) <ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Affective states </li></ul><ul><li>Learner factors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning experiences </li></ul>Individual learner differences Situational and social factors Learner’s choice of learning strategies
  7. 7. Research questions <ul><li>What are EFL learning strategies employed by the students? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant difference in the frequency of EFL learning strategy used by the male and female students? </li></ul>
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Gender differences in language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences in language learning strategies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender differences in language learning <ul><li>Gender differences in L2 learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males and females demonstrated different preferences for knowing or guessing of words in context. (Wang, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When listening to authentic L2 texts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More men reported using translation than women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women used top-down strategies as inferring or guessing the meaning from context more often </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Language learning strategies <ul><li>Definition of language learning strategies (LLS) </li></ul>LSS = “ behaviours or actions which learners use …” (Oxford 1989, cited in Ellis, 1999: 531) LLS = “ intentional behaviours and thoughts used by learners….” (Richards & Platt, 1992: 209)
  12. 12. Language learning strategies <ul><li>Main characteristics of LLS </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning strategies…. </li></ul><ul><li>refer to both general approaches and specific actions or techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>are problem oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>involve linguistic and non- linguistic behaviours. </li></ul><ul><li>can be performed in the L1 and in the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>can be behavioural or mental. </li></ul><ul><li>contribute directly or indirectly to learning </li></ul><ul><li>vary considerably as a result of both the kind of task the learner is engaged in and individual learner preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>learners are generally aware of the strategies they use. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ellis, 1999: 532-533) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Language learning strategies <ul><li>Classification of LLS </li></ul>Compensation strategies Memory strategies Cognitive strategies Cognitive strategies Cognitive strategies Interpersonal strategies Social strategies Affective strategies Social- affective strategies Affective strategies Management and planning strategies Metacognitive strategies Metacognitive strategies Stern (1992) Chamot & O’Malley (1990) Oxford (1990)
  14. 14. Language learning strategies <ul><li>Classification of LLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxford’s (1990) taxonomy can be considered “the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies to date (…) the organization of specific strategies into a hierarchy of levels and the breadth of the taxonomy is impressive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ellis, 1999: 539) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Gender differences in second language learning strategies There are significant differences between male and female students’ use of LLS with females using those more frequently. Green & Oxford (1995), Lan & Oxford (2003), Chang, Liu & Lee (2007), etc . Young and Oxford’s (1997) study on the strategies used by native English-speaking learners of Spanish found no significant differences between males and females in their use of LLS. Tercanlioglu (2004) in a quantitative data analysis on gender differences in language learning strategies used by foreign language learners in a Turkish University, report significant gender differences, favouring males in students’ strategy use.
  17. 17. Research approach <ul><li>Quantitative approach </li></ul><ul><li>… a methodology that aims to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable ) and another (a dependent variable ) in a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopkins (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>…“ a formal, objective, systematic process ... &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Burns and Grove cited in Cormack, 1991:140). </li></ul><ul><li>“… far more manageable and easier to analyze” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1995: 94). </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ provide the depth of information” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1995: 94) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Participants <ul><li>72 second- year students at a public university in Hanoi, Viet Nam. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender: 27 males + 45 females. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major: finance and banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age: 19- 21 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: confident, self- motivated, lively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency level: Intermediate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Methods of data collection <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afford good deal of precision and clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can be gathered in different time slots, but the data is comparable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify data manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes, unreliable because the informants are careless in responding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informants may not understand the strategy descriptions in the questionnaires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is often hard to elaborate on informants’ answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low rate of return </li></ul></ul>QUESTIONNAIRES
  20. 20. Methods of data collection <ul><ul><li>Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL)- version 7.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate the questionnaires into Vietnamese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot the questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise the questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver the questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps of constructing the questionnaires </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of data collection <ul><li>Students are “more motivated to response in a interview because they are pleased to have someone take personal interest in their learning processes” (O’ Malley & Chamot, 1995: 94) </li></ul>INFORMAL INTERVIEW <ul><li>Participants : 8 students (4 males + 4 females) </li></ul><ul><li>Language of the interview : Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Audio- taping the interview </li></ul>Emerging themes from the questionnaires
  22. 22. Methods of data analysis <ul><li>Mean scores for each question item </li></ul><ul><li>Average mean scores of the six categories of LLS </li></ul>Used for data analysis SPSS version 16.0 Frequencies (Means, SD) of LLS used by students Significant relationships? Gender and LLS use in general? Gender and specific strategies in the categories? T- test Spearman’s rho two- tailed test Data from the questionnaires Data from interview Coded Partly translated into English
  23. 23. Steps of the research <ul><li>Identifying the sample, accessed the prospective informants to invite them to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing, piloting and revising the questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing and collecting questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data from questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Indentifying emerging themes in the questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating and revising the interview questions </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewing a group of informants </li></ul>
  25. 25. Data analysis and discussion <ul><li>Research question 1: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the EFL learning strategies employed by the students? </li></ul>Note: Scores were rounded to 2 decimal places. 6 = most frequently used; 1= least frequently used .37833 2.78 (Medium use) 72 Overall strategy use 3 .34364 2.61 (Medium use) 72 F- Social 1 .29539 2.24 72 E- Affective 5 .61988 3.02 (Medium use) 72 D- Metacognitive 6 .62123 3.35 (Medium use) 72 C- Compensation 4 .46744 2.87 (Medium use) 72 B- Cognitive 2 .50492 2.58 (Medium use 72 A- Memory Frequency Ranking Std. Deviation Mean N
  26. 26. Data analysis and discussion <ul><li>“ I see no point in writing a diary. I think it’s a girly thing ” (M1, 4) </li></ul><ul><li>“ At home, I usually revise the lesson in class, note down the new words and structures and look up the new words in the dictionary” (M2, 3; F 1, 4) </li></ul><ul><li>“ In class, I underline the new words in the reading text or write down the new words in a notebook. Then I ask the teacher for the meaning and write down the meaning; sometimes look up the meaning of the new words at home using a dictionary, write the meaning in the notebook and try to learn the new words. ” (F3) </li></ul>Research question 1: What are the EFL learning strategies employed by the students?
  27. 27. Data analysis and discussion Comparing the current research findings with others Affective (M= 2.43) Metacognitive (M= 2.74) Memory (M= 2.74) Cognitive (M= 2.90) Social (M= 2.94) Compensation (M= 3.14) (5) Korean Affective (M= 2.28) Social (M= 3.14) Memory (M= 3.22) Cognitive (M= 3.23) Compensation (M= 3.37) Metacognitive (M= 3.39) (4) Turkish M= 2.89 Affective (M= 2.80) Cognitive (M= 2.84) Social (M= 2.90) Metacognitve (M= 2.91) Memory (M= 2.93) Compensation (M= 2.97) (3) Taiwanese Memory (M= 2.88) Social (M= 3.07) Affective (M= 3.16) Cognitive (M= 3.27) Compensation (M= 3.46) Metacognitive (M= 3.54) (2) Chinese M= 3.25 Memory (M= 2.91 Social (M= 3.12) Cognitive (M= 3.21) Affective (M= 3.22) Compensation (M= 3.30) Metacognitive (M= 3.74) (1) Chinese M= 2.78 Affective (M= 2.24) Memory (M= 2.58) Social (M= 2.61) Cognitive (M= 2.87) Metacognitive (M= 3.02) Compensation (M= 3.35) This study Overall 6 th 5 th 4 th 3 rd 2 nd 1 st Study Most frequently used Least frequently used
  28. 28. Data analysis and discussion Research question 2: Is there a significant difference in the frequency of EFL learning strategy used by the male and female students? (> .05) No association between the two variables 72 72 N . .092 Sig. (2-tailed) 1.000 .200 Correlation Coefficient LLS total score 72 72 N .092 . Sig. (2-tailed ) .200 1.000 Correlation Coefficient gende r Spearman's rho LLS total score gender Table 7: Correlations between gender and language learning strategy use
  29. 29. Data analysis and discussion Correlations between gender and sub- categories of language learning strategy use N= 72 Independent variable: Gender .001 .399 .32879 2.4559 .31979 2.7082 F. Social r=.399 (moderate) p < .05 .001 .399 .28152 2.1059 .27531 2.3236 E. Affective .532 .075 .59285 2.9667 .64011 3.0491 D. Metacognitive .149 .172 .66958 3.2222 .58378 3.4329 C. Compensation .995 .001 .46225 2.9156 .47414 2.8529 B. Cognitive r: close to “0” p > .05 .615 .060 .54091 2.5474 .48705 2.6051 A. Memory SD M SD M Comments p r Male N= 27 Female N= 45 Strategies
  30. 30. <ul><li>&quot; When I feel stressful, not just in my study but also in my daily life, I usually need to cry and get it all out &quot; (F2) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; When I am stressful, I often find someone who I can confide. We can talk over the problem. And then once I've had a chance to talk through all the things I usually feel better. &quot; (F3) </li></ul><ul><li>just “ let it pass and moved on.” (M1). </li></ul>
  31. 31. CONCLUSION
  32. 32. Summary of the findings <ul><li>Students are medium strategy users with the average mean score of 2.78. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the six sub-categories listed in Oxford’s (1990) SILL, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compensation and metacognitive were used most frequently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory and affective strategies were the least frequently used strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of sub- strategies used by the students is also limited. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Summary of the findings <ul><li>There were no significant differences between male and female students’ overall use of strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences were only reported in male and female students’ use of social and affective strategies with females being the more frequent users. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Recommendations <ul><li>At institutional level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convince teachers that learning strategies can be effective for their students (Wilson, 1988, cited in Chamot & O’Malley, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize workshops, collaborative planning and classroom observation feedback with peers (Joyce & Showers, 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the materials and curriculum that would enable teachers to carry out their strategy training </li></ul></ul>Emphasize strategy training
  35. 35. Recommendations <ul><li>For teachers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate strategy trainings into the lesson through well- organized activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help students gradually reduce their anxiety by using mental techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a positive attitude towards making error in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make use of diary, journal writing and informal sharing in the classroom </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Limitations of the research and suggestions for further research <ul><li>Bigger scope </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on different levels of proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><li>Small (72 students) </li></ul><ul><li>All at intermediate level </li></ul><ul><li> The research result can hardly be generalized to a bigger population </li></ul>Further research to decide whether these strategies are actually used by the students or not (immediate verbalization). Research tool- questionnaires:  the strategies reported are those that the subjects perceived themselves as using. Suggestions Limitation
  37. 37. Limitations of the research and suggestions for further research <ul><li>Other suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Areas for further research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the relationship between gender, language learning strategies and language proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy training </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Thank you for your attention!!