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Baroque Period 1600-1750
Vocal- Opera <ul><li>Developed from stories of ancient Greek tragedies </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of an opera </li></ul><ul><...
Opera-Italian <ul><li>Florentine- end of 1500’s group of noblemen wanted to bring back ancient Greek tragedy </li></ul><ul...
Opera-French <ul><li>Didn’t develop until second half of 1600’s  </li></ul><ul><li>It was inspired by French dramas and co...
Opera-England <ul><li>Wasn’t very popular </li></ul><ul><li>Italian operas were performed in London </li></ul><ul><li>More...
Opera- Comic <ul><li>Appeared in the early 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>Way to lighten the emotions </li></ul><ul><li>It had p...
Instrumental <ul><li>Became as important as vocal music </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation increased </li></ul><ul><li>Basso ...
Instruments <ul><li>Keyboards- clavichord, harpsichord, organ </li></ul><ul><li>Strings-violin and bass viol </li></ul><ul...
Musical forms <ul><li>Fugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early carried over from Renaissance, written for keyboard instrument cal...
Musical forms <ul><li>Chorale Prelude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for church </li></...
Orchestral Music <ul><li>Composed mainly of strings </li></ul><ul><li>Basso continuo </li></ul><ul><li>Not much color defi...
Composers <ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)-considered the father of counterpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Georg Friedric...
Composers <ul><li>Henry Purcell (1659-1695)- at age 20 he became the organist for Westminster Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Jean...
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Baroque Period

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Baroque Period

  1. 1. Baroque Period 1600-1750
  2. 2. Vocal- Opera <ul><li>Developed from stories of ancient Greek tragedies </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of an opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always opened with an overture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestra and chorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performers and costumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage design (lighting and scenery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some solo part (solo aria, duet, or trio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recitative </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Opera-Italian <ul><li>Florentine- end of 1500’s group of noblemen wanted to bring back ancient Greek tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Roman- focused more on religious subjects rather than Greek tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Venetian- less choral and orchestral music, more emphasis on formal arias and elaborate stage machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Neopolitan- late 1600’s and early 1700’s, orchestra’s role diminished and chorus almost non-existant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Castratti- male sopranos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinfonia- Italian overtures </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Opera-French <ul><li>Didn’t develop until second half of 1600’s </li></ul><ul><li>It was inspired by French dramas and court ballet </li></ul><ul><li>French overture </li></ul><ul><li>Made less use of virtuosity </li></ul><ul><li>Accentuation of literature </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter and simpler-like airs </li></ul><ul><li>Greater importance on dramas </li></ul><ul><li>Added ballet </li></ul><ul><li>Increased the use of the orchestra </li></ul>
  5. 5. Opera-England <ul><li>Wasn’t very popular </li></ul><ul><li>Italian operas were performed in London </li></ul><ul><li>More involved in theater music forms </li></ul><ul><li>Three forms of music theater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masque-extravagant play performed privately for nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental- played during the action scenes in plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entr’acte- performed between acts or scenes in plays </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Opera- Comic <ul><li>Appeared in the early 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>Way to lighten the emotions </li></ul><ul><li>It had parody, humor, and satire </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken dialogue replaced recitatives </li></ul><ul><li>Characters, aria text, and melodies of serious operas were often parodied </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects were now light, frivolous, and humorous </li></ul><ul><li>Small ensemble groups and choirs were used </li></ul><ul><li>Commonplace characters </li></ul><ul><li>Popular tunes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Instrumental <ul><li>Became as important as vocal music </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation increased </li></ul><ul><li>Basso continuo- figured bass </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic variation </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between chamber ensemble and the orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Equal tempered tuning of instruments </li></ul>
  8. 8. Instruments <ul><li>Keyboards- clavichord, harpsichord, organ </li></ul><ul><li>Strings-violin and bass viol </li></ul><ul><li>Winds- bassoon, flute, and oboe </li></ul><ul><li>Brass- trumpets, horns, and trombones </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion- timpani </li></ul>
  9. 9. Musical forms <ul><li>Fugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early carried over from Renaissance, written for keyboard instrument called fantasia, canzona, and capriccio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fugue of the 1600’s replaced these </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic- cantus firmus, canzona , and dance suites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground- short recurrent theme in bass line and changing counterpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dance Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common dance movements- courante, gigue, allemande, and sarabande </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Musical forms <ul><li>Chorale Prelude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvisatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked distinct thematic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked formal unity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sonata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-movement work for solo and small chamber groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 types-unaccompanied solo, accompanied solo, and trio solo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church sonata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chamber sonata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tower Sonata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard Sonata </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Orchestral Music <ul><li>Composed mainly of strings </li></ul><ul><li>Basso continuo </li></ul><ul><li>Not much color definition </li></ul><ul><li>Solo concerto-written for one instrument and orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Concerto grosso-2 or 3 solo instruments playing in opposition of the orchestra </li></ul>
  12. 12. Composers <ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)-considered the father of counterpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759)-Wrote the Messiah’s Hallelujah Chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)-wrote “Orfeo” the first Opera ever recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713)-wrote only for instrumentists </li></ul>
  13. 13. Composers <ul><li>Henry Purcell (1659-1695)- at age 20 he became the organist for Westminster Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Phillippe Rameau (1683-1764)- always interested in adding flair to his music such as storm scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Vivaldi (1680-1743)- felt that the soloist and orchestra should be in conflict with each other </li></ul>

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