What is Emphysema?
• Emphysema is a long term disease of the lungs that
damages the function of it.
• This disease can cause shortness of breath.
• While having this disease, necessary tissue in the lung
is destroyed, as well as the airways.
• Little structures called alveoli exchange the oxygen in
the air for CO2 in the blood stream. Emphysema
causes small holes to be created in the alveoli,
therefore not enough oxygen is getting to the
• Little structures called alveoli exchange the
oxygen in the air for CO2 in the blood stream.
Emphysema causes small holes to be created
in the alveoli, therefore not enough oxygen is
getting to the bloodstream.
ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL
• Panacinar (or panlobular) emphysema: The entire
respiratory lobule, from respiratory bronchiole to alveoli,
has expanded. Occurs more commonly in the lower lobes
(especially basal segments) and in the anterior margins of
• Centriacinar (or centrilobular) emphysema: The respiratory
bronchiole (proximal and central part of the acinus) has
expanded. The distal acinus or alveoli are unchanged.
Occurs more commonly in the upper lobes.
Special types Of emphysema
• Congenital lobar emphysema
• CLE results in overexpansion of a pulmonary lobe,
and resultant compression of the remaining lobes of
the ipsilateral lung (and possibly also the
contralateral lung). There is bronchial narrowing
because of weakened or absent
bronchial cartilage.There may be congenital extrinsic
compression, commonly by an abnormally
large pulmonary artery.
• Paraseptal emphysema is a type of emphysema which
involves the alveolar ducts and sacs at the lung
periphery. The emphysematous areas are subpleural
in location and often surrounded by interlobular septa
(hence the name). It may be an incidental finding in
young adults, and may be associated with
spontaneous pneumothorax. It may also be seen in
older people with centrilobular emphysema.
How Can You GeT Emphysema?
• Emphysema is mostly caused by smoking;
it affects the lungs in two ways.
How Can You Get Emphysema?
• Another way of getting emphysema is by air
pollution. How this affects your lungs is similar to the
way smoking does.
• Also, if you have asthma, you are at a greater risk
because your lungs are already not functioning
• If you are a close relative of someone who has it, you
have a greater chance of having it.
• Men have a greater chance of getting it than women.
• Lastly, the older you are, the greater risk you have
because lung function declines as you grow older.
• One of the symptoms is shortness of breath.
You cough or wheeze because of the mucus
• A decreasing tolerance for exercise is another
sign of having emphysema.
• Next, the person with emphysema may
become a “pursed-lip breather.” He may
struggle to exhale completely because the
airways collapse and cannot hold up. A
“pursed-lip breather” will purse his lips to
allow air to come in and out of his lungs.
Bronchodialation : the antimuscarinic
bronchodialators,ipratopium and tiotropium seems to be as
effective as the β2-agonists & a combination of a β2-agonist
& an antimuscaranic gives an superior results.
Corticosteroid therapy: RCTs have indicated clearly that
the combination of a corticosteroids and
LABA(Fluticasone plus salmeterol & budesonide plus
formoterol) improve the lung function and quality of life
compared to the indivisual agents.
OXYGEN> LTOT(02 used for at least 15hr daily)
improves the mobility , relieves hypoxaemia &
reduce the mortilty of severe hypoxaemia.
In 2000, 2.74 million people all around the world
died from different types of Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which emphysema can
be categorized as.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says that
COPD is tied 4th/5th place with HIV/AIDS as the
single cause of death.
Emphysema is the 4th leading cause of death in the
United States, and is predicted to be the 3rd by the
Percentage of Distribution Of Emphysema (Age)
Anderson, Gerard F.; Gross, Cary P.; Powe, Neil R.
“COPD Statistical Information.” http://www.copd-
international.com/library/statistics.htm, March 16,
-Kittredge, Mary; Koop, C. Everett; Thurman, Sandra.
The Respiratory System. New York: Chelsea House
Publishers, 1989. pg. 40-42