Published on

VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Comment
  • Nice overview beyond bovine mastitis (goat, sheep, equine,...). About somatic cell count (SCC, usually considered for detection and monitoring of subclinical cases): there is a new and automated , digital CMT (california mastitis test) in the series of on-farm Ekomilk cell counters: Ekomilk Horizon. Ekomilk Horizon automates further the somatic cell count (SCC, mainly leukocytes), following the already available and popular EkomilK Scan+. About 5000 milk farmers and DVM (I mean dairy veterinarians but also advisors and hygiene specialists) are using an Ekomilk cell counter. One SCC test only costs around 0.04$, takes less than 60 seconds and has a high correlation with official milk lab results (DHI, a well calibrated Fossomatic) for fresh milk.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Mastitis
  2. 2. • Inflammatory disease of the mammary gland• Cause- bacteria, fungi, yeast, spirochetes, trauma• Route of infection- ascending via teat canal
  3. 3. Types of Mastitis• Infectious- caused by microbial organisms• Non infectious – resulting from physical injury to the mammary gland
  4. 4. Mammary Gland• Made up of 4 independent glands• Only interconnected by blood supply• Milk does not pass from one quarter to the others
  5. 5. Economic impact of mastitis• Most dairy herds, 24-50% of quarters are infected• Decreased milk production• Milk discarded due to medication, presence of bacteria, and or white blood cells• Veterinary/labor/medication expenses
  6. 6. Factors affecting development of mastitis• Sanitation of milking equipment/cows udder• Trauma to udder through improper vacuum pressure• Anatomic/structural weakness of teat canal• Pathogenicity of bacteria present
  7. 7. Symptoms of mastitis1. subclinical- increased WBC count in milk2. Acute- heat, pain- Discolored milk- Clots/flakes of blood present in milk- +/- systemic illness3. Chronic- Fibrosis- Atrophy of mammary gland
  8. 8. Sample collection• Collect samples just prior to milking• Thoroughly wash udder and teats and dry with a paper towel• Swab the teat with 70% alcohol• Strip each teat 2-3 times before collecting milk sample• Sample each quarter individually, unless collecting composite herd screening samples• Keep samples refrigerated until plated and plate within 2 hours
  9. 9. Diagnosis• Somatic cell count- WBC degrade quickly in milk- Smears should be made, fixed, stained with 2 hours of collection- Electronic cell counters• Strip cup• California Mastitis Test• Inline filters
  10. 10. Treatment for Mastitis• Intramammary transfusion• Systemic/parenteral treatmentStaphylococcal mastitis- A herd problem- Treatment of little value, limited effect of AbStreptococcal mastitis- S. agalactiae- Intramammary Pen G 100,000 units per quarter very effective
  11. 11. Coliform mastitis- Spontaneous recovery without treatment- Frequent milk stripping is important in toxic individuals- Oxytocin may enhance strippingMycoplasmal mastitis- Treatment has little benefit and will only delayslaughter or milk sale
  12. 12. Control of MastitisNational Mastitis Council recommends a 5 step plan1. Milking machine maintenance2. Teat dipping3. Early treatment of clinical cases4. Dry cow therapy5. Culling cows with chronic mastitis* Extra: vaccinate dairy cows against gram negativemastitis using R mutant bacterin
  13. 13. Equine Mastitis• Can occur at any stage of lactation but most common a few weeks after weaning• Symptoms- Mammary swelling, heat, pain, depression and inappetance- Ventral edema- Occasionally mild lameness
  14. 14. Equine mastitis• Diagnosis- Streptococcus zooepidemicus is most common isolate- Utilize procedures mentioned for samplingTreatment- Trimethoprim sulfa 5 mg/kg oral BID- Combo Pen G 20,000 units IM, gentamicin 2mg/kg IV or IM tid- Supportive hot packs- No intrammammary treatments used
  15. 15. Small Ruminant Mastitis• Sheep- Usually S. aureus- P. hemolytica- E. coliAcute with toxemia is life threatening and possiblegangrene of teatLameness is often first signRoutine udder palpation and culling animals withdamaged udders
  16. 16. Dairy Goat Mastitis• S. aureus is most common• Subcu Pen 10,000 units/kg BID or ½ dose bovine udder infusion usually works well
  17. 17. Milking and Mastitis• Natural situations and mastitis- any mammal that is lactating, milking machines change anatomy enough to cause infection• Vacuum- Milking machines have an intermittent vacuum- A constant vacuum pressure can damage teat leading to infection- Must be constantly monitored so damaged vacuum system does not put too much pressure on teat
  18. 18. Vacuum and Pulsation• Massage, turning vacuum on and off1. Shell on outside of teat of stainless steel2. Liner/inflation- rubber liner of shell, fits around teat to form an air tight seal3. The shell plus the liner is called a teat cup, 4 teat cups together are called a claw
  19. 19. Pulsation ratios• 50/50- 50% milk, 50% rest• 60/40- 60% milk, 40% rest• 70/30- 70% milk, 30% rest
  20. 20. Equipment• Bucket milker and dumping station- carries milk to central storage unit• Around the barn pipeline- takes milk from barn into the milking parlor• CIP, clean in place, cleans milking pipeline• Parlor- clean room where milk is stored
  21. 21. Teat sphincter• Teat sphincter damage- If damaged, the sphincter allows bacteria to enter the teat which leads to mastitis- This occurs when the system is not working properly
  22. 22. Milking technique• Improper milking technique- Vacuum levels too long or too strong damage teat- Milking time vs rest time in pulsation ratios is not correct- Consistency- cows do best on a consistent pulsation ratio and pressure- Individual towels to reduce spread of disease
  23. 23. Milking technique con’t• Pre-dip- an antibacterial solution the teat is dipped into prior to milking, reduces bacteria spread in teat cups and claws• Post dip- after milking, usually a special color to identify cows that were treated, a very good practice to prevent mastitisTeat canal remains open for 90 minutes postmilking
  24. 24. Vacuum Fluctuation• Flooding- a huge pressure causes teat cups to slam against teats can be prevented by- Air jets- Liner size larger than water lines, increased diameter decreases pressure• Vacuum leaks prevented by- Vacuum regulator lets air into system to maintain constant pressure, if it senses a leak, it shuts enough to compensate- Vacuum reserve also prevents fluctuation
  25. 25. Contagious mastitis• Spread during milking• Generally gram (-) but not always• Subclinical infections lead to spread of infection as only diagnosis is through evaluation of milk• Strep agalactica and Staph. Aureus• Mycoplasma
  26. 26. Environmental mastitis• Generall gram ( -) but not always• Often show clinical signs such as fever and anorexia
  27. 27. Strip plate• 4 cup paddle used to collect milk sample from each quarter• Evaluate for visible color or consistency change
  28. 28. California Mastitis Test CMT• Performed by mixing equal parts of CMT reagent and milk• Milk samples are on 4 cup plastic paddle• Reagent reacts with WBC and thickens or gels in proportion to number of WBC• Greater reaction, higher score• Rapid test done by farmer identifies subclinical and chronic mastitis
  29. 29. CMT interpretation• Negative- mixture remains liquid with no evidence of precipitate• Trace- slight precipitate or flakes form, then disappear• 1 ( weak +) distinct precipitate• 2 ( distinct +) mixture thickens immediately and some gel formation
  30. 30. CMT Scores• Negative 0– 200,000 cells• Trace – 200,000 -400,000 cells• 1- 400,000-1,000,000 cells• 2- 1,200,000- 5,000,000 cells• 3- >5,000,000 cells
  31. 31. Electronic Somatic Cell Count• Done by machine on bulk tank sample• More accurate count• Done by milk processor• SCC composed of 75% WBC and 25% epithelial cells• SCC greater than 250,000 indicates subclinical mastitis by a major pathogen
  32. 32. High SCC• Rise in whey protein and decrease in casein resulting in lower cheese yields• Shorter shelf life• Adverse milk flavors• Decreased production
  33. 33. Milk quality• Bulk tank- refrigerated a little above freezing• Pick up – every other day• Evaluation of milk quality- SCC normal 100-200,000, paid more for lower counts- Antibiotic residue tests for milk- Freezing point to rule out water added- Milk fat, milk protein, milk weight all used for value of milk
  34. 34. Economic loss for mastitis• $165 per year per cow• Discarded abnormal milk• Replacement heifers• Reduced value of culled cows• Increased labor costs• Increased veterinary costs
  35. 35. Factors influencing susceptibility to mastitis• Type of bacteria- some more virulent• Physiological status of cow- first three weeks of dry period and first month after parturition cows are more susceptible• Age of cow- increases with age• Level of milk production• Inherited features of cow• Milking machine• Environment- more common if turned out to pasture, esp. chilling of udder
  36. 36. Mastitis Control• Proper milking hygiene- Wash hands thoroughly before milking- Teats should be cleaned and dried before milking- Milk clinically infected cows last
  37. 37. • Milking machine- Properly functioning- Vacuum regulator cleaned and checked regularly- Teat cup assembly, milk pipes etc in good working condition and cleaned regularly
  38. 38. • Dipping teat after milking- Does not reduce existing infection- Reduces rate of new infections by up to 50% with a suitable disinfectant dipped or sprayed on teat
  39. 39. • Dry treatment- Reduce mastitis by effective use of antibiotic infused in each quarter at last milking of a lactation- Best way to cure chronic and sub-clinical mastitis
  40. 40. • Culling of chronically infected cows- 6-8% of all cows account for 40-50% of all clinical mastitis• Nutrition- Vit E and selenium have been associated withan increased rate of new mammary infections