The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point

12,875 views

Published on

A haunted house dominated The Bronx during the Civil War and the Gilded Age before falling before developers.

Published in: Education, Business
5 Comments
8 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
12,875
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
317
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
5
Likes
8
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point

    1. 1. 1859 “Whitlock’s Folly” near Southern Boulevard 
 “Cradle of Cuban Liberty.” Hommock Manor, the country seat of B. M. Whitlock, Esq., is situated in West Farms Township, on the East river, or Sound, about 3 miles from Harlem. The estate contains several hundred acres; but that part on which the dwelling is situated, is, as its name implies, a complete Hommock of about 20 acres - which at high tides is nearly surrounded by water - and is approached from the main part of the estate by a causeway. --"The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Local Kids Said the House Was Haunted “Haunted” Mansion of Hunts
    2. 2. Artifacts from present day Soundview, Bronx The land is purchased from Indians This may certify whom it may concerne that we Shonearoekite, Wapomoe, Tuckorre, Whawhapenucke, Capahase, Quannaco, Shaquiski, Passachahenne, Harrawooke, have aleined and sold unto Edward Jessup and John Richardson, both of the place above said, a certain Tract of land bounded on the east by the River Aquehung or Bronxkx... -from original deed with native signers 1664 Similar deed signed by native sachem’s for Rye 1661
    3. 3. Arent van Curler, later van Corlaer, (1619, Nijkerk, Gelderland - 1667) He was born in Nijkerk, Netherlands. In 1643, Van Curler married the widow of Jonas Bronck, Teuntie Joriaens, aka Antonia Slaaghboom Joanas Broncx Signs Treaty with the Indians in 1642. Joanas Broncx Established a Farm along the Harlem RiverWilliam Kieft governor of New Amsterdam 1638-1647
    4. 4. Ferris Grove Farm Hunt Leggett Hunts Point The first landholders on Hunts Point were Edward Jessup and John Richardson. They bought the land from Native Americans. The land was inherited by both Gabriel Leggett (1637-1700) who married Elizabeth Richardson daughter of John Richardson, and Thomas Hunt of Grove Farm, who married Jessup’s daughter also named Elizabeth. 1666 land grant for Hunts Point from King Charles II of England John Throckmorton arrives from Rhode Island about 1642 1664 Morris 1671 Broncx 1644 Hutchinson Massacre 1643
    5. 5. Old Morrisania seat of the manor built on the site of Jonas Bronck’s original settlement 1671 now rail yards Lewis Morris
 First lord of the manor of Morrisania (15 October 1671 – 21 May 1746)
    6. 6. “Debatable Lands.” debatable land Richardson & Jessup Lewis Morris by marriage land passed to Hunt and Leggett
    7. 7. Historic Places and Features Overlaid on a 1921 map Leggett claim Morris claim Hunt Cemetery Debatable Land
    8. 8. First Lord of the Manor of Morrisania Lewis Morris gives “part of the Manor of Morrissania,” land “by the sound that divides Long Island and the Islands of Nassau from the Continent.” to his father-in-law James Graham who is also an influential politician.The deed claims the land known as the “debatable land” for Morris who then transfers it to Graham. “Wigwam Brook. But by some falsely called Sakrahunck...” “by the House of Gabriel Legget...” “Including the same Jeafards neck with the Hammock Meadows and Marshes thereunto...” Deed circa 1738-1746 1671-1746
    9. 9. Westchester Road (Avenue) is cut through Morris land 1808-1814 Thomas Leggett 1755-1843 Gouverneur Morris 1752-1816 Bronx Accent: A Literary and Pictorial History of the Borough edited by Lloyd Ultan, Barbara Unge Gouverneur Morris Battles Thomas Leggett The Leggett and Morris families battle over access to Morrissania for 150 years. Map showing Leggett’s Creek as Wigwam Brook
    10. 10. Hunts Tavern established 1730s Dickey estate
 Last estate in Hunts Point Paul Spofford estate Dennison mansion 1850 Faile mansion Francis Barretto Julia Coster Bath House 1910 P.S. 48 Leggett estate 1890 Thomas Leggett Jr. 1755-1843
 Direct descendant of Gabriel Leggett Corpus Christy Monastery Rose Bank is seat of the Leggett estate by the 19th century Waddington Mansion 1808-1828 sold to Francis Barretto Fox Estate Hoe Estate 1856 Whitlock/Casanova mansion 1859 The land becomes the site of country estates for NYC’s rich
    11. 11. Thomas B. Leggett (son of WIlliam) sold this land to Benjamin M. Whitlock...
 Whitlock’s wife sold it to Inocencio Casanova in 1867. -Steven Jenkins East River East River Thomas B. Leggett 1823-1895
    12. 12. view of the East River from Hunts Point on a 1864 real estate map south views north views
    13. 13. Benjamin Morris Whitlock was born on January 31, 1815. On May 5, 1851 he married Amelia Mott Wilson. Whitlock’s sister Josephine married William L. McDonald who would figure in the 1864 Confederate plot to burn 13 hotels in NYC retaliating for Southern setbacks during the Civil War. 1857 Whitlock built an ornate manor costing $350,000 or $10 million today
    14. 14. 1857 Wealth of the World net worth of $2,000,000 in 1857 = $60,000,000 today Vesey and Dey St. in 1857 Ann St. Broadway 1857 Outspoken against succession and for slavery.The Civil War would bankrupt Whitlock Benjamin Morris Whitlock
    15. 15. Thaddeus Whitlock is Benjamin Whitlock’s fatherJosephine is Benjamin’s sister Franklin Market, foot of William St., New York City, 1820.
    16. 16. WHITE, BENJAMIN (1755-1841), merchant. Benjamin and Mary (Morris) White of Shrewsbury, NJ are the maternal grandparents of Benjamin M. Whitlock. Benjamin White, a Quaker served in the American Revolution under General Daniel Morgan. Benjamin White was postmaster of the village of Shrewsbury, for fifty-three years, receiving his appointment from Washington. His daughter Mary, 18 weds Thaddeus Whitlock, 22 June 3, 1803 Daniel Morgan Shrewsbury Monmouth County
    17. 17. tea water pump in Chatham Square Chatham Square near Bayard and Bowery ThaddeusWhitlock was a school teacher. “There is no good water to be met with in the town itself; but at a little distance there is a large spring of good water, which the inhabitants take for their tea and for the uses of the kitchen.” Professor Kalm 1782 1812 1748 Thaddeus Whitlock is living in the 10th Ward in the 1820 census 1767 Bulls Head Tavern
    18. 18. Thaddeus Whitlock teacher
    19. 19. Thaddeus Whitlock was a Mason Holy Royal Arch are a branch of Freemasons Royal Arch Masons meet as a Chapter; in the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch. Early 19th century masonic meeting places are shown at right. Including a connection to Tammany Hall a powerful democratic club that ruled NYC for more than a century Tammany Hall, now the "Sun" Building, early meeting place of Grand Lodge and of many subordinate Lodges. St. John', Hall, a still earlier scene of the labors of the Fraternity, is the tall flat- roofed building on side street. City Hall (after 1813) Tammany Hall original St. John’s Hall
    20. 20. St. John’s Hall Frankfort St. Thaddeus Whitlock was treasurer of the Masonic Lodge at the time of this bitter rivalry between the Albany and New York City factions. He is credited with playing a moderating role that helped the Lodge survive a long and bitter struggle. Scandalously bore them off to St. John’s Hall
    21. 21. A rare look into the personality and character of Thaddeus Whitlock History of the Jerusalem Chapter
    22. 22. 1825 1827 1816 teaches at locations surrounding Chatham Square the central business district of the fast growing outer wards of the city Thaddeus Teaches Near Home 16-18 Oliver are properties are owned by Thaddeus who is listed from 1825 as using them as a school. In this 1867 sanitary map, made thirty years after the properties were sold upon Thaddeus’ death in 1831 the buildings are three stories tall. 16 Oliver has a store and a liquor store is in 18 Oliver. This corner location would later become site of one of the first public schools in New York. Thaddeus is listed in 1816 using this address on long ago de-mapped Roosevelt St. as a school
    23. 23. Thaddeus Whitlock owned land used for the first public school in New York City. The current PS 1 was built in 1897. It’a also known as the Alfred E. Smith elementary school after the 4 time governor of New York who was born at 25 Oliver St. Alfred E. Smith residence Thaddeus Whitlock properties 1832 Alfred E. Smith school at Oliver and Henry St. 1873-1944 Mariner’s Temple Baptist Church illustration 1808. Public Schools were built on corner lots in the early days of public education. Considered optimal for light and air circulation. But by the 20th century these locations were too valuable for purchase by the city.
    24. 24. 59-61 Bowery were eventually demolished for the Manhattan Bridge approach. Across the street was the Bowery Theater and Bulls-Head Tavern used in 1783 by Geo.Washington as an HQ 1826-1929 1750-1858 Thaddeus Whitlock lived here He lived in the corner of Canal and Bowery
    25. 25. Thaddeus Whitlock, 51 dies Sunday evening December 18, 1831 He had the respect of his friends who mourned his death for three months
    26. 26. Mary Whitlock, mother of Benjamin, Edward and Josephine is listed in city directories as living on Cherry Street after the death of her husband Thaddeus. Their mother is living on Cherry Street near the waterfront in 1834 She is living nearby two years later in 1836 The East Side of the early and mid-19th century was different than today. There were fine residential streets built up with homes of old and well-to-do families. East Broadway was lined with old aristocratic residences, some can still be seen behind the signs and grime of everyday activity on this now bustling Chinatown main drag. Henry Street was lined with trees and two and three story brick buildings. Most of the surrounding streets were similar. The homes were occupied by these well-off people, prosperous merchants and professional men with a shopping district for women at Grand and Canal Streets. But in time this section of the city deteriorated and the old families moved uptown. In 1832 shortly after her husbands death Taken from newspaper advertisement December 30, 1832 for neighboring house at 144 Cherry Street: The house and lot No. 144 Cherry St. being 27 feet front and rear, 149 feet 4 inches deep on the westerly side, and 149 feet 11 inches deep on the easterly side. The house is of brick with slate roof, 3 stories high, covering the entire front of the lot, and 54 feet deep with a two story back tea room in the rear; the whole interior is of modern finish, parlors very spacious and elegant, with marble chimney pieces — the sleeping rooms numerous and unusually large and airy — extensive vaults front and rear —capacious rain water cistern and a well of excellent water in the yard. The house is fitted up with grates in all the principal stories, and gas fixtures introduced throughout with burners and chandeliers… noting that test or convenience could suggest, has been omitted.
    27. 27. December 16, 1835 The Great Fire destroyed more than 500 buildings along the East River A witness during the investigation saw 20-year old Benjamin Whitlock near his store at 84 Front as buildings exploded No. 86 and 88 Front St. are are said to be used to store saltpeter, an explosive component of gunpowder.
    28. 28. The fire broke out at 9 o'clock last evening. I was writing in the library when the alarm was given, and went immediately down. The night was intensely cold, which was one cause of the unprecedented progress of the flames, for the water froze in the hydrants and the engines and their hose could not be worked without great difficulty. The firemen, too, had been on duty all last night, and were almost incapable of performing their usual services. The fire originated in the store of Comstock & Adams, in Merchant Street — a narrow, crooked street, filled with high stores lately erected and occupied by dry goods and hardware merchants, which led from Hanover to Pearl street. The buildings covered an area of a quarter of a mile square closely built up with fine stores of four and five stories in height, filled with merchandise, all of which lie in a mass of burning, smoking ruins, rendering the streets indistinguishable. Philip Hone Mayor of NYC describes the fire in his diary
    29. 29. 1837 Bread Riots and Panic A depression sets in 1837 and lasts until 1844 Some merchants go under, but others thrive. Money is available through banks that have access to markets in Cuba where slave labor makes sugar king.
    30. 30. In 1841 Mary Whitlock is living in a boarding house at 42 Cliff Street 28 Cliff Street, the first house on the street still stands. Its design was typical. Boarding houses were common for single NewYorkers. 42 Cliff was also home to the extended Whitlock family. John W.Whitlock is listed as living here with Mary in 1841. In 1843 they are joined by 28-year old Benjamin. In 1846 Brother Edward is also living at the 42 Cliff boardinghouse. Benjamin’s runs his grocery business at 84 Front, John and Edward are merchants and agents at 89 Wall St. and John later at 122 Front St.The Whitlock family seems on the road to upward mobility.
    31. 31. In 1842 a decade after his father’s death Benjamin Whitlock establishes a partnership with George M. Nichols of Louisiana
    32. 32. George M. Nichols was a resident of Louisiana and did extensive business with the independent Republic of Texas government before Texas became a state. George M. Nichols represented the firm in Texas until 1856. Records in the Texas archives show that agents of Benjamin M. Whitlock’s firm travelled widely in the south. Apparently Whitlock’s business connections reached down into Texas when the the Lone Star state was an independent country. A letter written by George M. Nichols to the Republic of Texas asking for funds to be sent to him in care of Whitlock, Nichols & Co. 84 Front St. Texas Library and Archives Commission
    33. 33. The Whitlock brothers and mother lived in a boardinghouse at 42 Cliff Street in 1845-46. Doggett's New-York City Directory Benjamin M. Whitlock marries his first wife Maria Louisa Hawley in 1846. They have one child, Sarah Louisa born in 1847 according to The Hawley family official genealogy. The monument in Green-Wood cemetery however says the child was buried in 1854 at age — 11 years 8 months 21 days — putting the birth October 13, 1842. The child’s mother Maria Louisa Hawley Whitlock dies August 20, 1849 Joy and tragedy strike within a few years Death Record for Maria Louisa with cause of death erased
    34. 34. Irad Hawley 1793-1865 Benjamin M. Whitlock marries his first wife Maria Louisa Hawley Whitlock in 1846. They have one child, Sarah Louisa born 1847. Maria Louisa dies during a cholera epidemic in NYC in the summer of 1849 at the age of 25. Sarah Louisa dies in 1854. Sarah Lavinia Hawley Born June 15, 1845, Died March 12, 1932. Sarah Louisa Hawley’s sister at the family home 47 Fifth Ave. Sarah Holmes 1801-1891 INSCRIPTION, Maria's stone: Left side: To the memory of Maria Louisa Hawley Whitlock Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God Front: Died August 20, 1849 Right: Erected as a tribute of affection by her husband. INSCRIPTION, Sarah's stone: Front: Sarah Louisa Hawley Whitlock Died July 2, 1854 Aged 11 years 8 months and 21 days Right: Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven— Mathew XIX.14. Mother of Maria Louisa and Sarah Louisa 47 Fifth Ave. Father of Maria Louisa and Sarah Louisa
    35. 35. NYC EPIDEMICS Yellow Fever 1805, 1822, 1870 Small Pox 1804, 1824, 1834, 1851, 1855, 1872, 1875, 1892, 1901 Cholera 1832, 1837, 1849, 1854, 1866 Scarlet Fever 1836, 1837 Typhus Fever 1892 Diphtheria 1897 Meningitis 1904 Influenza 1918 Cholera epidemics in NYC 186618491832 Maria Louisa dies August 20 1849, 233 die from cholera, 30% of all deaths that week. 1849 cholera deaths = 5,070 In 1850, the average age of death in New York was 20 years and 8 months. Child mortality was about 40% by the age of five so families tended to be large, about 6 children per woman.
    36. 36. In 1849 Maria L., Benjamin & mother Mary Whitlock is living at 9 Rutgers Place Rutgers Presbyterian Church built in 1841 at 16-18 Rutgers St at Henry St. In 1863 it became St. Teresa”s Roman Catholic Church. Rutgers congregation moved uptown Home of Irad Hawley, father of Maria Louisa at 21 Rutgers before he moved to 47 Fifth Ave. in 1855 1832 sale description of 21 Rutgers St. notice cistern, to collect rainwater
    37. 37. Edward A. Whitlock, Benjamin’s brother, is employed by James Barr Wilson, prominent NYC merchant whose daughter Amelia (age 20) marries Benjamin M. Whitlock (age 36) in May 1851. Edward A. Whitlock was in New York City to witness this lease signing in March 1850 The store of Suydam & Wilson was the favorite meeting place of the merchants in the vicinity, among whom were Samuel Gilford, Edward H. Nicoll, Peter Remsen, Henry J. Wyckoff, Gabriel Wisner, James Bailey, Francis Saltus, Stephen Whitney, and others, all now deceased. Robert Lenox, Samuel Craig, and John Laurie, among other prominent rich Scotch merchants, were frequent visitors. THE OLD MERCHANTS OF NEW YORK CITY 1863
    38. 38. Moses Taylor 1806-1882 James Barr Wilson Birthdate: 1801 (86) Death: Died 1887 Catherine Ann Taylor (Wilson) Birthdate: February 8, 1810 (82) Death Died December 31, 1892 Siblings Amelia Mott Whitlock (Wilson) Birthdate:1831 (79) Death: Died 1910 Immediate Family: Daughter of James Barr Wilson and Sarah Elizabeth Wilson Wife of Benjamin Morris Whitlock married married May 1851 daughter Benjamin Morris Whitlock Birthdate:1815 (48) Death: Died 1863 Immediate Family: Husband of Amelia Mott Whitlock Moses Taylor, a little-known but representative figure in the history of the mercantile and industrial development of the United States and Cuba in the nineteenth century. Taylor was a New York City merchant in the West Indies trade (chiefly Cuba), a long-time president of City Bank of New York (Citibank), an entrepreneur and manager in the railroad and mining industries, a life-long Tammany supporter, an ambivalent War Democrat with personal and business ties to the South, and an important member of August Belmont's clique of Democratic businessmen. He focused on the Cuban trade, which, in the first four decades of the 19th century, was surpassed only by Great Britain and France in the volume and value of exports to the United States. He began exploiting the connections in Cuba and within four years had established a regular shipping run to the West Indies. The powerful Drake family of Havana made him their New York agent. This was an extraordinary indication of confidence which enhanced his position as a trader, and led to similar arrangements with other Spanish and Anglo-Cuban planters. NYPL Moses Taylor papers WHITLOCK’S CUBAN CONNECTION Moses Taylor was his new wife’s uncle Domino Sugar on the East River with Williamsburg Bridge 1936. Company was founded by sugar magnate H.O. Havermeyer a business associate of banker merchant Moses Taylor with large land holdings in Cuba where slavery existed until 1886 MARRIED 1855: On Thursday 15th inst., at St. George's Church by the Rev. Dr. Tyng, Percy R. Pyne, to Miss Albertna Shelton, eldest daughter of Moses Taylor Esq. Percy R. Pyne, a founder of City Bank (Citibank.) Joined Moses Taylor & Co. in 1835, becoming a partner in 1842. Managed sugar business as agent to Santiago Drake & Co., Havana, Cuba,
    39. 39. In the nineteenth century City Bank, a predecessor of today’s Citibank, primarily issued short term credits to locally based merchants to facilitate the import-export trade. Moses Taylor supervised the investment of profits by the sugar planters in United States banks, gas companies, railroads, and real estate, purchased and shipped supplies and machinery to Cuba, operated six of his own boats and numerous chartered vessels in the Cuban trade, repaired and equipped other boats with goods and provisions, provided sugar planters with financing to arrange for land purchases and the acquisition of a labor force The labor force that Taylor and City Bank were helping the Cuban planters acquire was slave labor, often smuggled illegally from Africa on boats outfitted in the port of New York, in violation of the international ban on the Atlantic slave trade. Taylor and City Bank’s financing of the Cuban sugar trade between 1830 to 1860 aided and abetted illegal slave trading Percy R. Pyne, a founder of City Bank (Citibank.) Joined Moses Taylor & Co. in 1835, becoming a partner in 1842. Managed sugar business as agent to Santiago Drake & Co., Havana, Cuba, Tomás Terry y Adán Terry initially became involved in the slave trade in Cuba. He was connected to the New York City banking world through Percy Pyne National City Bank (Citibank) 38 Wall St. (renumbered 52) Moses Taylor’s personal resources and role as business agent for the leading exporter of Cuban sugar to the United States proved invaluable to the bank, helping it survive financial panics in 1837 and 1857 that bankrupted many of its competitors.
    40. 40. real estate map of 84 Front St. in 1860s 81-83 Front street 1927 MCNY 1848 Whitlock’s wholesale grocery is operating from 84 Front Street near the waterfront “Goods adapted to the Southern and Western Trade”
    41. 41. Fulton St. Broadway Whitlock builds an office made of brick in the back lot of this building Fulton Street 164
    42. 42. Benjamin M Whitlock, "United States Census, 1850" He resides in the 18th Ward with a household of family members and servants Name: Benjamin M Whitlock Event Type: Census Event Date: 1850 Event Place: New York City, 
 ward 18, 
 New York, 
 NY, 
 United States Gender: Male Age: 29 Marital Status: Race (Original): Race: Birthplace: New York Birth Year (Estimated): 1821 Household Gender Age Birthplace Benjamin M Whitlock M 29 New York Sarah L Whitlock F 2 New York Mary Whitlock F 64 New Jersey Caroline Whitlock F 21 New York Edward Whitlock M 28 New York Josephine Whitlock F 19 New York Susan Wright F 32 New Jersey Bridget Heslen F 17 Ireland Mary Ann Heslen F 18 Ireland Mary Murray F 16 Ireland Mary Mcguire F 19 Ireland Margaret Mcgown F 13 New York S Arthur Ferris M 28 Connecticut 26th 14th Servants?
    43. 43. A $3,000 ($90,000*) investment on East 55th St. in 1851 worth $12,000 ($400,000*) in 1860. *current value Investigation by the state superintendent -Insurance Department, Albany, 
 September 12, 1860 Whitlock Real Estate Speculation: Park Avenue Jones Woods on the upper east side of Manhattan was a forested area in this 1851 image These houses at 55th and Lexington became Babies’ Hospital where the first incubator for premature babies was demonstrated in 1891.
    44. 44. Whitlock’s fine wines and cigars
    45. 45. Whitlock’s move to upscale East Sixteenth Street near the recently opened upscale Union Square Park Approximate location of 9 E.16St Last of the 1830s built mansions at 16th St and 5th Ave. shortly before demolition Illustration of a 16th Street mansion from the mid-19th century
    46. 46. Whitlock’s daughter Adeline was born January 22, 1854 and baptized May 14 at the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church at 19th Street 1852 map Benjamin M., Amelia M. Whitlock “admitted on profession” to Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church on March 10, 1853 9 E16th Street approx. location Pastor James Waddel Alexander (March 13, 1804 – July 31, 1859)
    47. 47. “The neighborhood is one of the most desirable of suburban residences in the divinity of the City of New York.” -United States Insurance Gazette On May 1, 1854 Benjamin M. Whitlock purchases 200 acres from Thomas B. Leggett for $25,000 ($700,000 today) in Hunts Point. Thomas B. Leggett 1823-1895 Sold land to BM Whitlock May 1, 1854 1849 Map of Hommock Park five years before purchase by Whitlock. The farm of Thomas B. Leggett was called Rose Bank. Part of the “Debatable Land” between the early settlers it had been owned by Lewis Morris in the 17th century and passed to his son-in-law and first New York Attorney General James Graham, passing back to the Leggett family after the American Revolution
    48. 48. 36th St. & Park Avenue in 1944 with JP Morgan Library in the background MURRAY HILL LOTS FOR SALE BY WHITLOCK To “GENTLEMEN OF TASTE” 219 Madison Ave. built in 1853 by John Jay Phelps and sold in 1882 to JP Morgan The property at the corner of 37th St. and Park Ave.was purchased from J.P. Morgan II to build the Union League Club of New York c. 1931 Showing the property from Madison Ave. looking southeast in c. 1855 much of the property being sold by Whitlock is vacant with a few small buildings. The three homes are the heart of today’s Morgan Library At Murray Hill, horses pulled street cars through an open cut in Fourth Avenue. This was long before Grand Central went up at 42nd Street. In 1846 the Common Council decided that the cut, running from 32nd to 40th, created too great a crosstown detour and ordered the railroad to build cross-bridges at 34th and 38th Streets. By that time the railroad was running steam engines. In 1850 the Council ordered that the tunnel be roofed over to cover the “great chasm” of the open cut. Parklike malls were then ordered for the area over the cut, and they in turn brought town house and even mansion construction to what was renamed Park Avenue no later than 1860. A tunnel turns an unsightly RR cut into valuable park frontage
    49. 49. 1856
    50. 50. 1859 “Whitlock’s Folly” Hommock Manor, the country seat of B. M. Whitlock, Esq., is situated in West Farms Township, on the East river, or Sound, about 3 miles from Harlem. The estate contains several hundred acres; but that part on which the dwelling is situated, is, as its name implies, a complete Hommock of about 20 acres - which at high tides is nearly surrounded by water - and is approached from the main part of the estate by a causeway. It is said that the house was almost rebuilt of stone imported from Caen, France. In the days before the Civil War, the mansion was the scene of a lavish hospitality; and the generation of bon vivants just passed away were frequent guests at its generous board. Stephen Jenkins
    51. 51. A major force in New York society and politics Whitlock cautioned his southern clients against secession, but when the Civil War broke out he was soon bankrupted, dying before the end of the conflict. In the years leading up to the war Whitlock participated in schemes to annex Cuba as a slave state, he supported a pro-slavery constitution for Kansas and angrily opposed John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry. Whitlock was well connected by marriage and business to the most prominent merchant families in New York. He was admired by many, apparently including his political enemies for his success and wealth. B.M. & E.A.Whitlock & Co... SOUTHERN HEADQUARTERS ON THE CUSP OF CIVIL WAR
    52. 52. MAJOR B. F. JONES representative of B.M. Whitlock is a Confederate advisor and soldier Major Jones was born in Gwinett county, Georgia, on the 20th of June, 1831, and in the common schools acquired his education, after which he entered upon his business career as clerk in a country store near his home.With a young man's desire to see something of the world and seek a wider sphere of usefulness and activity, he left home at the age of 20 years and went to NewYork City.With most commendatory letters he carried with him he found no difficulty in obtaining employment, securing a situation in a dry-goods and carpet house on Cortlandt street. A year later he entered the service of Whitlock, Nichols & Company, a noted grocery firm, which was afterward succeeded by B. M. & E.A.Whitlock & Company. In the service of this house he traveled all over the south and was its representative at the time of the breaking out of the civil war.
    53. 53. BF. Jones advises at a meeting of the Confederate Congress He utilized the information and experience that he had acquired through travel and business knowledge to the advantage of the newly organized Confederate government... He was a southern man by birth and training, and, true to the principles and teaching in which he had always been trained, when the war was inaugurated he hastened to Rome, Georgia, and in April, 1862, joined the Cherokee artillery... he was made quartermaster Confederate States Capitol Richmond,Va
    54. 54. In 1874 Jones became the superintendent of the National Water-works Company. He was born in the State of Georgia, his ancestors on his father's side coming originally from Scotland. His mother was a descendant of an old Dutch family, and Scottish sagacity and thrift, together with Dutch tenacity, thoroughness and equable disposition combined, are leading characteristics of this gentle- man. His first business experience was gained at his birthplace, among his friends and neighbors ; but, finding this field too small for his ambitious efforts, he sought and found a wider one in New York, where he remained until the commencement of the "late unpleasantness," when he enlisted as a private in the Cherokee Artillery, at Rome, Ga. He remained in the army during the continuance of the strife, and at the close of the war, by the sheer force of inherent merit, he had risen from the ranks to the important post of Inspector General of the War Department, at Richmond, Va. Cherokee Artillery
    55. 55. A FATEFUL PARTNERSHIP: CHARLESV. MAPES AND B.M.WHITLOCK The Union Sketch Book Harvard Alumni 1913 “The war wiped out their Southern accounts and obliged them to succumb.”
    56. 56. Whitlock’s Building, Beekman and Nassau Maoes’ Factory in Newark where Benjamin M. Whitlock had a financial interest
    57. 57. *The note was held by the Eastern Bank of Alabama in Eufaula. * Apalachicola steam boat ran cotton to the Gulf of Mexico Whitlock’s southern business in the slaveholding south in Barbour County, Alabama where cotton was king.
    58. 58. A Slave Cabin in Barbour County, Near Eufaula, Alabama. Eufaula, Alabama.
    59. 59. Lowry was United States Marshal for the Eastern District of Tennessee between1853 and 1857. Greenville is located on the northeastern part of the state where few people own slaves. Lincoln’s vice-president Andrew Johnson is a close friend and political associate of William M. Lowry who also she a close friendship with Benjamin M. Whitlock. List of U.S. Marshals in the Eastern District of Tennessee
    60. 60. Andrew Johnson, Governor and Senator from Tennessee, vice-president under Abraham Lincoln, 17th President of the United States Valentine Sevier home in Greeneville, Tennessee built by an early settler named Sevier, founder of the state of Tennessee. The house was later owned by William M. Lowry and Andrew Johnson. William M. Lowry born inVirginia and moved to Tennessee. Was a merchant and banker and close friend and political associate of Andrew Johnson.Although actively opposing secession from he Union when the war broke out he became a Col. in the Confederate States of America Army. After the war Lowry and his son moved to Atlanta and started a savings bank. Mr. Wm. M. Lowry Andrew Johnson
    61. 61. American Slavocracy Targets Cuba
    62. 62. Cuba did not end its participation in the slave trade until 1867 Slavery in Cuba was associated with the sugar cane plantations and existed on the territory of the island of Cuba from the 16th century until it was abolished by royal decree on October 7, 1886. More than a million African slaves were brought to Cuba as part of the Atlantic slave trade; Cuba did not end its participation in the slave trade until 1867
    63. 63. Whitlock sat on many political committees including this one to annex Cuba as a slave state “The Truth” NYC based pro-independence newspaper with a map of Cuba “The New-York Democracy” means the pro- slavery Democratic party. “The Area of Freedom” means areas where slave holding is still allowed within the United States. “Acquisition of Cuba” means adding Cuba to the United States as a slave state. These men are well known New York City politicians and merchants with business in southern states.
    64. 64. One of the original Cuban flags waved in Cardenas by filibuster led by Gen. Narciso Lopez in 1850, Later became the national flag. Filibusters make war on countries at peace with their home country. Newspaper editors saw Cuba as ripe for annexation to the USA Filibuster NY Herald February 10, 1858
    65. 65. The Sun fanned the flames of intervention
    66. 66. Cecilia Valdes is arguably the most important novel of 19th century Cuba. Originally published in New York City in 1882, Cirilo Villaverde's novel has fascinated readers inside and outside Cuba. CiriloVillaverde secretary to Lopez escaped to NYC publishing a pro-independence newspaper married Emilia Casanova who founded Las Hijas de Cuba (Daughters of Cuba) living in the Whitlock Mansion after 1868 CiriloVillaverde
    67. 67. 1854: Emilia Casanova 22 years old disembarks at Philadelphia, She will marry CirilioVillaverde and become a leader of the “Daughters of Cuba” a movement to free Cuba from Spanish colonialism Passenger manifest
    68. 68. Whitlock moves to Hunts Point in 1857 building an estate he names Hummock Park
    69. 69. The Bronx River in History & Folklore By Stephen Paul DeVillo Rockland Foxhurst Woodside Sunnyslope Mansions of Hunts Point The Chateau — Whitlock’s mansion Estates of the Merchant Princes
    70. 70. BASE OF OPERATIONS NY TIMES OCTOBER 5, 1905
    71. 71. “...[Whitlock] commenced operations by removing to his grounds, from a distance of two or three miles, forest trees of large size... where they are now flourishing... for the most part Elms and Maples A country-seat “3 miles from Harlem on several hundred acres, the dwelling sits a complete Hommock of about 20 acres - which at high tides is nearly surrounded by water - and is approached... by a causeway” “...the Hommock is devoted to an ornamental pleasure ground.” “... stables accommodate 40 horses, and the carriage house about half that number of carriages.” “... rises a bell tower of three stories, the lower one is fitted as a lecture and a school room” “... fitted up with numerous gas burners. The gas for lighting... is supplied from a highly architectural and ornamental gas-house... filled from the retorts in a building adjoining.” “A beautiful... curved drive skirts the base of the Hommock, on the north is... the bathing-rooms, boat-house... while statuary, and seats of various kinds embellish the grounds.” The Horticulturist of Rural Art and Rural Taste, Volume 13, Plan for a Rose-House, William Webster 1858
    72. 72. B.M. & E.A. Whitlock’s store at 13 Beekman St. near Nassau and Broadway. Nearby the old Brick Church was used as a hospital during the American revolution. In 1857 the Church was ripped down and replaced by the first New York Times building.* *B.M. Whitlock was an early investor in Murray Hill Real Estate along Park Ave. where the Brick Church relocated Whitlock building old Brick Church City Hall Park 1870 1856 Astor House Hotel
    73. 73. 1856 B. M. WHITLOCK's ROSE-HOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. 
 One great object in publishing this plan, is to show how advantageously old materials may be worked into a house of this kind; for all the circular-headed windows, with a corresponding number of square ones, belonged to the old Brick Church in Beekman Street, which was pulled down to make room for stores; so that the plan had to be got up to meet the material, and not, as is usually the case, the materials to suit the plan. - Horticulturist And Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste The Brick Church, demolished in 1857, across from Whitlock’s business on Beekman Street.The ruins are used by Whitlock to build a rose house. Ny Times 1853 Demolition of Old Brick Church 1857 Beekman St.
    74. 74. Built with Windows from the old Brick Church “All the circular-headed windows, with a corresponding number of square ones, belonged to the old Brick Church in Beekman Street, which was pulled down to make room for stores; so that the plan had to be got up to meet the material, and not, as is usually the case, the materials to suit the plan. ” -- NY Times
    75. 75. “Decorations were intended to depict Louis's grandeur and understandably omit any mention of French losses and defeats.” Wikipedia entry on Louis XIV King of France "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre" 1643-1715 (Wikipedia entry) Bedroom of Louis XIV -Versailles
 Soyez le Bienvenue A room fit for a New York merchant prince Louis XIV roomVersailles Louis XIV “Sun King”
    76. 76. P. 178 Waldo & Jewett 1845 Address: 1 Cortlandt Street 82. Portrait of a Gentleman B.M.WHITLOCK l New York Historical Society - Vo I. 77 American Academy of Fine Arts and American Art Union ...Exhibition Record National Academy home on Broadway from 1859 to 1865 Records of the National Academy of Fine Arts show Whitlock purchased this painting. Purchaser
    77. 77. Whitlock spoke at this angry pro-slavery meeting “[against]The treasonable raid of John Brown and his followers...” December 19, 1859 John Brown raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harper’s FerryVa. October 16, 1859 helped start the Civil WarHarper’s Ferry I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land can never be purged away but with blood. I had as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed, it might be done. - November 12, 1859
    78. 78. Great Union Meeting A reaction to John Brown’s raid "...chiefly to promote southern trade," and to express "sympathy for the slave owners of the south, for the men who buy, or are to be coaxed to buy A.T. Stewart's silks and Ben Whitlock's brandy." -A sometime friend and fellow-laborer in the old Whig cause to James W. Beekman in Tribune Dec. 9, 1859 Academy of Music corner of Irving Place and 14th St.
    79. 79. Benjamin M.Whitlock 1860 His long interest in the abolition of slavery led Dr. Houghton to found the first black Sunday school in New York City and to harbor runaway slaves as part of the Underground Railway, one stop on which was the basement of the church's rectory. During the Civil War Blacks were burned, hanged, and mutilated during the Draft Riots of July 1863... Angry mobs trying to get at those who had found sanctuary within the church twice thronged the gates of the churchyard... George Houghton lifted the processional cross from its place in the church, walked out to face the rioters, held it before them, and said, "Stand back, you white devils; in the name of Christ, stand back!" With such courageous words, George Houghton held off the unruly mob, and those in the church remained safe for several more days, until the mob had been quelled and dispersed. George Hendric Houghton Henry Ward Beecher held mock “auctions” at which the congregation purchased the freedom of real slaves. The most famous of these former slaves was a young girl named Pinky, auctioned during a regular Sunday worship service at Plymouth on February 5, 1860 William Lloyd Garrison Lewis Tappan Harriet Tubman
    80. 80. Simeon Draper Thurlow Weed William Seward ran against Lincoln as a moderate on slavery. He later became Lincoln’s Secretary of State Whigs and Bankers: New York “moderates” on slavery back a New Merchant Bank
    81. 81. About 4 o'clock the visitors again embarked, and proceeded up the River through Hurl (Hells) Gate, about twelve miles, to the suburban villa of B.M. WHITLOCK, Esq., in Westchester County, on the banks of the river... After being photographed in line on the lawn in front of Mr. WHITLOCK's fine new brown-stone mansion, taking a look at his sixty blood horses, and extensive repository of carriages, imbibing a timely drink, and viewing the grounds, the company was invited to a collation spread for three hundred in a shady grove near one of the residences. -- NY Times July 23, 1860 “...the bronze doors, with their elegant coat of arms and the inviting inscription, "Soyez le Bienvenue," were never thrown open with greater cordiality than when an entire regiment from Georgia was being entertained, the officers lodged in the rooms and the men encamped on the lawns.” -Valentine’s Manual of Old New York Southern Militiamen known as Savannah Republican Blues Visit Whitlock promoting reconciliation on the eve of Civil War
    82. 82. A Southern Woman's War Time Reminiscences: The Seventh Regiment entertained the Savannah Republican-Blues and the brothers B. and B. M. Whitlock gave a grand entertainment to them up the Hudson, where my "lovely Nell" and I were in attendance. In a letter home I used this language: "It seems to me as if our people were military-mad, and had rushed together for a last fraternal embrace, to separate and fight like maddened devils; so violent do altercations and argument come when the questions of slavery, free soil, etc., are discussed." And when I went South some of my friends dubbed me the "bloody prophet." -Mrs. Elizabeth Lyle Saxon N.Y. 7th Regiment (scene in what is today Washington Square Park) took on the Savannah Republican Blues in a “friendly” drill competition in 1860. A Bloody prophecy Mrs. Elizabeth Lyle Saxon Involved in woman's suffrage and social reform issues in Memphis and New Orleans. 1832-1915
    83. 83. Benjamin M. Whitlock’s“Hommock Park” in West Farms is heavily mortgaged $220,000 $550,000 $110,000 The Chateau Leggetts Creek
    84. 84. In 1859 directors of the Homestead Fire Insurance Company include William L. McDonald, who became a known as a confederate spy. Also Benj. M. Whitlock, his father-in-law James B. Wilson, and influential banker-merchants Moses Taylor, Edward Haight and Paul Spofford. Paul Spofford Edward Haight Moses Taylor Whitlock Building corner Nassau and Beekman St.
    85. 85. Whitlock’s Empire Crumbles Homestead Fire Insurance Company. Published: September 21, 1860 From the Journal of Commerce The New-York Supreme Court has appointed PHILO HURD, Esq., (late President of the Company,) the Receiver, , to close up and settle the affairs of the Homestead Fire Insurance Company, the Company's outstanding obligations having been already provided for and assumed by other responsible Companies… The Company was doing a sound and prosperous business, and was abundantly safe, notwithstanding the enmity of those interested in the rejected securities and its previous control, and the jealousy of other Associations, either from political bias or envy at its success. It certainly appears desirable that the prosperous and increasing business of the Company, and its reliable connections, should be preserved for the organization of a new Company, and that the facilities for insurance in the South and West, so long overlooked, should be continued. Investigation by the state superintendent -Insurance Department, Albany, September 12, 1860 Benjamin M. Whitlock invested his mortgaged estate into 
 The Homestead Insurance Company — which never sold a policy — until shuttered by state regulators in 1861. Operating from Whitlock’s office building Homestead was actually worth $50,000 ($1.3 million) not the advertised $150,000. ($4.1 million)
    86. 86. A DAUGHTER’S DEATH "WHITLOCK -- In Hommock Park, on Sunday, Oct. 21, after a brief illness, ADELINE WILSON, daughter of Benjamin M. and Amelia Whitlock, aged 6 years and 9 months. The friends of the family are respectfully invited to attend her funeral, from the residence of her parents, Hommock Park, Westchester County, this (Tuesday) afternoon, at 3 1/2 o'clock, without further notice. Carriages will meet at Mott-Haven, the Harlem train leaving 26th-st. at 2:30 P.M. NYTimes October 1860 Whitlock Family Plot Green Wood Brooklyn
    87. 87. SERIOUS ACCIDENT TO MR. WHITLOCK — On Saturday evening Mr. B. M. Whitlock, while standing in the depot corner of White and Centre streets, was accidentally jammed between two cars, and badly crushed. Three of hie ribs were broken, and he sustained other Injuries; He was removed to the New-York Hospital. NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE, MONDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1860 1867 view of Chatham (Park Row) and Centre Street looking north.
    88. 88. 1885
    89. 89. LINCOLN ELECTED Lincoln speaks at Cooper Union before his election
    90. 90. Mayor Fernando Wood NYC’s Copperhead Mayor “Then it may be said, why should not New York city, instead of supporting by her contributions in revenue two—thirds of the expenses of the United States, become also equally independent? As a free city, with but nominal duty on imports, her local Government could be supported without taxation upon her people. Thus we could live free from taxes, and have cheap goods nearly duty free. In this she would have the whole and united support of the Southern States, as well as all the other States to whose interests and rights under the Constitution she has always been true.” Time for compromise between North & South was running out Mayor Wood January 06, 1861 Copperheads or “Peace Democrats” wanted to end the war retain slavery and return to “constitutional” rule
    91. 91. A YEAR LATERTOTHE DAY AFTER HIS DAUGHTER’S DEATH WHITLOCK’S MOTHER DIES -ON WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN HER HUSBANDS 81ST BIRTHDAY. THE FUNERAL IS HELD ATTHE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH A STATION ONTHE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD NYTimes October 1861
    92. 92. Mourners Arrive on the Harlem River Rail Road Before the Civil War (1861–1864), Mott Haven was the site of two stations on the Underground Railroad — the villa of Charles Van Doren, which stood at East 145th Street and Third Avenue, and the Mott Haven Dutch Reformed Church, which still stands on East 146th Street. 1861They cross the Harlem River Bridge
    93. 93. ...A good many merchants, in order to avoid catastrophe were, the correspondents added, already abandoning their Establishments in New York and were preparing to set up business in "some city of the Confederate States" Charleston Mercury March 21,1861 ...the extensive grocery house of B.A. & E.A. WHITLOCK... had already completed negotiations for “going to Savannah.” Philip Foner 1941 The Civil War brought profound changes to the New York region. At the beginning of the war, the loss of trade with the South and disruptions caused by military activity and Southern privateering forced a number of banks and mercantile houses into bankruptcy. Most New York banks were forced to suspend payments and the building trades shut down operations. In 2004 Whitlock’s creditor bank merges into JP Morgan Chase B.M. & E.A. Whitlock goes out of business March 1862.
    94. 94. Bloody street fighting in NewYork City Draft Riots July 1863 NewYork erupts into rioting against military conscription. Burning the Abolitionist homes Lynchings
    95. 95. -- Benjamin M. Whitlock, Esq., formerly one of the prominent wholesale grocers of this City, died on Wednesday last at his residence in Westchester County, after a very brief illness. Mr. Whitlock, in consequence of the present troubles, lost overwhelmingly, because of the failure of his Southern customers to meet their engagements, and was compelled to relinquish his business, which had before been one of the most profitable in the City. He was a man of finest business capacity, and of noble, generous impulses. His hospitality was lavish, and he was noted especially for keeping one of the finest studs in the country, his stock and stables being the centre of admiration and interest. These and the remainder of his property he sacrificed when misfortune overtook him, in order honorably to meet his sudden embarrassments. Benjamin Whitlock’s Obituary death on August 15, 1863 Descended of a horse owned by Whitlock
    96. 96. Benjamin M.Whitlock’s Grave The Green-Wood Cemetery Brooklyn
    97. 97. “For I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is agree to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.” “Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death I will fear no evil for thou art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.” EPITAPH Biblical lines on B.M. Whitlock’s tomb. 2nd Timothy a verse describing the prophet as having suffered for a cause
    98. 98. Whitlock Family Plot
    99. 99. A Bank with Benjamin M. Whitlock as a director, including James B. Wilson, his father-in-law, his business associates and Hunts Point neighbors Edward Haight and Paul Spofford. A federal “Greenback” note backed by loans from banks supporting the Union $50 million loan to the Union cause two weeks after Whitlock’s death.
    100. 100. October 1864 Final Humiliation Moses Taylor 1806-1882 Edward Haight 1817- 1885 Whitlock’s Hommock Auctioned Whitlock’s uncle Moses Taylor handles the estate
    101. 101. Benjamin M. Whitlock’s sister Josephine is married to a known confederate spy named William Lawrence McDonald The Fires Next Time
    102. 102. William L. McDonald living in Orange, New Jersey and Benjamin M. Whitlock announce a limited “copartnership” beginning on January 1, 1856 Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer February 7, 1856
    103. 103. Wm. L. McDonald and Benjamin M. Whitlock are partners in May 1860 renting a “handsome cottage overlooking the Sound” in Hunts Point then the town of West Farms that is “adjoining the residence of the subscribers” Previously Benj. M . Whitlock sic: Dater Long Island Sound
    104. 104. 1860 United States census shows Wm. L. McDonald age 33, born in Canada, living in West Farms. McDonald is a carriage manufacturer worth $25,000, about $750,000 in 2017. Wm. L. McDonald lives with his wife Josephine, sister of Benjamin Whitlock, an infant daughter Mary, two servants born in Ireland and John Holt a “mulatto” coachman born in Alabama. From a biography of William McDonald’s son
    105. 105. Union Troops burn Atlanta and Charleston leaving bitter rage behind among the defeated confederates Atlanta is burned on November 16, 1864 Burning of Columbia, SC on February 17, 1865. Refugees flee Sherman’s Army
    106. 106. February 8, 1865 A NAWARK REBEL. WILLIAM LAWRENCE MCDONALD, who figures in the papers as the rebel agent in Canada, and the leading spirit in the Chesapeake, St. Albans, and New-York hotel- burning affairs... In 1860, he associated with Mr. B.M. WHITLOCK, (his brother-in-law,) in the carriage business... "GUS" MCDONALD, a brother of the above, who also lived in Orange, but recently a resident of New- York, is in custody on a charge of harboring the incendiaries while they were in that city. -- Newark Advertiser. The man who tried to burn New York November 25, 1864 Southern Gentleman (about to Fire the Hotel), Harper's Weekly.
    107. 107. “a vast and fiendish plot” P.T. Barnum’s Museum St. James Hotel Metropolitan Hotel United States Hotel Lafarge Hotel Astor Hotel St. Nicholas Hotel Tammany Hall November 25, 1864 Conspirators set fires in NewYork Hotels
    108. 108. COPPERHEADS & CONSPIRATORS Jacob Thompson apparently leader of Confederate Secret Service operations in Canada. Robert Cobb Kennedy Confederate Agent- Hanged March 25, 1865 For Setting New York Fires (picture taken two days before execution) Clement Vallandigham The Northwestern Confederacy While in Canada, Vallandigham met with Jacob Thompson, who was a representative of the Confederate government. He talked to Thompson about plans for forming a Northwestern Confederacy, consisting of the states of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois, by overthrowing their governments. leader of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the American Civil War. Abraham Lincoln speaking about Vallandigham
    109. 109. Married to Benjamin Whitlock’s sister Josephine Whitlock, McDonald does extensive business with the south 15 Beekman is directly adjacent to B.M. &E.A.Whitlock William “Larry” McDonald 1821-1895 Merchant, Sutler, Spy, Conspirator
    110. 110. WILLIAM LARRY MCDONALD SUTLER: a person who followed an army and sold provisions to the soldiers. Having become heavily indebted to Mr. GREEN, carriage-maker in this city, "Larry," as he is familiarly called, tendered his services to him to pay his obligations, and on the former gentleman being appointed sutler to the Twenty- sixth Regiment, he accompanied him to Virginia. After the first stock of goods had been sold, LARRY came North and purchased $2,000 worth of goods for Mr. GREEN, and, on his return to Virginia, deliberately drove them into the rebel lines, where they were, of course, confiscated. “A most bitter and consistent partisan of the rebels.” McDonald fakes his capture by the rebels inVirginia
    111. 111. LARRY: FROM SUTLERTO SPY While in Richmond, as is since ascertained, he lived in luxury, affiliating with all the rebel leaders, giving them information as to the number and position of our forces, and other valuable facts. He was then released on a pretended parole, and came to this city, and while visiting his wife at Westchester, New-York, learned that his exploits had been divulged to the War Department, and detectives were after him. He immediately shipped as a sailor on a schooner for New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the authorities. -A Nawark Rebel, New York Times 
 January 8, 1865 McDonald, now a POW is “paroled” to New York and then “released” in February 1863
    112. 112. McDonald, his brother “Gus” and niece Katie named in an investigation into the plot but never charged in the crime despite Larry’s confession to an undercover New York City police detective.. WILLIAM L. MCDONALD, the rebel agent in Canada, was in 1860 proprietor of the "Southern Carriage Repository," in this city, at No. 514 Broadway. His trade, which had been almost exclusively with the South, having been shut off by the war, he became one of the most bitter and consistent partisans of the South anywhere to be found in the North. NYTimes Feb. 6, 1865
    113. 113. Queen’s Hotel in Toronto where the conspirators hid after the attempt to burn New York “Gus” McDonald (brother of “Larry”) is arrested when detectives raid his piano store on Franklin St. The plotters had been meeting there. Martin was a Confederate agent.
    114. 114. “Gus” McDonald is part of the conspiracy with daughter Katie McDonald Katie’s uncle William L McDonald, brother to Gus was Whitlock’s brother-in-law. He rented a hideout Confederate Operations in Canada and New York -HeadleyNew York Times, November 26, 1864
    115. 115. William L. McDonald: Confederate Conspiracies Biological warfare plot by selling Yellow Fever exposed clothing to soldiers The following is the evidence of Edwin J. Hall I had not the slightest idea of what his mission was, or what enterprise he was engaged in, until I heard it mentioned by Wm.L. McDonald, a few weeks since; when I got the telegram from the Clifton House, I knew that Hyams had been away from the city for some time previous, and had but recently returned; McDonald, in speaking of Hyams' enterprise, said it was taking clothing infected with yellow fever into the United States, to be introduced among the soldiers; McDonald told me this in reply to my having asked him if he know anything about it. New York Times, May 26, 1865 Luke Pryor Blackburn (June 16, 1816 – September 14, 1887) was an American physician, philanthropist, and politician from Kentucky. He was the alleged ringleader of the plot. He was never charged. “too preposterous for intelligent gentlemen to believe.” Yellow Fever decimated troops during the Civil War Unknown during the civil war is that yellow fever is spread by mosquitos and not through physical contact with the victims or their clothing.
    116. 116. Did Larry McDonald meet with John Wilkes Booth, assassin of Abraham Lincoln? St. Lawrence Hall, Toronto, 1860, where the meeting occurred. John Wilkes Booth
    117. 117. Eatontown, New Jersey. Originally part of Shrewsbury which was founded in 1693. 1880 Census of Eatontown, New Jersey shows confederate spyWilliam L. McDonald is a “Carriage Manufacturer,” his wife Josephine, sister of Benjamin M.Whitlock, occupation “Keeping house,” his son EdwardW. identifies a “Farmer.” They live with Josephine’s unmarried sister CarolineWhitlock. McDonald claims he was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Eatontown Village in 1878 showing property of Miss C. Whitlock which is now the site of the village police and ire department. Wm. L. McDonald lives out a quiet life as a Carriage Manufacturer in Eatontown, NJ which is formerly part of Shrewsbury and the home of Benjamin White postmaster of the village of Shrewsbury, for fifty- three years. White family has a long standing marriage alliance with the Whitlock family AFTERTHE CIVIL WAR
    118. 118. William L. McDonald Biography of a son and father. The son changed family name from Mc to Mac… The son Pre-prohibition beer bottle by MacDonald bottling company in Eatontown, NJ. Following in the footsteps of BM Whitlock, albeit déclassé version. Former Wm. L McDonald carriage factory
    119. 119. BURIAL PLACE OF WILLIAM L. & JOSEPHINE MCDONALD A peaceful end in the burial ground Christ Church - built 1769 Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, New Jersey Josephine Whitlock McDonald Birth: unknown Death: Nov. 20, 1892
 
 Inscription: wife of William L. McDonald - dau of Thaddeus and Mary Whitlock 
 Note: died in Eatontown, sister of Benjamin M. Whitlock William L McDonald Birth: Jan. 12, 1821 Death: Apr. 5, 1895 Inscription: born in Quebec, Canada Note: implicated in the 1864 plot to burn New York City
    120. 120. Edward A.Whitlock Son of Thaddeus and Mary Whitlock was born Jan. 7th 1819 in the City of NewYork died May 27th 1865 aged 46 years Abraham Lincoln assassinated April 14, 1865 The Green-Wood cemetery Brooklyn, NY
    121. 121. NY Times After the death of Mr (Benjamin M.) Whitlock it was transferred by deed from his widow to Innocencio Casanova a Cuban patriot under date of November 1, 1867 for a consideration of $150,000 The first struggle for Cuban independence was then in progress and the house became a rendezvous for the supporters of Cuba Libre It is stated that its great cellars became storehouses for powder rifles and other munitions of war which were smuggled aboard the vessels which stole in and out of the creeks contiguous to the house and which sailed away on secret filibustering expeditions to the Ever Faithful Isle. It is also said that the ill fated Virginius took on board her unfortunate crew here With the downfall of the rebellion the visits of the dark skinned mysterious looking men ceased and the house was deserted while whispers of murdered Spanish spies and of ghosts and strange and unaccountable noises in the vacant house filled the neighborhood. Stephen Jenkins
    122. 122. Cuba’s Ten Years’War, 1868-78 On the grounds of his own small estate Carlos Manuel Cespedes sounded the work-bell of his sugar mill to assemble his slaves and their gave them their freedom. On the following day he read a declaration, known as the Manifiesto de la Junta Revolucionaria de Cuba setting forth the right to self-government of the protesters. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo a Cuban planter who freed his slaves, and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years' War. General Manuel de Quesada elected as of the Cuban rebels’ Chief of the Armed Forces April 12, 1869. On October 10, 1868, the beginning of the Ten Years' War in Cuba occurred and is known as El Grito de Yara (The Cry of Yara) and was the beginning of the First Cuban War of Independence.
    123. 123. 1871 The Casanova family was deeply involved in the struggle for Cuba’s independence On a trip to Cuba Casanova learns about a threat to his life from the Spanish government “I am under my flag!Viva Washington!” - Inocencio Casanova to Spanish officials from the deck of the American steamer “Columbia.” February 25, 1871
    124. 124. Casanova’s Plantation “La Armonia” was located outside city of Cardenas. Despite uprisings slavery was legal in Cuba until October 7, 1886 Casanova’s home Slave life on Armonia sugar plantation
    125. 125. Inocencio Casanova’s sons run the families sugar plantation from Cardenas.They fear for their lives from the Cuban government. JOSE N. CASANOVA. Mr. Casanova was appointed and confirmed as American Consul, March 1, 1859, as from New York. He was born in France, and established a prominent family in Guayaquil; apparently he continued in the position of American Consul until 1861. Brief History Of The American Consulate General At Guayaquil, Ecuador By FREDERIC WEBSTER J. CODING GUAYAQUIL 1920 His son Jose was imprisoned in Cuba. Jose had been American Consul in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    126. 126. Casanova’s daughter Emilia organizes the Daughters of Cuba to support independence fighters. One hotbed of militant activity was an old mansion in what is now the Hunts Point area of the Bronx. There, the activist Emilia Casanova (daughter of Inocencio) and her husband, exiled author Cirilo Villaverde, worked in support of the Cuban rebels, and are said to have collected arms and ammunition for smuggling out to Long Island Sound and shipment south to Cuba. - Museo del Barrio Emilia Casanova deVillaverde CiriloVillaverde
    127. 127. Emilia Casanova deVillaverde Cardenas, Cuba Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Vicki Lynn Ruiz Raffles to raise funds for weapons
    128. 128. Letters of Emilia Casanova excerpts To benefit the next game of illustrious general Quesada I write you these lines.The disasters and reverses that have undergone expeditions of men and the ammunition of war , because of the ineptitude and stupidity of the ones in charge of their organization and handling, have produced deep misfortune, causing desperation to those Cubans who see clearly the origin of the evil... At this time I don't want to speak on misfortunes and discords between you, but you must count on the devotion of all Cubans and to distinguish between the sincere patriot and the weak speculator in patriotism. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo a Cuban planter who freed his slaves, and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years' War. General Manuel de Quesada elected as of the Cuban rebels’ Chief of the Armed Forces April 12, 1869. --Emilia Casanova de Villaverde ...the purpose I write is to inform you that the next shipment of arms and ammunition has been sent by the “League of Daughters of Cuba”
    129. 129. Underground Passages A tunnel under the mansion. The secret tunnel came out in the river at Duck Island Bronx Historical Society Historians entered the abandoned mansion in the early 20th century shortly before it was razed and photographed tunnels that apparently led to the inlet of Leggetts Creek at a small rock called Duck Island. Both are now below Tiffany street.
    130. 130. Virginius leaves NYC bound for Cuba TheeVirginius was a Confederate blockade runner outfitted to smuggle arms to Cuba’s revolutionaries during the 10 years war between 1868 and 1878. “...the purpose I write is to inform you that the next shipment of arms and ammunition has been sent by the League of Daughters of Cuba” -Emilia Casanova de Villaverde October 4, 1870
    131. 131. NYC waterfront 1877 potential target of a Spanish ironclad John Roach, Maritime Entrepreneur By Leonard Alexander Swann
    132. 132. Execution of the Virginius crew who apparently sailed from the Mansion on October 4, 1870 to supply arms to Cuban rebels.
    133. 133. In this letter Miguel de Aldama, from New York, writes to José González Curbelo. He explains that there is not much he can do about the abuses committed by Emilia Casanova de Villaverde,among others, that have a detriment effect to Cuba's independence efforts. He goes on to say that this behavior will continue so long as they keep receiving support from people with candid intentions. Miguel de Aldama letter to José González Curbelo complaining about Emilia Casanova de Villaverde, June 19, 1874 CurbeloAldama Cuban newspapers attack Casanova as a “witch” using her wealth to back the insurgents.Who she rivaled in commitment and militancy. Here she’s portrayed as the selling insurgent flags “wholesale or retail.” Emilia’s home town of Cardenas was where Narciso Lopez first flew the Cuban flag.
    134. 134. “I wouldn’t change my casita del oeste not even for Mrs. Grant’s Blue Room in the White House. No, not even my dining room, which is more dear [to me] than all the dining rooms in the palaces of Washington.” “I want nothing more than this. (for the U.S. to express support for abolition of slavery, encourage commerce, oppose oppression of Cubans, property, freedom) and basta! (enough), it’s late and my eyes and arms hurt me. Adios! loving son of my soul.” Washington, February 2, 1872 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/latinashistory Mi Querido Hijo: There are ladies here who beg to be with me with the idea of going to places where entry is forbidden to the common public. And I don’t doubt that being Americans they are surprised like that lady in Montreal when we went to see Victoria Bridge, of the easy way doors are opened for me. People offer me their respect. They are smothering me so much it bothers me instead of giving me pride. I don’t need formal entry to the wives of senators, ministers and other persons in Washington. In this, Enrique played a big role especially in the hotel, well he is so adorable and lively he attracts attention and people come to me to acariciarlo (hug, pet, or express endearments) and hear him speak in English and Spanish so well. People are anxious to serve me, bring me the paper, especially where there is news of Cuba. This is all great praise, but for someone else: not me. I wouldn’t change my casita del oeste not even for Mrs. Grant’s Blue Room in the White House. No, not even my dining room, which is more dear [to me] than all the dining rooms in the palaces of Washington. One cup of coffee there tastes better than [the] dozens of exquisite and costly plates that I’m served in Arlington. I have to edit the talk I’m giving Congress in the name of Las Hijas. (goes on to ask Congress to support rights of belligerence. ) Assure your father I want nothing more than this. (for the U.S. to express support for abolition of slavery, encourage commerce, oppose oppression of Cubans, property, freedom) and basta! (enough), it’s late and my eyes and arms hurt me. Adios! loving son of my soul. Don’t forget my advice to be loved and respected by all. Recibe el cariño y bendición de tu madre, Emilia Washington, February 2, 1872
    135. 135. Massive wrought-iron chandeliers adorned halls and chambers. On my visit I found bell-pulls in the immense apartments, which I vigorously rang, causing mysterious ringings in distant rooms below with true ghostlike effect —but never a servant appeared. Chance led us into the strangest place of all, the secret chamber containing the great safe, itself as big as a room.
 The entrance was by a hidden door. The place was lighted by opaque oval panels that exactly resembled the surrounding woodwork. High up beneath the lofty roof was a mysterious place, but whether it was an elaborate chapel or an immense ballroom we never learned. -Valentine’s Manual of Old New York A MYSTERIOUS MANSION’S LAST DAYS
    136. 136. The Oak Point Bathing beach and Pavilion in 1887 Hunts Point public bath 1910 Casanova’s waterfront becomes an entertainment area William M.Allen 1814-1878 landowner Allen’s wife Catherine Leggett 1817-1890
    137. 137. Casanova estate is sold to the East Bay Land Improvement Company and English investors looking to host the 1893 Colombian Exposition NewYork loses the Fair to Chicago NYTimes 1890
    138. 138. Gen. Egbert Viele founder of the East Bay Land Improvement Company
    139. 139. NY & Harlem RRYards The railroad yards of the NY & Harlem are established to the south west of William Leggett’s land. Bungay Creek on this map is now the course of 149th Street. Eventually named the Oak Point yards the railroad would expand to encompass the lands to the east of the former “debatable lands” that figured in the legal battles between Leggett and Morris holdings that began in the 17th century.1888
    140. 140. Just prior to the demolition of the building, the author had occasion to visit it. The once magnificent old structure appeared in a pitifully dilapidated state. The grounds surrounding it were overrun with rank weeds and other unsightly growth. The massive bronze doors, with their Spanish coat-of-arms, turned heavily upon their squeaky hinges, as if reluctant to admit the feet of common mortals. As one entered the dimly lighted hall, he seemed to be stepping into the shadows of former ages, for everything looked so sombre and sepulchral. An unnatural hollow sound echoed and reverberated thru the spacious hall as one's footsteps fell upon the marble floor. There were numerous stairways leading to the cellar, some of which were rather risky to descend, as they were narrow and dark. The cellar was strewn with old rubbish, and on the south side of the building there was a large kitchen. A rusty iron oven a three-legged stool and an old wooden table upon which stood several broken dishes, were the only furnishings of the room. The place was musty and malodorous and shrouded in darkness. With the aid of a lantern the old tunnel was located. It was choked up with dirt and rubbish, but there was enough of it exposed to give a fair conception of what it had once been. On either side of the tunnel were half a dozen cells built of solid rock with heavy iron hinges riveted to both the floors and walls. To what use they could have been put can only be surmised. Could they speak what tales thej might have unfolded! — HARRY T. COOK
    141. 141. Demolition of the Casanova Mansion 1905
    142. 142. Evening Telegram 1906 Church E. Gates lumber yard, NYPL National Gypsum Co. 1952 C.E. Gates lumber yard and National Gypsum previously known as Rock Plaster Co.
    143. 143. Graft and Pollution in 1909 Louis M. Haffen first Bronx Borough President
    144. 144. “MAN OF MYSTERY” NYTimes January 2, 1922
    145. 145. NY Times 1922 Casanova site 2012

    ×