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Factors affecting lls

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Factors affecting lls

  1. 1. Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategies By: Siti Nadia binti Mohamad (P66515)
  2. 2. Introduction • Language learning strategy use is one of the most important factors in learning a language • Shen (2005) revealed that selecting appropriate strategies could enhance learner’s performance of second language learning • Oxford (1989) suggested that the variables that seem to influence language learning strategy choice include age, sex, attitudes, motivation, language learning goals, motivational orientation, learning style, aptitude, career orientation, national origin, language teaching methods and task requirements.
  3. 3. Factors affecting the use of LLS Gender Proficiency level Learning styles MotivationAptitude Language exposures Age Figure 1: Factors that affect the choice of LLS
  4. 4. Gender • Gender is one of the factor that influences the use of language learning strategies (Khamkhien, 2010) • Hong-Nam and Leavell (2006), for example, investigated learning strategy use of 55 students learning English as a second language (ESL) and they claimed that female students engaged in strategy use more frequently than males, where these female students preferred to use Social and Metacognitive strategies the most and Memory strategies the least, while males favored the use of Metacognitive and Compensation strategies the most and Affective strategies the least.
  5. 5. • Nonetheless, other studies pointed out that gender might not be one of key variables affecting the choices of language learning strategies. For example, Griffiths (2003) investigated the relationship between course level and frequency of language learning strategies used by 114 male students and 234 females. Based on the study conducted, there was no statistically significant differences according to either gender or age with strategy use.
  6. 6. Motivation • According to Gardner (1985), motivation and attitudes are the primary sources contributing to individual language learning • Oxford and Nyikos (1989) indicate that the learners with high motivation to learn a language will likely use a variety of strategies • Tamada (1996) in his study claimed that instrumental and integrative motivation had significant effect on the choice of LLS • Stoffa et al. (2011) in their study involving Korean immigrant college students, found that there was a significant relationship between motivation and direct LLS
  7. 7. Level of Proficiency • High level of proficiency is associated with the increase use of both direct and indirect LLS (Park 1997, Chen 2002) • Peacock and Ho (2003) asserted that there was a linear and significant correlations between proficiency level and strategy use in a study involving university students in Hong Kong, and based on this study, cognitive and metacognitive strategies have high correlation with students’ proficiency level • Rahimi et al. 2008 claimed that proficiency level is one of the strongest predictors of LLS among Iranian learners • Radwan (2011) – proficient students used more overall strategies but significantly more cognitive, metacognitive and affective strategies compared to less proficient students
  8. 8. Experiences in learning a language • a small number of studies have been carried out investigating the relationship between the experience of English study and language strategy use • Purdie and Oliver (1999) reported the language learning strategies used by bilingual school-aged children coming from three main cultural groups: Asian (predominantly Vietnamese or Chinese dialect speakers), European (children who spoke Greek and those who identified them-selves as speakers of Macedonian), and speakers of Arabic. The results showed students who had been in Australia for a longer period of time (3 or less years and 4 or more) obtained significantly higher mean scores for Cognitive strategies and for Memory strategies
  9. 9. • Opper, Teichler, and Carlson’s (1990) comprehensive study investigating studying abroad programs in Europe and The United States. As a result of their study, studying abroad is deemed to have an influence on students’ thought and learning style, especially in their actual ability in language learning.
  10. 10. Learning style preferences • An individual’s learning style preferences plays a role in determining the use of LLS • Extroverts prefer to use social strategies , introverts use more metacognitive strategies (Ehrman & Oxford 1990) • However, Rahimi et al (2008) found no significant difference between learning style and the use of LLS in a study involving Iranian learners • Alrieza and Abdullah (2010) claimed that there were qualitatively significant differences between Iranian EFL learners perceptual learning style preferences and the use of LLS
  11. 11. References • Shen, H.H. (2005). An investigation of Chinese-character learning strategies among non-native speakers of Chinese. System, 33, 49–68. • Oxford, R., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. Modern Language Journal, 73, 291–300. • Khamkhien, A. (2010). Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategy Reported Usage by Thai and Vietnamese EFL Learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 7(1). http://e- • Wharton, G. (2000). Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learner in Singapore. Language Learning, 50(2), 203–243.
  12. 12. Thank you

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