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Asthma introduction Quiz Content slides 1 - 8


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What causes it & how can it be treated?

View this slide deck to become familiar with cause and effect. Then look at the quiz below.

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Asthma introduction Quiz Content slides 1 - 8

  1. 1. Airway narrowing in asthma: What causes it & how can it be treated? ature=endscreen Perhaps, start with a general overview of asthma, as per these YouTube clips, or other?
  2. 2. Airway narrowing in asthma: outcomes At the completion of this module, students will understand that:  airway narrowing is the primary cause of asthma symptoms  mucous hypersecretion, airway wall thickening & broncho- constriction are important determinants of airway narrowing  airway narrowing also contributes to another characteristic feature of asthma – airway hyperresponsiveness  mast cell products are the key mediators of airway narrowing in the “early phase reaction” of allergic asthma  airway wall inflammation is an important driver of airway narrowing in the “late phase reaction” of allergic asthma  management of asthma typically involves effective use of both controller and reliever medications
  3. 3. What is asthma? 1. An airways disease in which exposure to various provoking stimuli (triggers) make airways narrow too much and too easily. These triggers don’t cause narrowing in nonasthmatic people. Airways don’t narrow Nonasthmatic Airways narrow AsthmaticExposure to triggers e.g.  allergen  respiratory virus  exercise  drugs, incl. aspirin  irritants, smoke  extreme emotions etc. …
  4. 4. What is asthma? 2. In asthma, airway narrowing can cause bronchial obstruction and airflow limitation, which leads to symptoms of  wheezing  breathlessness,  chest tightness, and  nighttime or early morning coughing. These symptoms are variable, intermittent, worse at night and provoked by triggers including exercise
  5. 5. AsthmaticNonasthmatic What is asthma? 3. Airway narrowing ( internal diameter of airway) is usually caused by variable combinations of:  contraction of the airway smooth muscle that surrounds the airways (bronchoconstriction)  inflammation of the airways (e.g. thickened airway wall, hypersecretion of mucous into the airway lumen). Narrowed airway Normal airway
  6. 6. The non-asthmatic airway epithelium basement membrane submucosal glands blood vessels lumen goblet cell smooth muscle cartilage Illustration of cross-section of non-diseased bronchial tube – airway lumen is clear and air will readily pass into and out of lungs
  7. 7. Pathologic features of asthmatic airways reduced airway lumen area mucus gland hypertrophy goblet cell hyperplasia smooth muscle hyperplasia subepithelial fibrosis increased blood vessel numbers many inflammatory cells Cross-section of asthmatic bronchial tube – airway lumen is obstructed and air cannot easily pass into and out of lungs
  8. 8. Thus, airway narrowing in asthma is due to:   mucus in lumen due to stimulation of larger mucous glands & more numerous goblet cells   thickness of airway wall due to inflammation & remodelling   constriction of airway smooth muscle by mediators released in asthmatic airway Asthmatic airway   