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Classical music worksheet

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Classical music worksheet

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Classical music worksheet

  1. 1. 1 CLASSICAL MUSIC WORKSHEET 0. INTRODUCTION The Classicism was the period that marked the transition from the Early Modern Period to Contemporary Age. Musically, we delimit its chronology between the years 1730 and 1820 approximatety. In the rest of arts, this period is known as “Neoclassicism”, because there was a new return to the ideals of Greco-Roman culture (based on reason, at the service of balance and beauty). Music shared with those arts the search for formal perfection and the ideal of beauty. The 18th century was the Age of Enlightenment. This cultural movement led to the French Revolution that broke the power of absolute monarchies. Music abandoned little by little church and palace circles in order to get closer to bourgeois circles like private houses, halls and public concerts. The composer turned more and more into a liberal artist who wanted to reach out new audiences with humane and naturaI music, elegant and pleasant for everybody, in which formal clarity and melodic simplicity predominated. 1. The next documentary is about the classical music. Pay attention to it and complete the sentences according to what you hear in this video. a. This video is about the musical developments of the early ………… b. The development of the gallant and the ……………..styles which used …………….., simple harmonies, and a clearer tonality, led to the birth of the symphony. c. This instrument called the ………………….. used hammers to strike the strings and allowed the musician to play both ……………………. sounds simultaneously. d. Some of the most important composers in history also created their music during this time, including ………............., ……………………, and a young …………………. e. The new style operas often featured stories about a commoner outwitting an aristocrat. The style was developed most fully in Italy, where it was called …………………….. f. The sentimental style tried to reflect people’s common ………………………… g. Melody was now ……………….., harmony was ……………… and ………………., and even the baseline receded in to the background.
  2. 2. 2 1. MUSIC IN THE CLASSICAL PERIOD. 1.1 Classical period chronology. 1750-1800 1.2 Classical period history context. I. The age of Enlightenment>>promoted the values of reason and science>>led to the French Revolution that broke the power of absolute monarchies. II. Improvements in education, agriculture and science. III. “Neoclassicism” in arts >> new return to the ideals of Greco-Roman culture (reason, at the service of balance and beauty). Music looked for formal perfection and the ideal of beauty. 1.3 Function of music I. Music is considered to be a form of entertainment 1.4 The musicians role. II. Closer to bourgeois circles (private houses, halls and public concerts). The composer turned more and more into a liberal artist, selling their scores and receiveing a percentage of the sales of concert tickets Classical music features: rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, concertante style, contrast, movement and instruments. a) Rhythm: b) Melody: Melody is more understandable and more easily memorized because of its balanced structure. Simple, memorable, little ornamentation c) Harmony: simple, vertical, clear, balanced d) Texture: accompanied melody (Melody is more understandable and more easily memorized because of its balanced structure) e) Instruments and instrumental ensembles. i. New instruments: 1. The clarinet: single reed woodwind instrument. 2. The forte piano invented by Cristofori in 1711 ii. The orchestra: fisrt symphony orchestra in Mannheim. 1. String: violins, violas, cellos, double basses. 2. Woodwind: oboes, bassons, flutes, clarinets. 3. Brass: trumpets, trombones. 4. Percussion: timpani. iii. Other ensembles: duet, trios, quartets
  3. 3. 3 3. Musical forms: the sonata, the symphony and the concerto. a) The sonata structure: i. The main composition model that was applied to the first movement of all instrumental forms. 1. Exposition: presentation of two musical themes linked by a <bridge>. The theme A usually has an energetic nature. The theme B usually has a more lyrical nature. 2. b.Development: the music moves to other keys by developing and combining the material from the two main themes. 3. c. Recapitulation: return to exposition but with small modifications. lt usually ends with a final coda which gathers material from one or both themes. Instrumental forms b) The sonata (musical form-type of composition) Compound instrumental form bound for one or two solo instruments. Four movements. c) The symphony. Compound instrumental form bound for a whole orchestra. lt is made up of four movements: Allegro, Adagio, Minuet or Scherzo and Allegro. d) The concerto. Compound instrumental form for orchestra or soloist (usually piano, violin or some wind instrument). lt has three movements: Allegro, Adagio and Allegro. 4. Identify the musical feature in the next excerpts: 1......................................................................................................................... 2.........................................................................................................................
  4. 4. 4 3......................................................................................................................... 4......................................................................................................................... 5......................................................................................................................... 6......................................................................................................................... 7......................................................................................................................... 8.........................................................................................................................

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